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Abstract

The intention-to-behavior process is analyzed with respect to implementation intentions. These intentions link an intended goal-directed behavior to an anticipated situational context. The reported experimental evidence suggests that implementation intentions create a heightened accessibility of the mental representation of the specified situational cues and induce direct (automatic) control of the intended behavior through these cues. The formation of implementation intentions promotes goal achievement through both of these processes because they eliminate classic problems associated with the control of goal-directed action. Similarities and differences to other theoretical approaches on intentions, planning, and action control are discussed.
... The idea of a 'planning' stage and the preparatory steps required to initiate behaviour relates to the work of Gollwitzer (1993). Gollwitzer (1993) essentially proposed that enacting intentions is a two stage process. ...
... The idea of a 'planning' stage and the preparatory steps required to initiate behaviour relates to the work of Gollwitzer (1993). Gollwitzer (1993) essentially proposed that enacting intentions is a two stage process. The first stage is essentially motivational, and is comparable to the intentions formulated in the social cognition models. ...
... 'I intend to initiate goal directed behaviour X when situation Y is encountered') (Conner and Armitage, 1998). Gollwitzer (1993) argues that such a planning of behaviour, perhaps by specifying a time and place or in response to a certain environmental cue, creates a memory trace that is highly accessible and retrievable. This concept clearly may have implications for the use of 'rehearsal' strategies that could be implemented in school sex education. ...
Thesis
p>The self-administered screening questionnaires (n=424) distributed to young people's clinics generated predominantly descriptive data; they provided a broad socio-demographic profile of the clinic attenders and also measured aspects of their sexual behaviour. From those clinic attenders who volunteered for interview, the analyses of these data allowed a wide variety of young people to be recruited into the study. The key findings are that previous behaviour, delaying first intercourse with a current or recent partner and talking to the partner about contraception before this intercourse, are both associated with an increased likelihood of contraceptive and condom use. The round 1 interviews (n=56), undertaken among attenders at young peoples' clinics, youth clubs and young advisory centres, identify a number of interactional themes which collectively help to explain the likelihood of 'risk' and 'no risk' situations (these findings are preceded by the main methodological issues associated with this thesis). Indeed, the role of verbal communication, and especially the difficulties reported by some people in initiating such discussion, are especially detailed and appear to be particularly influential. All interviewees recorded their intentions towards using condoms with new partners. The round 2 interviews (n=22) identify six contrasting patterns of condom use/non-use according to the intentions, expectations and behaviour relationship for those experiencing intercourse with a new partner since the first round of interviews. These patterns are identified as consistent users , converted users, influenced users, over-optimists, the resigned and the constant non-users . The dynamics of change are also detailed, with respondents reporting an increased awareness towards contraception and STI, a greater consistently in the use of contraception and a greater likelihood of attending a sexual health service since their first ever intercourse. The main triggers for such changes are attributed to respondents' personal experiences and the experiences of their friends and family.</p
... The volitional phase requires individuals to develop strategies and plans which promote the enactment of behaviour (Gollwitzer, 1993;Heckhausen, 1991). Therefore, the use of other strategies such as implementation intentions could be used to facilitate the enactment of intention, when intentions alone are insufficient to promote behaviour (Ajzen & Manstead, 2007;Fishbein & Ajzen, 2005). ...
... Implementation intentions comprise a basic plan of action; an individual specifies when, where, and how ('if situation Y is encountered, then I will perform behaviour X') a particular behavioural intention will be enacted (Gollwitzer, 1999;Gollwitzer, 1993). ...
Thesis
p>A qualitative study (N = 21) was conducted to examine health professionals’ views regarding the implementation of the NICE guidelines for heart failure management and the communication of the management plan. Health professionals felt that they had insufficient time to deliver adequate information to patients and were uncertain about what information patients wanted or could cope with. The findings from this study indicated that a written patient intervention might be a suitable way of implementing these guidelines within the context of current service provision. A theory-based booklet intervention, entitled ‘Improving Heart Function’ (IHF) was developed. This booklet provided patients with information about their illness and its management. A qualitative study (N = 14) was conducted to elicit patients’ salient beliefs about key self-management behaviours, and to pilot the booklet on intended users. Patients’ feedback was then used to improve the booklet and patients’ beliefs were targeted to promote a more positive attitude and to increase perceived behavioural control (PBC). Strategies selected from other leading theories of behaviour and behaviour change were also incorporated into the booklet. A pilot randomised controlled trial (N = 94) assessed the effectiveness of the IHF booklet in increasing heart failure patients’ knowledge and self-management. This theory-based booklet was found to be more effective in improving knowledge, and initiating change in the mediators of behaviour compared to an atheoretical booklet and no-booklet control. Results showed that the IHF booklet promoted more favourable attitudes and increased PBC for regular physical activity, and produced greater improvements in attitude and intention for regular weighing. Future research should continue to explore and evaluate the utility of social cognitive theories in the development of patient education materials. Written health information that is rigorously developed and evaluated has the potential to be a valuable resource in helping heart failure patients to understand and cope with their illness, and its self-management.</p
... As a result, it might be difficult to disentangle whether the beneficial effect of these mental simulations arose from their future orientation or might be explained by other processes such as implementation intentions. Implementation intentions are defined as mental representations linking intention to behaviors: They usually include not only a specific action that someone wants to achieve but also the context in which this action will be performed [21]. Previous research has shown that implementation intentions facilitate the execution of the action and their effectiveness is increased when it is combined with mental imagery [22][23][24][25]. ...
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Previous studies suggest a link between future thinking and prosocial behaviors. However, this association is not fully understood at state and trait level. The present study tested whether a brief future thinking induction promoted helping behavior in an unrelated task. In addition, the relation between mental time travel and prosocial behaviors in daily life was tested with questionnaire data. Forty-eight participants filled in questionnaires and were asked to think about the future for one minute or to name animals for one minute (control condition) before playing the Zurich Prosocial Game (a measure of helping behavior). Results revealed that participants in the future thinking condition helped significantly more than participants in the control condition. Moreover, questionnaire data showed that dispositional and positive orientation toward the future and the past was significantly associated with self-reported prosocial behaviors. The present findings suggest that thinking about the future in general has positive transfer effects on subsequent prosocial behavior and that people who think more about the past or future in a positive way engage more in prosocial behavior.
... During the training phase, a rapid shift from goal-directed towards habitual control would be expected to increase speed and efficiency. To accelerate this shift, participants may have spontaneously formed implementation intentions to mentally form S-R associations (e.g., 'if I see cue X, then I will perform behavior Y'), and thereby deliberately induce 'strategic automaticity' (Gollwitzer, 1993). The question arises whether such a strategy would also reduce flexibility during the subsequent outcome-revaluation test. ...
Article
The translation of the outcome-devaluation paradigm to study habit in humans has yielded interesting insights but proven to be challenging. We present a novel, outcome-revaluation task with a symmetrical design, in the sense that half of the available outcomes are always valuable and the other half not-valuable. In the present studies, during the instrumental learning phase, participants learned to respond (Go) to certain stimuli to collect valuable outcomes (and points) while refraining to respond (NoGo) to stimuli signaling not-valuable outcomes. Half of the stimuli were short-trained, while the other half were long-trained. Subsequently, in the test phase, the signaled outcomes were either value-congruent with training (still-valuable and still-not-valuable), or value-incongruent (devalued and upvalued). The change in outcome value on value-incongruent trials meant that participants had to flexibly adjust their behavior. At the end of the training phase, participants completed the self-report behavioral automaticity index – providing an automaticity score for each stimulus-response association. We conducted two experiments using this task, that both provided evidence for stimulus-driven habits as reflected in poorer performance on devalued and upvalued trials relative to still-not-valuable trials and still-valuable trials, respectively. While self-reported automaticity increased with longer training, behavioral flexibility was not affected. After extended training (Experiment 2), higher levels of self-reported automaticity when responding to stimuli signaling valuable outcomes were related to more ‘slips of action’ when the associated outcome was subsequently devalued. We conclude that the symmetrical outcome-revaluation task provides a promising paradigm for the experimental investigation of habits in humans.
... Baluku et al., 2020;Neneh, 2019;van Gelderen et al., 2018). Towards this end, the concept implementation intention (Gollwitzer, 1993;Gollwitzer & Sheeran, 2006) is increasingly becoming popular in entrepreneurial intentions literature. We found that entrepreneurial intentions and corresponding implementation intentions were relatively high in the three refugee communities (See Figure 3). ...
... Evidence has been found by Gollwitzer himself that forming plans and timetables for action increases the likelihood of performance of the action, (Gollwitzer, 1954), thus providing support for the idea of implementation intentions helping to predict performance. Initial findings by other researchers have also produced positive results including in areas such as breast self examination (Orbell et al., 1997) and exercise adoption and adherence (Kendierski, 1990). ...
Thesis
p> Simulation has been used for many years to evaluate the outcomes from medical interventions, and much research has focussed upon breast cancer screening policies. However in practice a screening policy can only be successful if people attend for the invited screen. This thesis discusses some of the issues involved in incorporating human factors in a simulation model of screening for breast cancer in a UK setting. Four different methods for approximating attendance at mammography screening were compared including one method derived from a psychological theory that was designed to predict human behaviour. The research also uses the simulation model to compare the differences brought about by making different assumptions regarding the patterns and rates of breast tumour growth on the simulation outcomes. Results indicate that different approaches to approximating attendance behaviour and cancer growth do produce significantly different simulation outcomes. However, the relative change in outcomes across different screening strategies remained roughly constant across the various approaches. Whilst this relative change was consistent, the changes in approach did lead to changes in the significance of differences between outcomes under different screening strategies. In light of these results caution is advised when interpreting simulation outcomes and emphasises the importance of comparing relative as opposed to actual simulation outcomes. The benefit of incorporating a psychological model into the simulation came from enhanced simulation functionality and the ability to provide further insight into the effects of attitude changes on screening policies. </p
... 31 In part, the authors attributed this finding the notion that while intentions may drive an individual's initial decision to undertake a behavior, social support, such as SN beliefs, may have a greater impact on sustained behavior engagement than intention. 32 Likewise, the role of social support through SN appears to play a similarly prominent role in participants' PA engagement in the present study. ...
Article
Background Using the theory of planned behavior (TPB), Haegele and colleagues¹ created the Beliefs of Individuals with Visual Impairments about Physical Activity scale (BIVIPA-1) to examine individuals with visual impairments’ (VI) motivation toward physical activity (PA). The overall factorial tenability of the BIVIPA-1 remains unclear due to its item configuration. Objective/Hypothesis The purposes of this cross-sectional study were to: (a) use confirmatory factor analysis to explore the structure of the expanded BIVIPA-2 and (b) test the predictive utility of TPB constructs on PA among adults with VI. Methods Adults with VI (n = 236) completed the BIVIPA-2 and a multi-item PA recall instrument. A CFA was performed on the BIVIPA-2, and structural equation modeling was used to explore the relationship between theory constructs and PA. Results The CFA results showed that the underlying structure of BIVIPA-2 was tenable for adults with VI based on TPB. Structural equation modelling showed limited support for the theorized predictive roles of theory variables on PA, as attitude predicted physical activity intention. Interestingly, subjective norm was a direct predictor for PA among adults with VI (β = .145). Conclusions TPB had limited predictive utility for physical activity among individuals with VI. The predictive relationship of subjective norms on PA may be somewhat unique to this population. Researchers may consider expanding the model to examine social support and subjective norms constructs and PA among individuals with VI.
Article
The prevalence of obesity among Chinese adolescents is rising rapidly, and theoretically informed, scalable weight management interventions are needed. We developed and evaluated the feasibility and preliminary effects of an mHealth nutrition education and mindful snacking intervention for weight loss and improved dietary practices among Chinese adolescents with overweight. We examined whether including implementation intention formation (using if–then plans) improved outcomes. With user consultation, we created a 3‐week mindful eating intervention delivered as 10 videos to user smartphones. Participants (n = 55) were randomly assigned to mindful eating or mindful eating + planning. Forty‐six (83.6%) participants (age = 16.35 ± 0.48 years; body mass index [BMI] = 25.79 ± 2.05 kg/m2) completed the intervention. Both groups exhibited significant pre‐ to post‐intervention weight loss (M = 1.42 and 1.79 kg, respectively); decreases in snacking frequencies, emotional eating, external eating, and trait craving; and significant increases in mindful eating and eating self‐efficacy. No significant intervention group differences were observed. User experience data (n = 16) indicated acceptability and meaningful behavior change. Findings suggest that a smartphone‐delivered mindfulness‐based intervention for Chinese adolescents living with overweight is feasible and efficacious.
Chapter
The last chapter proposes to go not only beyond the epistemic dimension to improve it, but also beyond the lesson content. The German's lesson shows how easily we can exceed students' expectations and arouse their curiosity, enthusiasm, and learning investment. If we aspire to decrease school violence, bullying, and delinquency, a new educational mission would be to surpass teaching without necessarily being demanding or time-consuming. Indeed, making use of the relational dimension—using the multiple intelligence and STEAM approaches to include students through competence—seemss to refer to the new school mission as an aspiration builder rather than a selection referee and inducer of discouragement.
Article
Background: The ActWELL RCT assessed the effectiveness of a weight management programme delivered by volunteer lifestyle coaches (LC) in women attending breast clinics. The intervention focused on caloric intake and physical activity, utilising behavioural change techniques including a weight awareness plan (WAP). The current work is a secondary analysis of the ActWELL data and aims to examine the response to the weight self-awareness plan (used as part of the intervention programme). Methodology: The LCs invited participants (n=279) to undertake an implementation intention discussion to formulate a self-weighing (SW) plan. Bodyweight scales were offered, and recording books provided. The PA intervention focused on a walking plan assessed by accelerometers. The LCs contacted participants by telephone monthly and provided personalised feedback. Mann-Whitney tests and chi-squared analysis were used to examine the effect of SW on weight change. A qualitative evaluation utilising semi-structured interviews was also undertaken. Results: Most participants (96.4%) agreed to set a weekly SW goal and 76 (27%) requested scales. At 12 months, 226 (81%) returned for follow up. The median (IQR) weight change for those who self- reported at least one weight (n=211) was -2.3kg (-5.0, 0.0) compared to -1.2kg (-5.0, 0.03) in those who did not (n=14). Participants who reported weights on >8 occasions (39%) were significantly more likely (p=0.012) to achieve 5% weight loss compared to those who weighed less often. Low numbers of accelerometers were returned which did not allow for significance testing. Qualitative data (n=24) indicated that many participants found the WAP helpful and motivating. Principal conclusion: Greater adherence to the WAP initiated by volunteer coaches is associated with achieving 5% weight loss. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Der lange vernachlässigte Willensbegriff wird gegenwärtig in einigen Humanwissenschaften, vor allem in der Psychologie und Hirnphysiologie neu aufgegriffen. Dieser Band soll dazu beitragen, die alltägliche Erfahrungsvielfalt des Wollens wieder als einen Forschungsgegenstand aller Humanwissenschaften zu entdecken. Der erste Abschnitt behandelt das Wollen als einen Gegenstand vielfältiger Erfahrung, sei es in Gestalt geschichtlicher Ereignisse oder literarischer Zeugnisse, im Experiment oder schließlich im Spiegel bildhafter Vorstellungen. Die weiteren Abschnitte beschäftigen sich mit der Vorstellung vom Wollen in der Antike, der Philosophie des Willens sowie der Geschichte der Willenspsychologie. Neuansätze einer psychologischen Willenstheorie betreffen das Bilden von Absichten und ein vornahmegeleitetes Handeln ("Rubikon-Modell"). Abschließend werden pädagogische, psychotherapeutische, strafrechtliche, evolutionsbiologische und hirnphysiologische Forschungsansätze skizziert und diskutiert.
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Two meta-analyses were conducted to Investigate the effectiveness of the Fishbein and Ajzen model in research to date. Strong overall evidence for the predictive utility of the model was found. Although numerous instances were identified in which researchers overstepped the boundary conditions initially proposed for the model, the predictive utility remained strong across conditions. However, three variables were proposed and found to moderate the effectiveness of the model. Suggested extensions to the model are discussed and general directions for future research are given.
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Much effort has been made to understand the role of attention in perception; much less effort has been placed on the role attention plays in the control of action. Our goal in this chapter is to account for the role of attention in action, both when performance is automatic and when it is under deliberate conscious control. We propose a theoretical framework structured around the notion of a set of active schemas, organized according to the particular action sequences of which they are a part, awaiting the appropriate set of conditions so that they can become selected to control action. The analysis is therefore centered around actions, primarily external actions, but the same principles apply to internal actions—actions that involve only the cognitive processing mechanisms. One major emphasis in the study of attentional processes is the distinction between controlled and automatic processing of perceptual inputs (e.g., Shiffrin & Schneider, 1977). Our work here can be seen as complementary to the distinction between controlled and automatic processes: we examine action rather than perception; we emphasize the situations in which deliberate, conscious control of activity is desired rather than those that are automatic.
Book
"It is not thought as such that can move anything, but thought which is for the sake of something and is practical." This discerning insight, which dates back more than 2000years to Aristotle, seems to have been ignored by most psycholo­ gists. For more than 40years theories of human action have assumed that cogni­ tion and action are merely two sides of the same coin. Approaches as different as S-O-R behaviorism,social learning theory, consistency theories,and expectancy­ value theories of motivation and decision making have one thing in common: they all assume that "thought (or any other type of cognition) can move any­ thing," that there is a direct path from cognition to behavior. In recent years, we have become more and more aware of the complexities in­ volved in the relationship between cognition and behavior. People do not always do what they intend to do. Aside from several nonpsychological factors capable of reducing cognition-behavior consistency, there seems to be a set of complex psychological mechanisms which intervene between action-related cognitions, such as beliefs, expectancies, values, and intentions,and the enactment of the be­ havior suggested by those cognitions. In our recent research we have focused on volitional mechanismus which presumably enhance cognition-behavior consistency by supporting the main­ tenance of activated intentions and prevent them from being pushed aside by competing action tendencies.
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The translation of this volume has been a long and sometime arduous journey giving nearly literal meaning to the Latin term translatus, meaning to carry across. In fact, it required many journeys both geographically, between Canada and Germany, and fig­ uratively, between German and English language, thought, and culture; between the mind of a German professor and that of his American colleague. Whether or not it was all worthwhile must be left to the reader's judgment, but let me outline the rationale for embarking on this venture. When the first German edition of this book appeared in 1980 it was acclaimed not only by German scholars but by those outside the German-speaking community as well. In fact, it received extremely favorable reviews, even in English-language journals, which is unusual for a foreign text. It was recognized that this was far more than just another text book on motivation. For one thing, it exposed and examined the multi­ faceted roots that have contributed to contemporary theory and research in motivation. The author skillfully examined the motivational concepts, theories, and research that have emanated from many areas of psychology such as learning theory, social psychol­ ogy, personality, psychoanalysis, and clinical psychology.