Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Human Behavior

Book · January 1985with 34,239 Reads
DOI: 10.2307/2070638
Publisher: 0094-3061
Publisher: New York: Plenum Press.
  • Article
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    Esta pesquisa tem por objetivo descrever e comparar os índices médios obtidos a partir da avaliação de seis dimensões motivacionais: Controle de Estresse, Saúde, Sociabilidade, Competitividade, Estética e Prazer, controlando a variável 'tempo de participação em competições' ('1º ano' e 'mais de 1 ano'). Para tanto, uma amostra de 441 atletas infanto-juvenis, jogadores de basquete, de ambos os sexos e com idades variando de 13 a 16 anos, aos quais responderam o Inventário de Motivação à Prática Regular de Atividade Física e/ou Esporte (IMPRAFE-54). Os resultados indicaram não haver evidências de diferenças (indissociáveis) entre algumas dimensões em cada grupo e haver diferença significativa (F (1, 439) = 6,94; p = 0,009) na comparação entre os grupos.Palavras-Chave: basquetebol infanto-juvenil; autodeterminação; IMPRAFE-54; motivos à prática.
  • Article
    This study qualitatively investigates what factors apart from or in addition to financial incentives can encourage better performance of frontline health care providers. We interviewed health sector managers in Pakistan, Cambodia and China, and they highlighted many potential limitations in the applicability of financial incentives in their contexts. There was a consistent view that providers are not always primarily driven by monetary rewards and that non-monetary rewards – such as recognition from direct supervisors and career development – could have a greater influence on performance. Managers also highlighted several challenges related to the design and implementation of performance management schemes: supervisors may not have performance information necessary to determine which agents to reward; when performance information is available, organisational culture may value other attributes such as social ties or years of experience; finally, concentration of power at higher levels of the health system can reduce supervisors’ ability to manage performance, rewards and accountability. Although health sector managers were enthusiastic about measures to improve performance of providers, our study indicated that specific social, cultural and health system factors may mean that non-monetary rewards and structural changes to support a more transparent and meritocratic working environment should also be considered.
  • Article
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    The purpose of this study was to analyze the moderating role of authentic behavior on valued living and life satisfaction. The study group consisted of a total of 328 university students (249 female, 79 male) between 18-32 years old. The average age of the students in the study group was 20.3 and the standard deviation was 1.65. Participants of the study were selected through convenient sampling methods (Fraenkel et al., 2011). The data of this study was obtained by applying the Valued Living Scale (Wilson &Groom, 2002), The Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener et al.,1985) and the Authenticity Scale (Wood et al., 2008). Hierarchical regression analysis was applied to test the moderating effect of authentic behavior on the relationship between valued living and life satisfaction. SPSS 20 package program (IBM, 2011) was used in the data analysis step. In this study, two models were created with hierarchical regression analysis and these two models were tested. In the first model, the individual effect of valued living on life satisfaction and in the second model, the moderating role of authentic behavior on this relationship was analyzed. Based on the obtained results, it was determined that valued living has positive and significant relationships with life satisfaction; as well authentic behavior increased the predictive power of the relationship between valued living and life satisfaction and moderated this relationship in a positive significant direction. Obtained results were considered under related information in the literature and recommendations were provided for future studies.
  • Article
    Game-based learning has received significant attention in educational pedagogy as an effective way of increasing student motivation and engagement. The majority of the work in this area has been focused on digital games or games involving technology. We focus on the use of traditional game design in improving student engagement and perception of learning in teaching computer science concepts in higher education. In addition, as part of an interdisciplinary effort, we discuss the interplay between game-based learning in higher education and disciplinary cultures, addressing the lack of empirical evidence on the impact of game design on learning outcomes, engagement, and students’ perception of learning.
  • Article
    Purpose: This inquiry is the first comprehensive, empirical analysis of the nature and measurement of flow in elementary teachers. The clearest sign of flow is the merging of action and awareness, that is, the degree to which an activity becomes spontaneous and automatic and individuals lose conscious awareness of themselves as they perform a task such as teaching. The basic objective of the research was to examine the theoretical structure and measurement of flow in elementary teachers. Research Methods: A typical sample of 260 elementary teachers from rural, urban, and suburban elementary schools in Ohio was used to test two rival explanations about the nature of flow. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the goodness of fit of the two models. Findings: Two rival explanations of flow, the Jackson-Marsh and the Quinn models, were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. The Jackson-Marsh model of flow proved to be a better explanation of flow of elementary teachers than the Quinn model. Consistent with Csikszentmihalyi’s explanation of flow, the construct consists of nine elements, all of which form an integrated whole. In addition, and as predicted, optimism was positively related to flow. Discussion: Because most flow research has been in sports and leisure, Quinn’s research in knowledge work seemed especially relevant for the study of flow in teachers. In spite of that fact, the Jackson and Marsh model was the better fit; the Quinn model provided insight into the dynamics of flow in elementary schools. Finally, although optimism was positively related to flow, it was academic optimism, not dispositional optimism, that was a strong predictor of flow in elementary teachers. Conclusions: The nature of flow in schools is instructive, offering insight into the elements of flow and how they collectively and individually inform us in pursuit of optimal teaching and learning conditions, but much more research remains to be done.
  • Conference Paper
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    Service learning is widely becoming as a very important experiential practice in Higher Education Institutions (HEI) around the world. In part of Malaysian Higher Education Strategic Plan the growing popularity of service learning has been a response to create graduates who are holistic, entrepreneurial and balanced. In this context students must be prepared to become lifelong learners to gain the skills and knowledge required for our modern knowledge society. There has been many research conducted among undergraduates use service learning in traditional way. Not much study have shown to foster online learning environment in service learning. Due to lack of conceptual framework that can guide this implementation, this research aimed to develop a conceptual framework of service learning in online virtual learning environment. The presented conceptual framework for online educator could benefit all who are involved in supporting quality online education, in an effort to develop and impactful online practice that aligns with the corresponding educational needs, services, and resources.
  • Article
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    Objectives: Grounded in Self-Determination Theory (SDT), the aim of the study was to define an autonomy supportive environment through the perceptions of different healthcare professionals in three geriatric care units within French public and private hospitals. Study design: Four focus groups were conducted with healthcare professionals. Each focus group was videotaped and audio-recorded, and transcribed verbatim. Methods: An inductive approach was used, and data analysis was carried out using NVivo 10 software for Mac-QSR International. Results: Three themes were highlighted (1) building a relationship of trust with older people; (2) encouraging them to express themselves, and (3) promoting progress. Conclusion: The present study provides some information and a reflection for healthcare professionals who might be interested in using a more autonomy-supportive motivating style in their practice.
  • Article
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    Yoked pairs of subjects solved puzzles such that one member of each pair was given choice about what puzzles to work on and how much time to allot to each, while the yoked subject was assigned the same puzzles and time allotments as those chosen by the first subject. It was predicted and found that subjects who chose the activities and time allotments -in other words, who had additional self-determination--would be more intrinsically motivated than subjects doing the same activity without choice.
  • Article
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    In this study early adolescents' (N = 606) representations of relationships to teachers, parents, andfriends are examined in relation to each other and to various measures of school adjustment, motivation and self-esteem. The relationship dimensions tapped included felt security, emotional and school utilization, and emulation with respect to each targetfigure. It was hypothesized that parent representations would predict those of both teachers and friends, whereas friend and teacher variables would not be significantly associated. It was predicted also that more positive representations of relationships to parents and teachers would each uniquely predict school functioning indices, whereas representations offriends would be largely unrelated to school-related outcomes. Representations of teachers, parents andfriends all were expected to correlate with self-esteem relevant outcomes. These hypotheses were generally confirmed. The findings are discussed in terms of the significance of relatednessformotivation generally and the importance of the affective quality of adult-student relationshipsfor educational outcomes in particular.
  • Article
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    Effects on intrinsic motivation of three elements of the competitive situation (viz., competitive set, competitive outcome, and inter-personal context) were explored. Participants solved puzzles with a same-sex confederate under one of five experimental inductions, and intrinsic motivation was assessed by subsequent free-choice behavior and self-reports of interest/enjoyment. As predicted by cognitive evaluation theory, competitive outcome(viz., winning vs. losing) and interpersonal context (viz., pressured vs. nonpressured) affected intrinsic motivation. Path analyses showed that (a) winning (relative to losing) increased intrinsic motivation by enhancing perceived competence and (b) a pressured (relative to nonpressured) interpersonal context decreased intrinsic motivation by diminishing perceived self-determination. Further, competence valuation-the importance one places on doing well-related positively to perceived competence, perceived self-determination, and intrinsic motivation.
  • Article
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    This study tested whether students who learned with an active orientation would be more intrinsically motivated to learn and would learn more than students who learned with a passive orientation. The active orientation was created by having subjects learn material with the expectation of teaching it to another student; the passive orientation was created by having subjects learn the same material with the expectation of being tested on it. The results indicate that subjects who learned in order to teach were more intrinsically motivated, had higher conceptual learning scores, and perceived themselves to be more actively engaged with the environment than subjects who learned in order to be examined. The two groups were equal, however, in their rote learning scores. The effects of exposure to the material were ruled out as an explanation because the two groups reported spending equal time with the material. The results are discussed in terms of intrinsic motivation theory.
  • Article
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    Extended findings that support cognitive evaluation theory to intrapersonal processes by exploring the effects of informational vs controlling feedback, when self-selected and administered vs other-administered, and in conditions of task-involvement (intended to create an informational orientation in relation to the activity) vs ego-involvement (intended to create a controlling orientation in relation to the activity). 128 undergraduates working on a hidden figures task received either an ego- or task-involving induction and then a series of 3 puzzle problems for which half of the Ss received informational feedback and the other half controlling feedback. Half the Ss had the feedback self-administered, and half had it administered by the experimenter. After puzzle-solving, Ss were left alone with additional puzzles and magazines and were observed to see if they worked on the puzzles. Finally, Ss completed a questionnaire assessing their interest and attitudes toward the target activity. Results confirm that controlling feedback, whether self- or other administered, undermined intrinsic motivation relative to task-involvement. Results are discussed in terms of the application of cognitive evaluation theory to intrapersonal processes and self-control theories. (34 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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    Tested the validity of the psychological processes proposed by E. L. Deci and R. M. Ryan's (1980) cognitive evaluation theory when the information aspect of the situation is salient. Specifically, whether the effects of verbal feedback on intrinsic motivation are mediated by perceived competence was examined. 115 male undergraduates participated in a 1st phase wherein their intrinsic motivation and perceived competence toward an interesting motor task, the stabilometer, was assessed. 84 Ss who reported at least a moderate level of intrinsic motivation toward the task returned for the 2nd phase of the study in which they were subjected to conditions of either positive, negative, or no verbal feedback of performance. Intrinsic motivation and perceived competence were again assessed. One-way ANOVA showed that positive feedback increased while negative feedback decreased both intrinsic motivation and perceived competence. Results of a path analysis conducted with verbal feedback, perceived competence, and intrinsic motivation supported (1) the mediating effects of perceived competence on intrinsic motivation and (2) cognitive evaluation theory. (33 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    Studied the effects of externally imposed deadlines on individuals' task performance and their subsequent interest in the task. In 1 deadline condition, 20 male undergraduates were given an explicit time limit for solving a series of initially interesting word games. In 2 conditions, the importance of finishing was stated explicitly; in the 2nd condition, the deadline was left implicit. In 2 control conditions, 20 other Ss worked on the puzzles without any explicit time limit. In one condition, Ss were asked to work at their own pace; in the other, they were asked to solve the puzzles as fast as possible. Virtually all Ss finished in the allotted time. Unobtrusive measures of subsequent interest indicated that in the absence of external constraints, Ss in the deadline condition were less interested in the game than Ss in the nondeadline conditions. Implications for the overjustification hypothesis are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)