Sex determination of Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis cv. Arizona) by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) molecular marker

AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY (Impact Factor: 0.57). 01/2011; 10(4).


Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider) is a dioecious shrub that produces fruits in female
plants. Its seeds stores liquid wax which is used in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and plastic industries.
This species is generally propagated by seed. The sex of seedlings is not distinguishable by cytological
and seed cultivation methods. This investigation was carried out to study the sex-specific random
amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers in thirteen 4-year-old jojoba plants from two provinces of
Iran and DNAs of those populations were extracted by CTAB method. Out of the 20 tested primers, two
primers, namely F1 and F10, produced 460 and 680 bp fragments, respectively and were importantly
recognized to distinguish between female and male plants, accordingly. Also, the results of the ratio
difference test showed that, more efficient sex determination of jojoba seedlings is done using both F1
and F10 primers due to gene cooperation between them. The preliminary results of this study for sex
determination would help the recognition of potential fruit-bearing seedlings for having high yield per
hectare in horticultural systems. Furthermore, the findings would help saving time and economic
resources in jojoba breeding programs.

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    • "In the past few years, several publications have appeared pertaining to sex linked marker in Jojoba (Agarwal et al., 2011; Agrawal et al., 2007; Heikrujam et al., 2014a, 2014b; Hosseini et al., 2011; Ince et al., 2010, 2011 and Sharma et al., 2008) however, there are scant information regarding molecular diversity among different genotypes (Bhardwaj et al., 2010; Sharma et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: To detect genetic variations among different Simmondsia chinensis genotypes, two gene targeted markers, start codon targeted (SCoT) polymorphism and CAAT box-derived polymorphism (CBDP) were employed in terms of their informativeness and efficiency in analyzing genetic relationships among different genotypes. A total of 15 SCoT and 17 CBDP primers detected genetic polymorphism among 39 Jojoba genotypes (22 females and 17 males). Comparatively, CBDP markers proved to be more effective than SCoT markers in terms of percentage polymorphism as the former detecting an average of 53.4% and the latter as 49.4%. The Polymorphic information content (PIC) value and marker index (MI) of CBPD were 0.43 and 1.10, respectively which were higher than those of SCoT where the respective values of PIC and MI were 0.38 and 1.09. While comparing male and female genotype populations, the former showed higher variation in respect of polymorphic percentage and PIC, MI and Rp values over female populations. Nei's diversity (h) and Shannon index (I) were calculated for each genotype and found that the genotype “MS F” (in both markers) was highly diverse and genotypes “Q104 F” (SCoT) and “82–18 F” (CBDP) were least diverse among the female genotype populations. Among male genotypes, “32 M” (CBDP) and “MS M” (SCoT) revealed highest h and I values while “58-5 M” (both markers) was the least diverse. Jaccard's similarity co-efficient of SCoT markers ranged from 0.733 to 0.922 in female genotypes and 0.941 to 0.746 in male genotype population. Likewise, CBDP data analysis also revealed similarity ranging from 0.751 to 0.958 within female genotypes and 0.754 to 0.976 within male genotype populations thereby, indicating genetically diverse Jojoba population. Employing the NTSYS (Numerical taxonomy and multivariate analysis system) Version 2.1 software, both the markers generated dendrograms which revealed that all the Jojoba genotypes were clustered into two major groups, one group consisting of all female genotypes and another group comprising of all male genotypes. During the present investigation, CBDP markers proved more informative in studying genetic diversity among Jojoba. Such genetically diverse genotypes would thus be of great significance for breeding, management and conservation of elite (high yielding) Jojoba germplasm.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Meta Gene
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    • "The genetic relatedness among 51 accessions, 14 species of the genus Zingiber and genetic variability of a clonally propagated species Bua-in and Paisooksantivatana (2010) Vitex negundo L. Confirmation of the true-to-type nature of randomly selected micropropagated 2-year-old plant Ahmad and Anis (2011) Swertia chirata Assessment of genetic fidelity of plantlets regenerated through somatic embryogenesis Balaraju et al. (2011) Simmondsia chinensis L. Schneider Sex determination Hosseini et al. (2011) Trigonella foenum-graecum Multilocus genotyping for detection of intraspecific variations Kakani et al. (2011) Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell Assessment of genetic diversity in different accessions Karthikeyan et al. (2011) Simmondsia chinensis L. Schneider Assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants Kumar et al. (2011) Trichopus zeylanicus subsp. travancoricus Assessment of genetic fidelity of in vitro regenerants Martin et al. (2011) Kaempferia galanga L. Molecular profiling of micropropagated plantlets Mohanty et al. (2011) Aloe vera L. Assessment of genetic stability and instability of tissue culturepropagated plantlets Rathore et al. (2011) Terminalia arjuna, T. bellerica and T. chebula Estimation of genetic diversity and evaluation of relatedness Sarwat et al. (2008) Artemisia herba alba Genetic diversity of populations in central and north Saudi Arabia Badr et al. (2012) Rauvolfia tetraphylla Assessment of DNA fingerprinting patterns among the micropropagated plants Faisal et al. (2012) Mucuna pruriens L. Assessment of stability of among all the in vitro regenerated clones at the molecular level Lahiri et al. (2012) Glycyrrhiza glabra Determination of genetic fidelity of plants obtained after conversion of alginate beads Mehrotra et al. (2012) Nepenthes khasiana Hook f. "
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    ABSTRACT: There is an ample genetic diversity of plants with medicinal importance around the globe and this pool of genetic variation serves as the base for selection as well as for plant improvement. Thus, identification, character-ization and documentation of the gene pool of medicinal plants are essential for this purpose. Genomic information of many a medicinal plant species has increased rapidly since the past decade and genetic resources available for domestication and improvement programs include genome sequencing, expressed sequence tags sequencing, transcript profiling, gene transmit, molecular markers in favor of mapping and breeding. In recent years, multiple endeavors have been undertaken for genomic characterization of medicinal plant species with the aid of molecular markers for sustainable utilization of gene pool, its conservation and future studies. Recent advancement in genomics is so fast that only some researches have been published till date and to a large extent documentation is restricted to electronic resources. Whole genome profiling of the identified medicinal plant species, carried out by several researchers, based on the DNA fingerprinting, is well documented in the present review. This review will facilitate preparing a database of the widely used, economically important medicinal plant species, based on their genomic organization. Keywords AFLP Á ESTs Á Molecular marker Á Polymerase chain reaction Á RAPD Á RFLP Á SNP Á SSR Á DNA barcoding Abbreviations ESTs Expressed sequence tags RFLP Restriction fragment length polymorphism RAPD Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA AFLP Amplified fragment length polymorphism SSR Simple sequence repeat ISSR Inter simple sequence repeat SNP Single-nucleotide polymorphism UPGMA Unweighted pair group method arithmetic average Introduction
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Sex determination of Zamia fischeri Miq., one of the endangered cycads was done using peroxidase profiling, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of proteins and RAPD-based approaches to find an easy and reliable molecular marker. Sex at pre-flowering stage could not be resolved by peroxidase isozymic profiling. Use of sex organ specific tissues as enzyme source resulted in marked differentiation in peroxidase profiles. Fifteen unique spots of relatively high molecular mass were noted in microspore derived protein (male) sample while twenty five unique spots ranging between 20 to 94 kD were identified in ovule derived protein (female) sample as resolved by two dimensional gel electrophoresis. DNA from leaf samples of contrasting sex resulted in four male and female specific RAPD derived DNA fragments (two each of both sexes) of which one male specific band showed homology with micro satellite sequence of Araucaria angustifolia; this can be used as a convenient molecular marker for sex determination of Zamia fischeri at pre-flowering stage.
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