Sumoylation is tumor-suppressive and confers proliferative quiescence to hematopoietic progenitors in Drosophila melanogaster larvae

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Biology Open (Impact Factor: 2.42). 03/2012; 1(3):161-72. DOI: 10.1242/bio.2012043
Source: PubMed


How cell-intrinsic regulation of the cell cycle and the extrinsic influence of the niche converge to provide proliferative quiescence, safeguard tissue integrity, and provide avenues to stop stem cells from giving rise to tumors is a major challenge in gene therapy and tissue engineering. We explore this question in sumoylation-deficient mutants of Drosophila. In wild type third instar larval lymph glands, a group of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells acquires quiescence; a multicellular niche supports their undifferentiated state. However, how proliferative quiescence is instilled in this population is not understood. We show that Ubc9 protein is nuclear in this population. Loss of the SUMO-activating E1 enzyme, Aos1/Uba2, the conjugating E2 enzyme, Ubc9, or the E3 SUMO ligase, PIAS, results in a failure of progenitors to quiesce; progenitors become hyperplastic, misdifferentiate, and develop into microtumors that eventually detach from the dorsal vessel. Significantly, dysplasia and lethality of Ubc9 mutants are rescued when Ubc9(wt) is provided specifically in the progenitor populations, but not when it is provided in the niche or in the differentiated cortex. While normal progenitors express high levels of the Drosophila cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 homolog, Dacapo, the corresponding overgrown mutant population exhibits a marked reduction in Dacapo. Forced expression of either Dacapo or human p21 in progenitors shrinks this population. The selective expression of either protein in mutant progenitor cells, but not in other hematopoietic populations, limits overgrowth, blocks tumorogenesis, and restores organ integrity. We discuss an essential and complex role for sumoylation in preserving the hematopoietic progenitor states for stress response and in the context of normal development of the fly.

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Available from: Indira Paddibhatla, Jan 04, 2014
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    • "By the mid-third instar, the organ has a pair of anterior lobes, and two sets of smaller posterior lobes, that flank the dorsal vessel. Genetic experiments suggest that progenitors of the three major blood cell types quiesce in the medullary zone or medulla (Jung et al. 2005; Krzemien et al. 2010b; Minakhina and Steward 2010; Kalamarz et al. 2012). The "
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    ABSTRACT: A fundamental question in hematopoietic development is how multipotent progenitors achieve precise identities, while the progenitors themselves maintain quiescence. In Drosophila melanogaster larvae, multipotent hematopoietic progenitors support the production of three lineages, exhibit quiescence in response to cues from a niche, and from their differentiated progeny. Infection by parasitic wasps alters the course of hematopoiesis. Here we address the role of Notch (N) signaling in lamellocyte differentiation in response to wasp infection. We show that Notch activity is moderately high and ubiquitous in all cells of the lymph gland lobes, with crystal cells exhibiting the highest levels. Wasp infection reduces Notch activity, which results in fewer crystal cells and more lamellocytes. Robust lamellocyte differentiation is induced even in N mutants. Using RNA interference-knockdown of N, Serrate, and Neuralized, and twin clone analysis of a N null allele, we show that all three genes inhibit lamellocyte differentiation. However, unlike its cell-autonomous function in crystal cell development, Notch's inhibitory influence on lamellocyte differentiation is not cell-autonomous. High levels of reactive oxygen species in the lymph gland lobes, but not in the niche, accompany N(RNAi)-induced lamellocyte differentiation and lobe dispersal. Our results define a novel dual role for Notch signaling in maintaining competence for basal hematopoiesis: while crystal cell development is encouraged, lamellocytic fate remains repressed. Repression of Notch signaling in fly hematopoiesis is important for host defense against natural parasitic wasp infections. These findings can serve as a model to understand how reactive oxygen species and Notch signals are integrated and interpreted in vivo.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Information regarding changes in organismal status is transmitted to the stem cell regulatory machinery by a limited number of signal transduction pathways. Consequently, these pathways derive their functional specificity through interactions with stem cell intrinsic master regulators, notably transcription factors. Identifying the molecular underpinnings of these interactions is critical to understanding stem cell function. Scope of review: This review focuses on studies in Drosophila that identify the gene regulatory basis for interactions between three different signal transduction pathways and an intrinsic master transcriptional regulator in the context of hematopoietic stem-like cell fate choice. Specifically, the interface between the GATA:FOG regulatory complex and the JAK/STAT, BMP, and Hedgehog pathways is examined. Major conclusions: The GATA:FOG complex coordinates information transmitted by at least three different signal transduction pathways as a means to control stem-like cell fate choice. This illustrates emerging principles concerning regulation of stem cell function and describes a gene regulatory link between changes in organismal status and stem cell response. General significance: The Drosophila model system offers a powerful approach to identify the molecular basis of how stem cells receive, interpret, and then respond to changes in organismal status. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biochemistry of Stem Cells.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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    ABSTRACT: SUMOylation is a highly conserved post-translational modification shown to modulate target protein activity in a wide variety of cellular processes. Although the requirement for SUMO modification of specific substrates has received significant attention in vivo and in vitro, the developmental requirements for SUMOylation at the cell and tissue level remain poorly understood. Here, we show that in Drosophila melanogaster, both heterodimeric components of the SUMO E1-activating enzyme are zygotically required for mitotic progression but are dispensable for cell viability, homeostasis and DNA synthesis in non-dividing cells. Explaining the lack of more pleiotropic effects following a global block of SUMO conjugation, we further demonstrate that low levels of global substrate SUMOylation are detected in mutants lacking either or both E1 subunits. These results not only suggest that minimal SUMOylation persists in the absence of Aos1/Uba2, but also show that the process of cell division is selectively sensitive to reductions in global SUMOylation. Supporting this view, knockdown of SUMO or its E1 and E2 enzymes robustly disrupts proliferating cells in the developing eye, without any detectable effects on the development or differentiation of neighboring post-mitotic cells.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Development
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