Is Gender a Factor in the Reduction of Cardiovascular Risks With Exercise Training?

Department of Sports Education, Hokkaido University of Education.
Circulation Journal (Impact Factor: 3.94). 12/2012; 77(3). DOI: 10.1253/circj.CJ-12-0607
Source: PubMed


This study compared older men and women with cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in terms of the effects of a 6-month exercise intervention on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels, blood pressure (BP) and other risk factors.

Methods and results:
Sixty older (age 61-79) overweight men and 71 such women with 2 or more risk factors (ie, systolic BP 130-179 mmHg, non-fasting blood glucose 110-139 mg/dl, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 120-219 mg/dl) participated in a 6-month exercise intervention. The exercise program consisted of moderate-intensity bicycle exercise for ∼40 min, performed on average 2.5 times per week. Systolic and diastolic BP reductions were found to be greater in women than in men (SBP, -10.6 vs. -5.5 mmHg; DBP, -6.2 vs. -3.3 mmHg; both P<0.05). Decreases in body mass index were larger in women than in men (P<0.05). There was no significant gender difference in the changes in blood glucose and lipid profiles and hsCRP levels. After adjustment for confounders (exercise frequency, weight loss, age, and baseline values), there were still significant gender differences in the SBP and DBP reductions. hsCRP reduction were similar in both genders even after adjusting for weight loss.

There could be gender differences in the beneficial effects of exercise training on the potent CV risk factors of BP and body weight, but not on hsCRP.

Download full-text


Available from: Noriteru Morita
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Physical activity seems to enhance cardiovascular fitness during the course of the lifecycle, improve blood pressure, and is associated with decreased prevalence of hypertension and coronary heart disease. It may also delay or prevent age-related increases in arterial stiffness. It is unclear if specific exercise types (aerobic, resistance, or combination) have a better effect on blood pressure and vascular function. This review was written based on previous original articles, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses indexed on PubMed from years 1975 to 2012 to identify studies on different types of exercise and the associations or effects on blood pressure and vascular function. In summary, aerobic exercise (30 to 40 minutes of training at 60% to 85% of predicted maximal heart rate, most days of the week) appears to significantly improve blood pressure and reduce augmentation index. Resistance training (three to four sets of eight to 12 repetitions at 10 repetition maximum, 3 days a week) appears to significantly improve blood pressure, whereas combination exercise training (15 minutes of aerobic and 15 minutes of resistance, 5 days a week) is beneficial to vascular function, but at a lower scale. Aerobic exercise seems to better benefit blood pressure and vascular function.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Journal of the American Society of Hypertension (JASH)
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although cardiovascular (CV) risks are reported in first-degree relatives (FDRs) of type 2 diabetics, effects of gender on sympathovagal imbalance (SVI) and CV risks in these subjects have not been investigated. Body mass index (BMI), blood pressure variability parameters including baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), spectral indices of heart rate variability, autonomic function tests, insulin resistance, lipid profile, inflammatory markers (interleukin 6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor α) and oxidative stress (OS) marker were measured and analyzed in control group (without family history of diabetes; 65 women, 60 men) and study group (FDRs of type 2 diabetics; 52 women, 49 men) subjects. BMI, heart rate, blood pressure, rate-pressure product, stroke volume, left-ventricular ejection time, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, homeostatic model of insulin resistance, lipid profile, inflammatory and OS markers, and ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency power of heart rate variability (LF-HF ratio), a sensitive marker of SVI, were significantly increased, and BRS was significantly decreased in study group men compared with women. SVI was more intense in men and was due to concomitant sympathetic activation and vagal inhibition. There was no SVI in control subjects. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated independent contribution of BMI, homeostatic model of insulin resistance, atherogenic index, inflammatory and OS markers, and BRS to LF-HF ratio. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated significant prediction of prehypertension status and rate-pressure product (markers of CV risk) by LF-HF, which was more prominent in men. SVI is more intense in male FDRs of type 2 diabetics, and SVI is associated with increased CV risk due to insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation, and oxidative stress in these subjects.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · American Journal of Hypertension

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · American Journal of Hypertension
Show more