Article

Suggested use of vaccines in diabetes

Department of Diabetology, Jothydev's Diabetes and Research Centre (JDC), Trivandrum, Kerala, India.
Indian journal of endocrinology and metabolism 11/2012; 16(6):886-93. DOI: 10.4103/2230-8210.102982
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Diabetes has emerged as a disease of major public health importance in India affecting the rich and the poor alike. Conventionally, comprehensive diabetes management is aimed at preventing micro and macro vascular complications. However, morbidity and mortality due to infections are also significant. In developing countries like India, the concept of adult immunization is far from reality. Recently the H1N1 pandemic has triggered the necessity for considering immunization in all age groups for the prevention of vaccine-preventable fatal infectious diseases. Considering the economics of immunization in a developing country, providing free vaccines to all adults may not be a practical solution, although the free universal immunization program for children is in existence for several decades. There is no consensus on the use of vaccines in diabetes subjects in India. However, there are some clinics offering routine pneumococcal, influenza and other vaccinations. Patients with diabetes have a deranged immune system making them more prone for infections. Hospitalization and death due to pneumococcal disease and influenza are higher in diabetes patients. They, like other healthy individuals, have a normal humoral response to vaccination with clinically significant benefits. The American Diabetes Association, Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, United Kingdom Guidelines and a number of other scientific organizations have well defined guidelines for vaccination in diabetes. In this article we make some suggestions for clinicians in India, regarding use of vaccines in subjects with diabetes.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Viswanathan Mohan
  • Source

    Full-text · Article · May 2013
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Treatment of type 1 diabetes is a challenging issue in South East Asia. Unlike in the developed countries, patients have to procure insulin, glucometer strips and other treatment facilities from their own pockets. Coupled with poor resources are the difficulties with diagnosis, insulin initiation, insulin storage, marital and emotional challenges. Being a disease affecting only a minority of people, it is largely ignored by the governments and policy makers. Comprehensive diagnostic, treatment and team based educational facilities are available only in the speciality diabetes centers in the private sector whereas majority of the subjects with type 1 diabetes are from a poor socio-economic background. Unlike in the Western world, being known as a diabetes patient is a social sigma and poses huge emotional burden living with the disease and getting married. Even with best of the resources, long-term treatment of type 1 diabetes still remains a huge challenge across the globe. In this review, authors from India, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Bangladesh detail the country-specific challenges and discuss the possible solutions.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Noncommunicable diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), cause 7.9 million deaths every year in South Asia. India has nearly 65.1 million cases of diabetes, and Pakistan and Bangladesh are at the 12(th) and 13(th) positions in the global list of high prevalence countries, respectively. The prevalence in India is continuously increasing and is recently reported to be nearly 14% and 8% in urban areas and rural areas, respectively. Diabetes in South Asians is, in some manner, different from that in other races; it occurs nearly a decade earlier, at lower body mass index and waist circumference levels, and with more postprandial hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, nephropathy, and CVD than in whites. Decision regarding prevention and management of diabetes should be taken in the background of heterogeneity of diet, attitudes, and cultural milieu in South Asia. A need for a low-cost, integrated, yet individualized approach specific for South Asian countries has been increasingly felt since escalating research has uncovered characteristic phenotype, dietary and socioeconomic patterns. Although most such guidelines formulated in developed countries such as the United States or the United Kingdom could be generally applied to developing South Asian countries, there are fundamental differences in applicability of lifestyle and diets (heterogeneous, different from western diets), availability and cost of drugs and insulins, monitoring methods and devices, and insulin pump. Moreover, the monitoring, education, care, and rehabilitation will differ according to different socioeconomic strata and levels of health care (primary, secondary, or tertiary). Some of the potential ethnic-specific modifications have been suggested in this review.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics
Show more