Comparative Assessment of Water Quality in the Major Rivers of Dhaka and West Java

International Journal of Environmental Protection 04/2012; 2(4).


A comparative study of general water quality has been extensively studied in some major rivers of West Java, Indonesia and Dhaka, Bangladesh. Water quality assessment based on physiochemical investigation along with heavy metal concentration in water and sediments is presented. The results indicate that maximum sampling sites in the rivers of Dhaka are severely impaired in comparison with the rivers of West Java. And, the pollution gap in the rivers of Dhaka is evident in respect of the season where pollution in winter is eminent in comparison with rainy seasons. All rivers were severely polluted with NO x , PO 4 3-and Escherichia coli (E-coli). The heavy metal concentration of Al and Mn exceeded whereas, Cu, Zn and Pb were found to be below the international guidelines in most of the sampling points. And, Cd an d Fe approached the threshold limit in Dhaka. With the enrichment study, every metal was found predominant in both the Ciliwung and the Cikaniki River; while rivers of Dhaka comprise little enrichment value adequately report noteworthy difference in metal sources along with elevated accumulation trends of metals into the bed sediments. The re-suspension experiment also suggests identical trends of metal swelling into the sediments. High health risks were envisaged due to the presence of toxic mercury in sediments (0.83-1.07 µg/g) of the Cikaniki River and paddy samples (0.08 µg/g) close to the baseline value of Indonesia. Based on the results, it is evident that metal, organic and fecal pollution in the rivers of West Java and Dhaka are in somewhat dreadful condition that requires immediate remediation step.

Download full-text


Available from: Dr. Md. Tajuddin Sikder
  • Source
    • "Water pollution caused by chemical substances such as heavy metals affects tropical rain forest and river ecology. Heavy metals can accumulate from water to sediments through settling process and some particles can also find their ways into the biota [1]. Bangladesh is said to be the land of rivers [2]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Water quality in the aquatic body of Dhaka Export Processing Zone (DEPZ) area was studied on the basis of some physiochemical parameters and heavy metal concentrations. Physiochemical parameters like pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and concentrations of some heavy metals like As, Cd, Cu, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Hg and Zn were measured. Among different physiochemical parameters, pH, TDS and EC were found within the range. The range of pH for all of the samples was found from 7.1 to 8.17 and 120 to 450 mg/L for TDS. The Values of EC were found from 90 to 300 µs cm -1 . For pH, EC and TDS, though the ranges were within the limits but there was an increasing trend of the values was observed in every case which is highly alarming. The range of COD values was estimated from 90 to 300 mg/L and in most of the samples the values exceeded the standard range. The heavy metal containments of the surface water indicated that the concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Hg and As were obtained below the permissible limit, detection by WHO, 1996. On the other hand, concentrations of Cd, Co, Fe, Pb, Mn and Hg were exceeded the permissible limits. Correlation matrix shows a significant correlation among Pb, Cu, Co, Mn and Fe. Enrichment factor shows high concentrations of Cd, Cr and Hg. Stated environmental condition is highly vulnerable for human being, that's why this is the time to take proper steps for remediation and preventing the pollution around DEPZ water body which is directly related to the industrial emission of DEPZ.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014
  • Source
    • "Untreated municipal sewage, effluents, and unplanned industrial and agricultural operation render the groundwater non-potable and unfit for agriculture (Bruce and McMahon, 1996). In addition, the presence of toxic pollutants like pesticides, arsenic, nitrate (Bruce and McMahon, 1996), fluoride (Chandrawanshi and Patel, 1999), hardness and iron (Sikder et al., 2012) etc. in groundwater may cause potential health hazard to human. Pollution of ground water has been reported to cause 80% of human diseases and 30% infant mortality in developing countries (Chakroborty, 1999). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The study comprised suitability assessment of groundwater of western peri-urban area of Khulna City Corporation (KCC) for drinking and irrigation use. A total of 40 groundwater samples representative of 4 different seasons were collected from 5 different sampling locations from Rayermahal to Sachibunia to analyse major physico-chemical parameters and trace metals according to the Standard Methods. The results of the study, comparing with the World Health Organization and Bangladesh Standards, reveal the suitability of the groundwater for drinking purpose. Suitability for irrigation was also assessed and found low as most of the calculated parameters reveal high values which can render salinity and alkali hazard to soils on long term use in irrigation. The results shown that all the groundwater samples were contaminated with high salinity in the study area, and are in the 'Doubtful to Unsuitable' or 'Unsuitable' category and are unsuitable to irrigate all soils.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mega dams have been considered as the greener energy source than most alternatives. But, responses of envi-ronment to dams are complex and varied, as it may result a wide range of environmental degradation. as they depend on local climate, dam structure and operation, and key attributes of the biota. We review our research and that of others to illu-strate the fact of environmental impacts due to the existing and proposed mega dams of the Himalayas and also to investi-gate the sustainability of the dams. Being the youngest and fastest changing mountain, the Himalayas and it mighty glaciers, sources of important rivers, are highly susceptible to global warming. Recently, there are plans to transform the Himalayan Rivers into the powerhouse of South Asia by building hundred of mega dams to generate 150,000-megawatt electricity in the next 20 years. These dams pose severe environmental risks in the Himalayan region and mostly in the downstream and the climate change associated with the global warming threatens the safety and viability of these hydropower projects. Dams and their associated reservoirs impact freshwater biodiversity and hydrogeology; changing turbidity, sediment levels, nutrient levels; causing flash flood and prolonged submergence; severe drought in dry season; affecting local ecology and habitat; contribute greenhouse gases and the resulting global warming; dry up the rivers for even longer lengths; impact traditional livelihoods, agriculture, irrigation and fisheries; threat political, regional and geo-strategic stability; increase the rate of disaster associated with the dam failure, land sliding, earthquake in the downstream. The study investigates the fact that the next hydrological projects in the Himalayas need proper EIA and information sharing to decrease the environmen-tal impacts, to ensure water distribution of rivers, the riparian countries, to make the projects sustainable and to ensure ben-efits for all with proper negotiations and commitment.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013
Show more