Promotion and Prevention: Regulatory Focus as A Motivational Principle
Available from: Aparna Sundar
- "This is why brand personality can differentiate even when consumers cannot articulate differences in attributes or benefits, or even in the absence of sensory differences (Aaker 1997). Critically, extant literature suggests that people are more likely to rely on implicit and automatic associations when intuition is relevant to the task at hand, and when they are not cued to engage in more deliberative processing (Clore et al. 2001;Higgins 1998;Schwarz 2001;Sundar, Kardes, and Wright 2015). Indeed, this fits the notion that if consumers maintain an intuitive lay belief linking brand personality to brand actions, then this belief should be more accessible when the consumers are processing the brand's behavior at Acquisition Dept Serials on January 28, 2016 http://jcr.oxfordjournals.org/ "
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ABSTRACT: Across four studies, the authors demonstrate that consumers intuitively link disconfirmation,
specifically sensory disconfirmation (when touch disconfirms expectations by sight), to a brand’s
personality. Negative disconfirmation is often associated with negative post-trial evaluations.
However, the authors find that when negative sensory disconfirmation is introduced by an
exciting brand, the source of disconfirmation can sometimes be perceived positively. This occurs
because consumers intuitively view disconfirmation as more authentic of an exciting personality.
Similarly, despite the wealth of literature linking positive disconfirmation to positive post-trial
evaluations, the authors find that sensory confirmation is more preferred for sincere brands,
because consumers intuitively view confirmation as more authentic of a sincere personality. The
authors conclude by demonstrating the intuitive nature of this phenomenon by showing that the
lay belief linking brand personality to disconfirmation does not activate in a context where
sensory disconfirmation encourages a more deliberative assessment of the product.
- "Religion could also evoke focus on self-esteem. Self-esteem is not only an important buffer in TMT model, but it is also related to motivation, like prevention-promotion focus, which significantly affects consumer preferences (Foerster & Werth, 2007;Higgins, 1998;Zawadzka, Rybarczyk-Adamska, & Dedelis, 2012). Thus further exploration of the importance the spiritual transcendence for consumer behaviour should extend TMT assumptions, employing other alternative explanations and theoretical framings. "
- "We focus here on two theoretical approaches that are well suited to person-centered investigations, one pertaining to competition, compatibility, and synergy among multiple commitments (Johnson et al., 2010) and the other to dependencies among targets (Lawler, 1992;Meyer & Allen, 1997). Drawing on identity theory (Brewer & Gardner, 1996;Lord & Brown, 2004) and regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997Higgins, , 1998), Johnson et al. (2010) argued that employees can form individual, relational, or collective identities and that these identities can have implications for commitment targets. For example, employees prone to developing relational identities might commit to their supervisor or work team, those inclined to form collective identities might commit to the organization, and those with strong individual identities might commit to their personal careers. "
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ABSTRACT: There has been a recent increase in the application of person-centered research strategies in the investigation of workplace commitments. To date, research has focused primarily on the identification, within a population, of subgroups presenting different cross-sectional or longitudinal configurations of commitment mindsets (affective, normative, and continuance) and/or targets (e.g., organization, occupation, and supervisor), but other applications are possible. In an effort to promote a substantive methodological synergy, we begin by explaining why some aspects of commitment theory are best tested using a person-centered approach. We then summarize the results of existing research and suggest applications to other research questions. Next, we turn our attention to methodological issues, including strategies for identifying the best profile structure, testing for consistency across samples, time, culture, and so on, and incorporating other variables in the models to test theory regarding profile development, consequences, and change trajectories. We conclude with a discussion of the practical implications of taking a person-centered approach to the study of commitment as a complement to the more traditional variable-centered approach. Copyright
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