Pitout JD. Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli: an update on antimicrobial resistance, laboratory diagnosis and treatment
Escherichia coli remains one of the most frequent causes of nosocomial and community-acquired bacterial infections including urinary tract infections, enteric infections and systemic infections in humans. Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) had emerged during the 2000s as an important player in the resistance to antibiotics, especially to the cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones. Most importantly, among ExPEC is the increasing recognition of isolates producing 'newer β-lactamases' that consist of plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases (e.g., CMY), extended-spectrum β-lactamases (e.g., CTX-M) and carbapenemases (e.g., New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase, Klebsiella pneumonaie carbapenemase and OXA-48). This review will highlight recent aspects on antimicrobial resistance in ExPEC, including the laboratory detection of these isolates, and describe some treatment options for infections due to antimicrobial-resistant isolates.