Temporal Changes in Incidence of Dialysis-Requiring AKI

ArticleinJournal of the American Society of Nephrology 24(1) · December 2012with6 Reads
DOI: 10.1681/ASN.2012080800 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
The population epidemiology of AKI is not well described. Here, we analyzed data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a nationally representative dataset, to identify cases of dialysis-requiring AKI using validated International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes. From 2000 to 2009, the incidence of dialysis-requiring AKI increased from 222 to 533 cases per million person-years, averaging a 10% increase per year (incidence rate ratio=1.10, 95% CI=1.10-1.11 per year). Older age, male sex, and black race associated with higher incidence of dialysis-requiring AKI. The rapid increase in incidence was evident in all age, sex, and race subgroups examined. Temporal changes in the population distribution of age, race, and sex as well as trends of sepsis, acute heart failure, and receipt of cardiac catheterization and mechanical ventilation accounted for about one third of the observed increase in dialysis-requiring AKI among hospitalized patients. The total number of deaths associated with dialysis-requiring AKI rose from 18,000 in 2000 to nearly 39,000 in 2009. In conclusion, the incidence of dialysis-requiring AKI increased rapidly in all patient subgroups in the past decade in the United States, and the number of deaths associated with dialysis-requiring AKI more than doubled.
    • "In addition, while sensitivity has improved, the resulting changes make interpreting temporal trends challenging. For example, uncertainty exists as to whether increases in disease incidence and improvement in survival observed are attributable to better reporting of less severe AKI, changes in case-mix (e.g. more acute on chronic disease), or true improvements in care [13, 15]. Similarly, variations in treatment may affect underlying assumptions in classifying AKI. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose of review: The purpose of this review is to report how administrative data have been used to study AKI, identify current limitations, and suggest how these data sources might be enhanced to address knowledge gaps in the field. Objectives: 1) To review the existing evidence-base on how AKI is coded across administrative datasets, 2) To identify limitations, gaps in knowledge, and major barriers to scientific progress in AKI related to coding in administrative data, 3) To discuss how administrative data for AKI might be enhanced to enable "communication" and "translation" within and across administrative jurisdictions, and 4) To suggest how administrative databases might be configured to inform 'registry-based' pragmatic studies. Source of information: Literature review of English language articles through PubMed search for relevant AKI literature focusing on the validation of AKI in administrative data or used administrative data to describe the epidemiology of AKI. Setting: Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) Consensus Conference September 6-7(th), 2015, Banff, Canada. Patients: Hospitalized patients with AKI. Key messages: The coding structure for AKI in many administrative datasets limits understanding of true disease burden (especially less severe AKI), its temporal trends, and clinical phenotyping. Important opportunities exist to improve the quality and coding of AKI data to better address critical knowledge gaps in AKI and improve care. Methods: A modified Delphi consensus building process consisting of review of the literature and summary statements were developed through a series of alternating breakout and plenary sessions. Results: Administrative codes for AKI are limited by poor sensitivity, lack of standardization to classify severity, and poor contextual phenotyping. These limitations are further hampered by reduced awareness of AKI among providers and the subjective nature of reporting. While an idealized definition of AKI may be difficult to implement, improving standardization of reporting by using laboratory-based definitions and providing complementary information on the context in which AKI occurs are possible. Administrative databases may also help enhance the conduct of and inform clinical or registry-based pragmatic studies. Limitations: Data sources largely restricted to North American and Europe. Implications: Administrative data are rapidly growing and evolving, and represent an unprecedented opportunity to address knowledge gaps in AKI. Progress will require continued efforts to improve awareness of the impact of AKI on public health, engage key stakeholders, and develop tangible strategies to reconfigure infrastructure to improve the reporting and phenotyping of AKI. Why is this review important?: Rapid growth in the size and availability of administrative data has enhanced the clinical study of acute kidney injury (AKI). However, significant limitations exist in coding that hinder our ability to better understand its epidemiology and address knowledge gaps. The following consensus-based review discusses how administrative data have been used to study AKI, identify current limitations, and suggest how these data sources might be enhanced to improve the future study of this disease. What are the key messages?: The current coding structure of administrative data is hindered by a lack of sensitivity, standardization to properly classify severity, and limited clinical phenotyping. These limitations combined with reduced awareness of AKI and the subjective nature of reporting limit understanding of disease burden across settings and time periods. As administrative data become more sophisticated and complex, important opportunities to employ more objective criteria to diagnose and stage AKI as well as improve contextual phenotyping exist that can help address knowledge gaps and improve care.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2016
    • "AKI is associated with significant mortality, with one-year mortality rates fluctuating from ~35% to ~70% dependent on population and AKI severity [4,[27][28][29]. However, mortality rates have been reported to be decreasing [13, 15, 16, 30, 31] , although the attributable risk for death associated with AKI may be increasing [32]. Additionally, AKI survivors remain at increased risk of ESRD. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with substantial mortality and risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Despite considerable growth in incidence of severe AKI, information pertaining to trends in outcomes remains limited. We evaluated time trends in one year risks of ESRD and death in patients with dialysis-requiring AKI over an eight year period in Denmark. Methods In a retrospective nationwide study based on national registers, all adults requiring acute renal replacement therapy between 2005 and 2012 were identified. Patients with preceding ESRD were excluded. Through individual-level cross-referencing of administrative registries, information pertaining to comorbidity, preceding surgical interventions, and concurrent other organ failure and sepsis was ascertained. Comparisons of period-specific one year odds ratios for ESRD and death were calculated in a multiple logistic regression model. Results A total of 13,819 patients with dialysis-requiring AKI were included in the study. Within one year, 1,017 (7.4%) patients were registered with ESRD, and 7,908 (57.2%) patients died. The one-year rate of ESRD decreased from 9.0% between 2005 and 2006 to 6.1% between 2011 and 2012. Simultaneously, the one-year mortality rate decreased from 58.2% between 2005 and 2006 to 57.5% between 2011 and 2012. Consequently, the adjusted odds ratios for the period 2011–2012 (with the period 2005–2006 as reference) were 0.75 (0.60–0.95, p = 0.015) and 0.87 (95% CI 0.78–0.97, p = 0.010) for ESRD and death, respectively. Conclusions In a nationwide retrospective study on time trends in one year outcomes following dialysis-requiring AKI, risk of all-cause mortality and ESRD decreased over a period of 8 years.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2016
    • "Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a challenging medical complication with a high risk of morbidity and mortality. The incidence of AKI and severe AKI (requiring dialysis) has been increasing over the past decade[1][2][3]. A significant factor contributing to this increase is the old age of population, which is considered an independent risk factor for AKI[4]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Elderly patients have an increased risk for acute kidney injury (AKI). However, few studies have reported on predictors for AKI in geriatric patients. Therefore, we aimed at determining the effect of frailty as a predictor of AKI. Methods: We retrospectively enrolled 533 hospitalized elderly patients (aged ≥ 65 years) who had their creatinine levels measured (≥ 1 measurement) during admission for a period of 1 year (2013) and conducted a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) within 1 year before the index hospitalization. We examined five variables (activity of daily living [ADL] and instrumental ADL dependence, dementia, nutrition, and polypharmacy) from CGA. We categorized the patients into 3 groups according to the tertile of aggregate frailty scores: Group 1, score 1-2; Group 2, score 3-4; Group 3, score 5-8). Results: Fifty-four patients (10.1%) developed AKI (median duration, 4 days). The frailest group (Group 3) showed an increased risk of AKI as compared to Group 1, (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.536, P = 0.002). We found that discriminatory accuracy for AKI improved with the addition of the tertile of aggregate frailty score to covariates (area under the receiver operator characteristics curves [AUROC] 0.641, AUROC 0.739, P = 0.004). Forty-six patients (8.6%) were transferred to nursing facilities and 477 patients (89.5%) were discharged home. The overall 90-day and 1-year mortality for elderly inpatients were 7.9% and 26.3%. The frailest group also demonstrated an increased risk of discharge to nursing facilities, and 90-day and 1-year mortality as compared to Group 1, independent of AKI severity (nursing facilities: odd ratio = 4.843, P = 0.002; 90-day mortality: HR = 6.555, P = 0.002; 1-year mortality: HR = 3.249, P = 0.001). Conclusions: We found that frailty may independently predict the development of AKI and adverse outcomes in geriatric inpatients.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2016
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