Probiotics as the potential biotherapeutics in the management of Type 2 Diabetes -Prospects and Perspectives.

Molecular Biology Unit, Dairy Microbiology Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, 132001, Haryana, India.
Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews (Impact Factor: 3.55). 02/2013; 29(2). DOI: 10.1002/dmrr.2376
Source: PubMed


Diabetes Mellitus is a looming epidemic worldwide, affecting almost all the major sections of the society causing burden on global health and economy. A large number of studies have identified a series of multiple risk factors such as genetic predisposition, epigenetic changes, unhealthy life style, altered gut microbiota that causes increased adiposity, β cell dysfunction, hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, adiposity, dyslipidaemia, metabolic endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, intestinal permeability (leaky gut), defective incretins secretion, oxidative stress associated with T2D as a multifactorial disorder. Recent studies have proposed multi-factorial interventions including dietary manipulation in the management of T2D and are also recommended by many national and international diabetes associations. These studies are aimed at deciphering the Gut microbial influence on health and disease. Interestingly, results from several genomic, metagenomic and metabolomic studies have provided substantial information to target gut microbiota by dietary interventions for the management of T2D. Probiotics particularly lactobacilli and bifidobacteria have recently emerged as the prospective biotherapeutics with proven efficacy demonstrated in various in vitro and in vivo animal models adequately supported with their established multifunctional roles and mechanism of action for the prevention and disease treatment. The dietary interventions in conjunction with probiotics - a novel multifactorial strategy to abrogate progression and development of diabetes holds considerable promise through improving the altered gut microbial composition and by targeting all the possible risk factors. This review will highlight the new developments in probiotic interventions and future prospects for exploring probiotic therapy in the prevention and control of life style diseases like T2D. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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Available from: Sunita Grover, Aug 12, 2014
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    • "The application of lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus spp. is a novel potential lifestyle intervention for alleviating the symptoms of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and in the future could act as an adjunct to diabetes treatment (Panwar et al. 2013, 2014). Some lactic acid bacteria have recognized antiinflammatory effects on the intestine and are used in clinical practice (Ritchie and Romanuk 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) plays an important role in the enzymatic inactivation of incretin hormones. In this context, drugs that inhibit DPP-4 have been developed and clinically approved as therapies for type 2 diabetes. As the primary substrates of DPP-4 are produced in the intestinal lining, we investigated whether lactobacilli colonizing the gut could inhibit this enzyme. Fifteen Lactobacillus strains (Lb 1–15) from human infant faecal samples were isolated, identified, extracted and screened for inhibitory activity against DPP-4. Activity was compared against Lactobacillus reference strains (Ref 1–7), a Gram-positive control (Ctrl 1) and two Gram-negative controls (Ctrl 2–3). A range of DPP-4 inhibitory activity was observed (10–32 %; p < 0.05–0.001). Strains of L. plantarum (12–25 %) and L. fermentum (14 %) had significant inhibitory activity. However, we noted that Escherichia coli (Ctrl 2) and Salmonella Typhimurium (Ctrl 3) had the greatest inhibitory activity (30–32 %). Contrastingly, some isolates (Lb 12–15) and reference cultures (Ref 1–4), instead of inhibiting DPP-4, actually enhanced it, perhaps indicating the presence of X-prolyl-dipeptidyl-amino-peptidase (PepX). This provides a future rationale for using probiotic bacteria or their components for management of type 2 diabetes via DPP-4 inhibition.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Annals of Microbiology
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    • "We examine the effects of life events on the host's metabolic health starting with those that occur in the pregnant mother and the developing foetus, then the colonization of the newborn and followed by the establishment of the long term 'adult' gut microflora in the young child. While beyond the scope of this review, we acknowledge the debates about firstly the hygiene hypothesis and its possible role in metabolic health (see recent reviews: Brooks et al., 2013; Musso et al., 2010b) and secondly probiotic supplementation to improve metabolic health (see recent reviews: Aggarwal et al., 2013; Panwar et al., 2013). This review proposes that the effects of early life events, on the colonization and succession of early microbial consortia and on gut permeability, are pivotal for long term metabolic health and healthy aging (as illustrated in Figure 1). "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The capacity of our gut microbial communities to maintain a stable and balanced state, termed 'resilience', in spite of perturbations is vital to our achieving and maintaining optimal health. A loss of microbial resilience is observed in a number of diseases including obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. There are large gaps in our understanding of why an individual's co-evolved microflora consortium fail to develop resilience thereby establishing a trajectory towards poor metabolic health. This review examines the connections between the developing gut microbiota and intestinal barrier function in the neonate, infant and during the first years of life. We propose that the effects of early life events on the gut microflora and permeability, whilst it is in a dynamic and vulnerable state, are fundamental in shaping the microbial consortia's resilience and that it is the maintenance of resilience that is pivotal for metabolic health throughout life. We review the literature supporting this concept suggesting new potential research directions aimed at developing a greater understanding of the longitudinal effects of the gut microflora on metabolic health and potential interventions to recalibrate the 'at risk' infant gut microflora in the direction of enhanced metabolic health.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Critical Reviews in Microbiology
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    • "Most commonly investigated bacteria with health benefit are Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. These effects may be useful for reducing the risk of some diseases [3], such as fatty liver disease, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and diabetes [4] [5] [6] [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: A few studies in animals and a study in humans showed a positive effect of probiotic on bone metabolism and bone mass density. Most of the investigated bacteria were Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium . The positive results of the probiotics were supported by the high content of dietary calcium and the high amounts of supplemented probiotics. Some of the principal mechanisms include (1) increasing mineral solubility due to production of short chain fatty acids; (2) producing phytase enzyme by bacteria to overcome the effect of mineral depressed by phytate; (3) reducing intestinal inflammation followed by increasing bone mass density; (4) hydrolysing glycoside bond food in the intestines by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. These mechanisms lead to increase bioavailability of the minerals. In conclusion, probiotics showed potential effects on bone metabolism through different mechanisms with outstanding results in the animal model. The results also showed that postmenopausal women who suffered from low bone mass density are potential targets to consume probiotics for increasing mineral bioavailability including calcium and consequently increasing bone mass density.
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