Composition and structure of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) germ proteins

Food Chemistry (Impact Factor: 3.39). 03/2008; 107(2):675-683. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.08.069


This study was focused on the analysis of the chemical composition of defatted carob germ flour and the protein isolate. The amino acid composition and the nature of the subunits that compose carob germ proteins were also studied. Isolate was obtained by alkaline extraction followed by isoelectric precipitation of proteins. Results showed that an isolate of 96.5% of protein content was obtained. A high amount of amino acids like glutamic acid, aspartic acid and arginine was detected. Carob proteins were found to be composed by aggregates formed by a 131 and 70kDa subunits linked by non-covalent bonds, and other peptides strongly bounded by disulfide interactions. Both, aggregates and subunits were formed mainly by 100 and 48kDa monomers linked by disulfide bonds. A considerable content of high molecular mass peptides (HMWP) strongly bounded were also found. Proteins became partially denatured and thermally stabilized at acid pH (pH 2). These results could be useful in the study of different functional properties of carob germ proteins, and the application of these proteins as nutritional ingredients in formulated food.

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    • "Food Bioprocess Technol (2015) 8:1561–1570 1567 Author's personal copy carob germ has good nutritional value with a complementary amino acid profile to that of wheat protein, with a high content of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and arginine (Bengoechea et al. 2008). Therefore, this flour is useful for use as food ingredient for athletes' diet because it increases muscle mass, collagen synthesis, and production of glycogen (Varnier et al. 1995; Flynn et al. 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this work was to study the influence of carob flours from seed germ (G) and from fruit pulp (P) fractions (from 10 to 30 % w/w) on hydration (moisture, water activity, and relaxation time) and rheological properties (farinograph, rheometry, texture) of wheat dough. Bread quality (specific volume (V s), protein content, crumb texture, and moisture) was also analyzed. Farinogram shape of G and P samples were different. Water absorption of control flour (C) was lower than that obtained for carob germ-wheat flour blends, presenting wheat flour the highest development time. Dough hardness and adhesiveness increased with carob flour, mainly with G. Cohesiveness and springiness of C were higher than those observed for wheat-carob dough. Differences in dough microstructure for the different formulations were predicted by a G’ versus G” plot; heterogeneity in polymer morphology was detected with high contents of carob flours. Even though breads with increasing levels of carob flour presented lower V s and higher crumb firmness and chewiness than wheat bread, protein content for G breads was higher, converting this flour in an interesting ingredient for increasing protein nutrition. Protein value was slightly low for breads with pulp carob flour; nevertheless, fiber contribution would be high.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Food and Bioprocess Technology
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    • "Thus, the industrial target is to get high seeds yield with high nutritional properties. Indeed, carob rich in sugars, polyphenols, fibre and minerals are interesting for health consumer particularly in food industry (dietary), medicinal and pharmacological industries (Custódio, 2011; Ayaz, 2007; Gruendel, 2007; Bengoechea, 2008; Zunft, 2001). "

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013
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    • "CSGM is a by-product of the carob gum producing industry with sufficient protein content for fish diets and a balanced amino acid profile (Del Re-Jimenez and Amandò, 1989; Maza et al., 1989; Dakia et al., 2007). Its reported content in NSPs is 18% (Batlle and Tous, 1997; Bengoechea et al., 2008) higher than that of other legumes such as peas (15.5%) and chickpeas (9.8–13.6%) (Adamidou et al., 2009, Nikolopoulou et al., 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: A comparative study of gastric evacuation rates (GERs) and digesta content, moisture and pH values along the gastrointestinal tract was performed between gilthead sea bream and European sea bass. In order to distinguish species-specific differences from diet-elicited effects, all parameters were determined under either a fishmeal diet or a carob seed germ meal diet that contained high levels of total and soluble non-starch polysaccharides. GERs were significantly different between species and they were not affected by diet. Similarly, species-specific patterns were revealed in the distribution of digesta and water content along the gastrointestinal tract. In sea bream, stomach digesta and water content decreased with time, whereas in sea bass stomach retained the highest digesta and water content throughout the sampling period. The anterior and distal intestine exhibited the lowest accommodating capacities of digesta and water in either species. Overall, sea bream performed stomach digestion at lower hydration levels and higher pH compared with sea bass. Diet affected stomach moisture in both species and pH of stomach digesta in sea bass and of all intestinal sections in sea bream. The results obtained indicated that water and inorganic ion exchanges through the gut may differentiate between the species and warrant further investigation.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology
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