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The Effect of Socio-Economic Characteristics on Parenting and Child Outcomes.

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Abstract

This study examined the process of how socioeconomic status, specifically parents' education and income, indirectly relates to children's academic achievement through parents' beliefs and behaviors. Data from a national, cross-sectional study of children were used for this study. The subjects were 868 8-12-year-olds, divided approximately equally across gender (436 females, 433 males). This sample was 49% non-Hispanic European American and 47% African American. Using structural equation modeling techniques, the author found that the socioeconomic factors were related indirectly to children's academic achievement through parents' beliefs and behaviors but that the process of these relations was different by racial group. Parents' years of schooling also was found to be an important socioeconomic factor to take into consideration in both policy and research when looking at school-age children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)

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... If the style applied is appropriate, it is likely to produce effective behavioral outcomes in children (Johnson & Descartes, 2017). In contrast, if the parenting style utilized is ineffective children are likely to exhibit maladjusted externalized behaviours such as (waywardness, aggression, deviant, drug use, disrespect, poor aca- demic performance; wandering or running away from home) or internalized behaviours (low self-esteem, depression) (Davis-Kean, 1999;Galambos, Barker, & Almeida, 2003;Roche, Ensminger, & Cherlin, 2007). Therefore, the researcher advanced the notion that the lack of effective parenting practices (styles and competencies), moderating factors such as adequate socio-economic conditions and protective micro-environment creates the likelihood of juveniles exhibiting externalized behaviours such as wandering away from home or engaging in delinquent/wayward activities. ...
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Effective Parenting experiences of individuals during childhood years within micro-ecological environments are pivotal to cultivating good parenting practices in later adulthood. This study explored the parenting practices based on upbringing and the connections these practices had on children’s’ proclivity to wayward and wandering behaviours. The study employed a qualitative exploratory design through a phenomenological approach. It utilized semi-structured interviews to gather data from ten Guyanese parents of juveniles who had wandered away from home or reported as wayward to the social services in Guyana. The findings suggest that authoritarian parenting style is predominant among this cohort of parents. However a combined authoritarian and permissive style materialized as an unanticipated outcome. Punishment and harsh discipline were the major forms of maintaining behavioural control. Lack of knowledge of child developmental stages and computer illiteracy emerged as key themes which have implications for appropriate parenting interventions. The findings offer credibility to a strong link between ineffective parenting practices and negative juvenile behavioural outcomes
... Lastly, SES has been included in our study because previous research suggests that parents' location in the socioeconomic structure has a strong impact on students' academic achievement (Hart and Risley, 1995; Hoff-Ginsberg and Tardif, 1995; McLoyd's, 1998; Kohl et al., 2000; Davis-Kean, 2005; Dubow et al., 2009; Aunio and Niemivirta, 2010; Valiente et al., 2011; Carvalho and Novo, 2012; see Sirin, 2005 for a meta-analytic review). Explanations for this relationship point that SES positively affects parents involvement in their children's education (Kohl et al., 2000), the quality of parenting (McLoyd's, 1998) as well as parent's expectations and children's educational aspirations (Kean and Schnabel, 1999; Dubow et al., 2009). Nevertheless, this association has varied depending on the SES factors and the school subject studied. ...
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This work sought to investigate the specific contribution of two different components of Effortful Control (EC)-attentional focusing (AF) and inhibitory control-to children's mathematics achievement. The sample was composed of 142 children aged 9–12 year-old. EC components were measured through the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ; parent's report); math achievement was measured via teacher's report and through the standard Woodcock–Johnson test. Additionally, the contribution of other cognitive and socio-emotional processes was taken into account. Our results showed that only AF significantly contributed to the variance of children's mathematics achievement; interestingly, mediational models showed that the relationship between effortful attentional self-regulation and mathematics achievement was mediated by academic peer popularity, as well as by intelligence and study skills. Results are discussed in the light of the current theories on the role of children's self-regulation abilities in the context of school.
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It is clear that the central issues for ethnic and minority parents reflect a complex combination of group, individual and contextually derived processes. Group processes are embodied in the traditional childbearing formulations on which parents draw according to their own ethnic background. Historically the literature on ethnic and minority parenting in the U.S. displays prevalence of deficit models, whereby parenting practices of ethnic and minority families have been conceptualized as those of "the other" group, which then are compared to the "standard" (defined as those displayed by Caucasian, middle-income, Northern European, American parents). In contrast, several approaches to the study of ethnic and minority parenting represent a deviation from the deficit model that has dominated most of the field until now, shifting away from a social pathological perspective to one emphasizing the resilience and adaptiveness of families under a variety of social and economic conditions. Within these frameworks, most goals of parenting may be seen as universal, but how these goals are accomplished may vary based on context. Research on ethnic and minority families needs to be integrated into normative views of parenting in general. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The authors examined the achievement-related beliefs and behaviors of parents of economically disadvantaged African American youth, and the relations among parental factors and children's academic self-concept and achievement. Forty-one children and their primary caregivers were interviewed. Parents reported on their academic-related beliefs and behaviors. Children completed measures of academic self-concept and 2 standardized achievement tests: 1 during the summer and 1 at the end of the following school year. Significant and positive relations were found between parental belief and behavior measures within the domains of reading and math; however, parental beliefs were more strongly linked with child outcomes than were parents' achievement-oriented behaviors. The relation between parental beliefs and child outcomes was not mediated by children's academic self-concept. Results are discussed in light of models of family influences on achievement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study tested the equivalence of a theoretical model of parenting behaviors linking financial strain to adolescents' achievement for African American and European American families and for single- and two-parent families. The sample included an economic cross-section of African American (n = 387) and European American families (n = 230) from single- (n = 171) and two-parent (n = 446) homes. Multi-group analyses revealed no significant differences in the structural equation models between the African American and European American families, or between the single- and two-parent families. Results demonstrated that negative parent – adolescent relationships and parental school involvement mediated the relation between financial strain and adolescents' academic achievement.
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Using data from the first round of Demographic and Health Surveys for 22 developing countries, we examine the effect of maternal education on three markers of child health: infant mortality, children's height-for-age, and immunization status. In contrast to other studies, we argue that although there is a strong correlation between maternal education and markers of child health, a causal relationship is far from established. Education acts as a proxy for the socioeconomic status of the family and geographic area of residence. Introducing controls for husband's education and access to piped water and toilet attenuate the impact of maternal education on infant mortality and children's height-for-age. This effect is further reduced by controlling for area of residence through the use of fixed-effects models. In the final model, maternal education has a statistically significant impact on infant mortality and height-for-age in only a handful of countries. In contrast, maternal education remains statistically significant for children's immunization status in about one-half of the countries even after individual-level and community-level controls are introduced.
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In this chapter we have presented two perspectives on the link between social context and the following motivational constructs: self-concept of ability and sense of personal efficacy in specific activity domains; perceptions of the value of skills in various domains; interest in various activities; activity choice; persistence; performance; and general self-esteem. In the first section, we discussed how social-contextual variables in both the family and the home could produce individual differences in the motivational constructs of interest. We presented a general framework for thinking about this issue and summarized our recent empirical work. In the second section, we discussed how systematic changes in the social environments that confront children as they develop could explain age-related changes in the motivational constructs of interest. Again we presented a general framework for thinking about this issue and summarized our empirical work testing the hypotheses generated from this framework. Throughout this section we have argued that optimal development takes place when there is good stage-environment fit between the needs of developing individuals and the opportunities afforded in their social environments. Furthermore, we suggested that the negative changes in motivational variables often associated with early adolescent development result from regressive changes in school and home environments. For example, the transition to junior high school, in particular, often confronts early adolescents with regressive environmental changes such as a decrease in the opportunity to participate in classroom decision making, a decrease in teacher support and teacher efficacy, and an increase in teaching styles and reporting practices likely to induce a focus on relative ability and comparative performance as well as excessive social comparison. Not surprisingly, there is also a decrease in intrinsic motivation and an increase in school misbehavior associated with this transition, and these changes are most apparent among adolescents who report regressive changes in the characteristics of classroom and school social environment. Such motivational changes are not apparent in adolescents who report the more developmentally appropriate shifts in the social context at school. Although our analysis of the family data is not as complete as our analysis of the classroom data, we have found evidence that a similar process may be going on in the family in relation to issues of control and autonomy. Excessive parental control is linked to lower intrinsic school motivation, to more negative change in self-esteem following the junior high school transition, to more school misbehavior, and to relatively greater investment in peer social attachments.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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Principles for reporting analyses using structural equation modeling are reviewed, with the goal of supplying readers with complete and accurate information. It is recommended that every report give a detailed justification of the model used, along with plausible alternatives and an account of identifiability. Nonnormality and missing data problems should also be addressed. A complete set of parameters and their standard errors is desirable, and it will often be convenient to supply the correlation matrix and discrepancies, as well as goodness-of-fit indices, so that readers can exercise independent critical judgment. A survey of fairly representative studies compares recent practice with the principles of reporting recommended here.
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Why are expectations for future performance realized more often by some people than by others, and why are such differences in the efficacy of performance expectations socially patterned? We hypothesize that differences in attentiveness to performance feedback may be relevant, reasoning that follow-through behaviors will be less well conceived when expectations are formed without regard to evaluation of previous performance. Using data from Baltimore fourth-grade students and their parents, we find that expectations anticipate marks more accurately when recall of prior marks is correct than when it is incorrect. Because errors of recall (mostly on the high side) are more common among lower-SES and minority children and their parents, their school performance is affected most strongly. Research on school attainment process from a motivational perspective must give more attention to the additional resources that facilitate successful goal attainment, given high expectations. Our perspective focuses on resources internal to the individual, but external constraints also are important. The discussion stresses the need for further work in both areas.
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The effects of neighborhood and family poverty and other components of socioeconomic status on maternal psychological and behavioral characteristics are estimated using data from an eight-site study of 3-year-olds and their mothers (n = 895). Three measures of the home environment (physical environment, provision of learning experiences, and warmth of the mother) and three maternal characteristics (depression, social support, and coping) were assessed. Neighborhood poverty (proportion of neighbors with incomes less than $10,000) was associated with a poorer home physical environment and with less maternal warmth, controlling for family conditions. The home environment also was adversely affected by family poverty, large household size, female headship, and low maternal education, although the largest effects were evidenced for family poverty. Of the maternal characteristics, social support was adversely affected by family poverty and female headship status, while active coping was positively associated with mother's education.
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This article reviews psychological theory and research critical to understanding why parents become involved in their children’s elementary and secondary education. Three major constructs are believed to be central to parents’ basic involvement decisions. First, parents’ role construction defines parents’ beliefs about what they are supposed to do in their children’s education and appears to establish the basic range of activities that parents construe as important, necessary, and permissible for their own actions with and on behalf of children. Second, parents’ sense of efficacy for helping their children succeed in school focuses on the extent to which parents believe that through their involvement they can exert positive influence on their children’s educational outcomes. Third, general invitations, demands, and opportunities for involvement refer to parents’ perceptions that the child and school want them to be involved. Hypotheses concerning the functioning of the three constructs in an additive model are suggested, as are implications for research and practice. Overall, the review suggests that even well-designed school programs inviting involvement will meet with only limited success if they do not address issues of parental role construction and parental sense of efficacy for helping children succeed in school.
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The argument of this analysis is that class differences in parent-child relationships are a product of differences in parental values (with middle-class parents' values centering on self-direction and working-class parents' values on conformity to external proscriptions); these differences in values, in turn, stem from differences in the conditions of life of the various social classes (particularly occupational conditions-middle-class occupations requiring a greater degree of self-direction, working-class occupations, in larger measure, requiring that one follow explicit rules set down by someone in authority). Values, thus, form a bridge between social structure and behavior.
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Debate continues regarding the magnitude and importance of parenting effects on the development of children's externalizing behavior problems, in, spite of the evidence that environments (as well as genes) contribute to individual differences in these behaviors. Research has demonstrated an association between harsh physical discipline and child aggression and conduct problems, a likely causal mechanism that probably operates as a shared environmental factor. We offer four hypotheses about the relation between discipline practices and child externalizing problems that may resolve same debate and help lead toward a more comprehensive understanding of how and when discipline practices will make a substantial difference: 1. The association between discipline and child aggression includes a nonlinear component. 2. The parent behavior-child behavior link varies across cultural groups. 3. Parental discipline effects on children vary according to the context of the broader parent-child relationship. 4. The discipline effect is maximized in same-gender parent-child dyads. Discussion focuses on the role of children's mental representations of discipline experiences as a mediator of discipline effects, and research implications with respect to sampling, measurement, and analytic strategies are noted.
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Because of the value that individuals place on health and longevity, levels of mortality are among the most central indicators of social and economic well-being. Analysts are concerned not only with the average level of mortality but also with its distribution among social groups, which is a fundamental indicator of social inequality. The principal dimension on which these assessments are now made in the United States is educational attainment. The decisive shift from occupational groups, the classic dimension used by the Registrar-General of England and Wales, to educational groups as the basis for assessment occurred with the publication of Kitagawa and Hauser's (1973) major study of American mortality differentials in 1960. Educational attainment has two main advantages relative to occupation and income, the other common indicators of social stratification. It is available for people who are not in the labor force; and its value is less influenced by health problems that develop in adulthood. Since health problems can lead to both high mortality and low income, comparisons of death rates of different income groups, for example, are biased by their mutual dependence on a third variable, the extent of ill health. For these reasons, educational attainment has become the principal social variable used in epidemiology as well as in demography (Liberatos et al. 1988).
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Variations in the home environments of poor and middle-income children affect their literacy development, which leads to substantial differences in reading ability and behavior. Schools can mediate influences from home through the conditions that they foster and the instructional policies arid procedures they promote. The result of schools efforts may either ameliorate or magnify,the inequities in reading development related to family economic conditions. This study tests these contentions in middle-grade schools by using a nationally representative sample of poor and middle-class eighth graders from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88). Home and school effects on our measure of literacy development-a standardized test of reading comprehension-are explored with multilevel methods (hierarchical linear modeling). While homes exert an important influence on this outcome, findings focusing on schools and classrooms are emphasized. The study also highlights school conditions and policies that foster social equity in the literacy development of young adolescents. Implications of current school reform efforts are discussed.
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Parents differ in terms of what characteristics they value most for their children, and several studies by Kohn and others have demonstrated that these differences in values are related to social class. However, there is relatively little in the literature regarding the extent to which parental values are associated with parenting practices. In this study, data on 65 mother-infant dyads are used to test a hypothesis, proposed by Kohn, regarding the relation between values and parenting behavior. In addition, an extension of Kohn's conceptual model is proposed. Support was found for Kohn's hypothesis and for the extension of Kohn's model.
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Using data from a longitudinal study of high-risk children (N = 174), the authors examined deflections from predicted achievement scores on the basis of the discrepancy of observed scores from an established regression line (from first to sixth grade and first grade to age 16 years). Years in special education and socioeconomic status (SES) were related to changes in math achievement between first and sixth grade, whereas SES, child behavior problems, and quality of home environment were related to deflections in achievement from first grade to age 16 years. The environmental factors, quality of home environment, parent involvement in the child's education, and SES were related to improved achievement across time. These results suggest that early school, family, home environment, and child factors are important predictors of academic achievement deflections in late elementary and high school. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Readers who want a less mathematical alternative to the EQS manual will find exactly what they're looking for in this practical text. Written specifically for those with little to no knowledge of structural equation modeling (SEM) or EQS, the author's goal is to provide a non-mathematical introduction to the basic concepts of SEM by applying these principles to EQS, Version 6.1. The book clearly demonstrates a wide variety of SEM/EQS applications that include confirmatory factor analytic and full latent variable models.
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Analysis of Ordinal Categorical Data Alan Agresti Statistical Science Now has its first coordinated manual of methods for analyzing ordered categorical data. This book discusses specialized models that, unlike standard methods underlying nominal categorical data, efficiently use the information on ordering. It begins with an introduction to basic descriptive and inferential methods for categorical data, and then gives thorough coverage of the most current developments, such as loglinear and logit models for ordinal data. Special emphasis is placed on interpretation and application of methods and contains an integrated comparison of the available strategies for analyzing ordinal data. This is a case study work with illuminating examples taken from across the wide spectrum of ordinal categorical applications. 1984 (0 471-89055-3) 287 pp. Regression Diagnostics Identifying Influential Data and Sources of Collinearity David A. Belsley, Edwin Kuh and Roy E. Welsch This book provides the practicing statistician and econometrician with new tools for assessing the quality and reliability of regression estimates. Diagnostic techniques are developed that aid in the systematic location of data points that are either unusual or inordinately influential; measure the presence and intensity of collinear relations among the regression data and help to identify the variables involved in each; and pinpoint the estimated coefficients that are potentially most adversely affected. The primary emphasis of these contributions is on diagnostics, but suggestions for remedial action are given and illustrated. 1980 (0 471-05856-4) 292 pp. Applied Regression Analysis Second Edition Norman Draper and Harry Smith Featuring a significant expansion of material reflecting recent advances, here is a complete and up-to-date introduction to the fundamentals of regression analysis, focusing on understanding the latest concepts and applications of these methods. The authors thoroughly explore the fitting and checking of both linear and nonlinear regression models, using small or large data sets and pocket or high-speed computing equipment. Features added to this Second Edition include the practical implications of linear regression; the Durbin-Watson test for serial correlation; families of transformations; inverse, ridge, latent root and robust regression; and nonlinear growth models. Includes many new exercises and worked examples.
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Using data collected from a large sample of high school students, the authors challenge three widely held explanations for the superior school performance of Asian-American adolescents, and the inferior performance of African- and Hispanic-American adolescents: group differences in (a) parenting practices, (b) familial values about education, and (c) youngsters' beliefs about the occupational rewards of academic success. They found that White youngsters benefit from the combination of authoritative parenting and peer support for achievement, whereas Hispanic youngsters suffer from a combination of parental authoritarianism and low peer support. Among Asian-American students, peer support for academic excellence offsets the negative consequences of authoritarian parenting. Among African-American youngsters, the absence of peer support for achievement undermines the positive influence of authoritative parenting.
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The paper examines educational differentials in adult mortality in the United States within a multivariate framework using data from the National Longitudinal Mortality Survey (NLMS). As a preliminary step we compare the magnitude of educational mortality differentials in the United States to those documented in Europe. At ages 35-54, the proportionate reductions in mortality for each one year increase in schooling are similar in the United States to those documented in Europe. The analyses further reveal significant educational differentials in U.S. mortality among both men and women in the early 1980s. Differentials are larger for men and for working ages than for women and persons age 65 and above. These differentials persist but are reduced in magnitude when controls for income, marital status and current place of residence are introduced.
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Although adverse consequences of poverty for children are documented widely, little is understood about the mechanisms through which the effects of poverty disadvantage young children. In this analysis we investigate multiple mechanisms through which poverty affects a child's intellectual development. Using data from the NLSY and structural equation models, we have constructed five latent factors (cognitive stimulation, parenting style, physical environment, child's ill health at birth, and ill health in childhood) and have allowed these factors, along with child care, to mediate the effects of poverty and other exogenous variables. We produce two main findings. First, the influence of family poverty on children's intellectual development is mediated completely by the intervening mechanisms measured by our latent factors. Second, our analysis points to cognitive stimulation in the home, and (to a lesser extent) to parenting style, physical environment of the home, and poor child health at birth, as mediating factors that are affected by lack of income and that influence children's intellectual development.
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This study of 422 two-caregiver African American families, each with a 10-11-year-old focal child (54% girls), evaluated the applicability of the family stress model of economic hardship for understanding economic influences on child development in this population. The findings generally replicated earlier research with European American families. The results showed that economic hardship positively relates to economic pressure in families. Economic pressure was related to the emotional distress of caregivers, which in turn was associated with problems in the caregiver relationship. These problems were related to disrupted parenting practices, which predicted lower positive child adjustment and higher internalizing and externalizing symptoms. The results provide significant support for the family stress model of economic hardship and its generalizability to diverse populations.
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The effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on health are well documented in adulthood, but far less is known about its effects in childhood. The authors reviewed the literature and found support for a childhood SES effect, whereby each decrease in SES was associated with an increased health risk. The authors explored how this relationship changed as children underwent normal developmental changes and proposed 3 models to describe the temporal patterns. The authors found that a model's capacity to explain SES-health relationships varied across health outcomes. Childhood injury showed stronger relationships with SES at younger ages, whereas smoking showed stronger relationships with SES in adolescence. Finally, the authors proposed a developmental approach to exploring mechanisms that link SES and child health.
Article
Using latent variable structural equation modeling, a family economic stress model that links economic well-being to child well-being in an ethnically diverse, low-income sample of 419 elementary school-age children was evaluated. The sample was 57% African American and 28% Hispanic, and most families were headed by single mothers. The results provided support for the position that family process is a critical mediator of the effects of economic hardship on children's social adjustment. Lower levels of economic well-being, and the corollary elevated perceptions of economic pressure indirectly affected parenting behavior through an adverse impact on parental psychological well-being. Distressed parents reported feeling less effective and capable in disciplinary interactions with their child and were observed to be less affectionate in parent-child interactions. In turn, less than optimal parenting predicted lower teacher ratings of children's positive social behavior and higher ratings of behavior problems. Multiple-group analyses revealed that the pathways by which economic hardship influences children's behavior appear to operate similarly for boys and girls, and for African American and Hispanic families.
Article
A variety of family processes have been hypothesized to mediate associations between income and young children's development. Maternal emotional distress, parental authoritative and authoritarian behavior (videotaped mother-child interactions), and provision of cognitively stimulating activities (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment [HOME] scales) were examined as possible mediators in a sample of 493 White and African American low-birth-weight premature infants who were followed from birth through age 5. Cognitive ability was assessed by standardized test, and child behavior problems by maternal report, when the children were 3 and 5 years of age. As expected, family income was associated with child outcomes. The provision of stimulating experiences in the home mediated the relation between family income and both children's outcomes; maternal emotional distress and parenting practices mediated the relation between income and children's behavior problems.
Article
This study used data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and its 1997 Child Development Supplement to examine how family income matters for young children's development. The sample included 753 children who were between ages 3 and 5 years in 1997. Two sets of mediating factors were examined that reflect two dominating views in the literature: (1) the investment perspective, and (2) the family process perspective. The study examined how two measures of income (stability and level) were associated with preschool children's developmental outcomes (Woodcock-Johnson [W-J] Achievement Test scores and the Behavior Problem Index [BPI]) through investment and family process pathways. Results supported the hypothesis that distinct mediating mechanisms operate on the association between income and different child outcomes. Much of the association between income and children's W-J scores was mediated by the family's ability to invest in providing a stimulating learning environment. In contrast, family income was associated with children's BPI scores primarily through maternal emotional distress and parenting practices. Level of income was associated with W-J letter-word scores and income stability was associated with W-J applied problem scores and BPI, even after all controls were included in the models.
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INFLUENCE OF EDUCATION AND INCOME ON ACHIEVEMENT This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers. This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.
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