Efficacy of an Ibuprofen/Codeine Combination for Pain Management in Children Presenting to the Emergency Department with a Limb Injury: A Pilot Study
Faculty of Nursing, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, CanadaJournal of Emergency Medicine (Impact Factor: 0.97). 12/2012; 44(2). DOI: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2012.06.027
BACKGROUND: Fractures and severe sprains generate moderate to severe pain (>3/10). Despite this fact, pain management in children presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) with a musculoskeletal trauma is still suboptimal. Few studies have focused on the efficacy of a combination of an opioid with an anti-inflammatory drug to relieve this type of pain. STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of a combination of codeine with ibuprofen to ibuprofen alone on the intensity of pain experienced by children presenting to the ED with a musculoskeletal trauma to a limb. METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included patients aged 6 to 18 years. After triage, subjects were randomized to either ibuprofen (10 mg/kg, max 600 mg) and codeine (1 mg/kg, max 60 mg) orally, or ibuprofen (10 mg/kg, max 600 mg) and a placebo orally. Pain was assessed with the visual analog scale (0 to 10) at triage, and at 60, 90, and 120 min after medication administration. Differences on mean pain scores were compared between groups over time. RESULTS: We recruited 81 patients, 40 in the experimental group and 41 in the control group. No significant differences were observed in mean pain scores between groups at any time point. Mean pain scores were moderate at 90 min in both experimental and control groups (4.0 ± 2.4 vs. 4.1 ± 2.0, respectively). Side effects were minimal. CONCLUSION: The addition of codeine to ibuprofen did not significantly improve pain management in children with musculoskeletal trauma to a limb. Pain control provided by the medications remained suboptimal for most patients.
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ABSTRACT: Pain relief, using opiates as a primary choice, is an important part of treating limb fractures. Yet, in order to reduce opiate consumption, other combinations have been introduced. This study aimed to compare pain reduction by a combination of morphine-midazolam with morphine injection in patients with limb fractures. A randomized double-blind study of patients with upper or lower extremity fractures was conducted. Patients' response to treatment with either morphine-midazolam solution or morphine at 15, 30, 45, 60, 120, and 180 minutes were assessed. The Kaplan-Meier curves and generalized estimating equations were examined to evaluate the success of treatment. A total of seventy-two patients aged 18-60 (80.6% male; mean age: 35±17.9 years) were included. At 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes, successful pain control was seen in 8.83 22.2%, 33.3% and 63.9% of the patients in the morphine group, and 11.1%, 27.7%, 44.4% and 63.8% in the midazolam-morphine group. By the third hour, pain-control was achieved in all patients receiving morphine while pain persisted in one patient receiving morphine-midazolam. Log-rank test showed no significant difference between the two groups (p=0.55). Our findings revealed that adding midazolam to morphine did not improve its pain-relief profile.
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