Cecostomy button for antegrade enemas: survey of 29 patients. J Pediatr Surg

Department of Paediatric Surgery, Hautepierre Hospital, 67098 Strasbourg, France.
Journal of Pediatric Surgery (Impact Factor: 1.39). 11/2008; 43(10):1853-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2008.03.043
Source: PubMed


This study evaluated the Trap-door button use (Cook Medical, Bloomington, IL) for antegrade enemas in children.
Since 2002, patients with fecal incontinence or encopresis and constipation underwent percutaneous cecostomy under laparoscopy using a button. Technical details are described. Age at surgery, operative time, hospital stay, diagnosis, indications for cecostomy, and duration of follow-up were recorded. A survey was proposed via a questionnaire that was sent to the patients. Patients wearing the button for less than 1 month were excluded from this evaluation. The survey concerned volume and frequency of enemas, difficulties encountered, benefits and disadvantages of this method, and assessment of the antegrade enemas in continence.
Twenty-nine patients, 18 males and 11 females, aged 3 to 21 years (mean, 8.5 years) underwent laparoscopic Trap-door button placement. The indications for all the patients were intractable fecal incontinence in 24 cases and constipation with encopresis in 5 cases. Incontinence was because of myelomeningocele (n = 10), anorectal malformations (n = 11), caudal regression syndrome (n = 1), 22q11 syndrome (n= 1), and Hirschsprung disease with encephalopathy with convulsions (n = 1). Constipation with encopresis was because of sacrococcygeal teratoma (n = 1), cerebral palsy (n = 1), and acquired megarectum with psychiatric and social disorders (n = 3). A total of 26 cecostomy button placements and 3 sigmoidostomy button placements were successful with no intraoperative complication. The mean operative time was 25 minutes (10-40 minutes), and the hospital stay was 2.5 days (1-4 days). Twenty-two parents or patients answered the questionnaire. At the time of this survey, 2 patients had improved their fecal continence and had had the button removed. A mean of 4 weekly enemas was enough to improve fecal continence troubles (range, 1 daily to 1 for 2 weeks). The volume for enemas was 250 to 1000 mL (mean, 700 mL). The time required for the irrigation of the bowel by gravity took from 5 to 60 minutes (mean, 25 minutes) for 20 patients. Before surgery, 14 patients needed a diaper, day and night, and 6 needed sanitary protection. Soiling was a very significant inconvenience for all the patients. After surgery, only 5 patients needed a diaper (cerebral palsy, 22q11, cloacal malformation, myelomeningocele, bladder exstrophy) because of moderate results or urinary incontinence and continued soiling. Patients were asked to give an assessment (null = 0, bad = 1, fair = 2, good = 3, very good = 4). None of the patients felt there had been no changes or a bad result. There were 5 patients who felt they had an average result, 5 a good result, and 12 a very good result. The mean grade was 3.44 (17.2/20). A total of 3 patients had hypertrophic granulation tissue formation around the cecostomy button, and 12 had tiny leakage.
Percutaneous placement of a cecostomy button under laparoscopic control is an easy and major complication-free procedure. The use of the Trap-door device by the patients or with the help of the parents for antegrade enemas is effective and satisfactory. It improves the quality of life and is reversible.

Download full-text


Available from: Francesco Molinaro, Oct 08, 2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Antegrade continence enema (ACE) has become an important therapeutic modality in the treatment of intractable constipation and fecal incontinence. There are little data available on the long-term performance of the ACE procedure in children. A retrospective review of patients who underwent the ACE procedure was conducted. Irrigation characteristics and complications were noted. Outcome was assessed for individual encounters based on frequency of bowel movements, incontinence, pain, and predictability. One hundred seventeen patients underwent an ACE. One hundred five patients had at least 6 months of follow-up, and were included in the analysis. Diagnoses included myelodysplasia (39%), functional intractable constipation (26%), anorectal malformations (21%), nonrelaxing internal anal sphincter (7%), cerebral palsy (3%), and other diagnoses (4%). The average follow-up was 68 months (range 7-178 months). At the last follow-up, 69% of patients had successful bowel management. Of the 31% of patients who did not have successful bowel management, 20% were using the ACE despite suboptimal results, 10% required surgical removal, and 2% were not using the ACE because of behavioral opposition to it. Patients were started on normal saline, but were switched to GoLYTELY (PEG-3350 and electrolyte solution) if there was an inadequate response (61% at final encounter). Additives were needed in 34% of patients. The average irrigation dose was 23 ± 0.7 mL/kg. The average toilet sitting time was 51.7 ± 3.5 minutes, with infusions running for 12.1 ± 1.2 minutes. Stomal complications occurred in 63% (infection, leakage, and stenosis) of patients, 33% required surgical revision and 6% eventually required diverting ostomies. Long-term use of the ACE gives successful results in 69% of patients, whereas 63% had a stoma-related complication and 33% required surgical revision of the stoma.
    No preview · Article · May 2011 · Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Malone appendicostomy, for antegrade enemas, has improved the quality of life for many children with fecal incontinence. In patients whose appendix has been removed, a neo-appendix can be created. We describe our approach and experience with this procedure as an option for surgeons managing children with fecal incontinence. The procedure involves creating a transverse flap of cecum that receives its blood supply by a transverse mesenteric branch. This flap is then tubularized around a feeding tube. The surrounding colon is plicated around the neo-appendix to prevent leakage of stool. The tip of the flap is then anastomosed to the deepest portion of the umbilicus. We reviewed our experience with this procedure, including results and complications. IRB approval was obtained. Eighty patients required a neo-appendicostomy. Sixty-six patients (82%) had an anorectal malformation, four had spina bifida, and ten had other diagnoses. The reasons for not having an appendix available included: "incidental" appendectomy (34, 42.5%), use of the appendix for a Mitrofanoff procedure (20, 25%), and Ladd's procedure (5, 6%). In fifteen patients (19%) we could find no appendix and assume that it was removed previously. Following neoappendicostomy, nine patients (11%) developed a stricture, and seven patients had leakage (9%). In 2004, we modified the appendiceal-umbilical anastomosis and among these patients, only one patient (3%) developed a stricture, compared with eight patients (18%) without the modification. All seven patients with leakage were within the first forty cases. No patient in the last forty cases had a leakage. In patients with the potential for fecal incontinence, the appendix should be preserved. In patients without an appendix, the neo-appendicostomy is a valuable tool for fecally incontinent patients. We have found that the V-V anastomosis had a reduced rate of stricture, and the rate of leakage seems to be related to surgical experience.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of Pediatric Surgery
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lidocaine is used to reduce the undesirable effects of ischemia because of its anti-inflammatory effects. Herein we investigated the effects of lidocaine on secondary ischemia in a skin flap model. In this epigastric skin flap protocol in animals, we followed 2 hours of primary global ischemia with a reperfusion period of 6 hours and then either secondary arterial or venous ischemia for another 6 hours during which we tested the usefulness of lidocaine. Lidocaine was injected via the intraperitoneal route 5 minutes before the second period of ischemia. The animals were allocated into secondary arterial ischemia or secondary venous ischemia groups which were subdivided according to the delivered agents. Neutrophil cell counts at the margins of the flaps were recorded 12 hours after the end of the second period of ischemia. Flap viability was assessed 1 week after the surgical procedure. Surviving flap area was recorded as the percentage of the whole area. The Least Significant Difference test was used to detect a significant difference among groups, and the Pearson test to evaluate the relationship between neutrophil counts and flap survival rate. There were significant differences among groups both with respect to neutrophil count and flap survival. There was a relationship between the neutrophil counts and the flap survivals. Intraperitoneally injected lidocaine was an effective procedure to reduce flap necrosis as a cause of secondary ischemia in skin flaps, an effect of the ischemia-reperfusion injury.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Transplantation Proceedings
Show more