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An experimental study of the effects of play upon the dog-human relationship

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Abstract

It has often been suggested that intraspecific dominance relationships are established through play. By analogy, it is also claimed that the outcome of competitive games can affect dog–human relationships. This paper experimentally tests the latter idea. Fourteen Golden Retrievers were each subjected to two treatments; 20 sessions of a tug-of-war game with the experimenter which they were allowed to win, and 20 sessions which they lost. Their relationship with the experimenter was assessed, via a composite behavioural test, once at the outset and once after each treatment. Principal components analysis allowed the 52 behavioural measures to be combined into nine underlying factors. Confidence (the factor most closely corresponding to conventional dominance) was unaffected by the treatments. Dogs scored higher for obedient attentiveness after play treatments, irrespective of whether they won or lost, and demandingness scores increased with familiarity of the test person. The 10 most playful dogs scored significantly higher for playful attention seeking after winning than after losing. We conclude that, in this population, dominance dimensions of the dog–human relationship are unaffected by the outcome of repetitive tug-of-war games. However, we suggest that the effects of games may be modified by the presence of play signals, and when these signals are absent or misinterpreted the outcome of games may have more serious consequences. Games may also assume greater significance for a minority of “potentially dominant” dogs.

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... For this article, we define dominance as the tendency of the dog to assert priority of access to resources and attachment as the tendency of the dog to seek and maintain contact with the owner. In our experimental studies, we have found that both dominance (Rooney & Bradshaw, 2002) and attachment (Rooney, 1999) in dog-human relationships are multidimensional. In this article, we describe a test procedure, modified from these two prior studies, which we use to measure dog-owner relationships within the home environment. ...
... We refer to this as the dominance enhancement theory. However, questionnaires (Goodloe & Borchelt, 1998) and experimental studies of Labrador (Rooney 1999) and Golden Retrievers (Rooney & Bradshaw, 2002) have found no evidence for these postulated effects. ...
... The testing procedure was designed to assess attachment and dominance dimensions of the dogs' relationships with their owners. It was based on tests developed during experimental studies (Rooney, 1999;Rooney & Bradshaw, 2002) but modified to measure the dog's behavior toward the owner (instead of an experimenter), to ensure that the test was easily replicable by different dog owners, was unaffected by the size and shape of the room, and accommodated the presence of an additional person (the experimenter). The test had 16 compo-ATTACHMENT DIMENSIONS OF DOG-HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS nents, 5 designed specifically to assess attachment dimensions, 10 to assess dominance dimensions, and 1 for the assessment of both. ...
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It is often claimed that certain behavioral problems in domestic dogs can be triggered by the games played by dog and caregiver (owner). In this study, we examine possible links between the types of games played and dimensions of the dog-owner relationship that are generally considered to affect such problems. Fifty dog-owner partnerships were filmed during 3-min play sessions in which the owner was allowed to choose the games played. All partnerships then undertook a 1-hr test designed to measure elements of behavior commonly ascribed to "dominance" and "attachment." Principal components analysis of the data produced 2 dominance-related factors (Amenability and Confident Interactivity) and 4 factors describing aspects of attachment (Nonspecific Attention Seeking, Preference for Owner, Preference for Unfamiliar Person, and Separation-Related Behavior). Amenability, in particular, varied significantly between breeds. In the study, we then compared types of games played to each of these factors. Dogs playing rough-and-tumble scored higher for Amenability and lower on Separation-Related Behavior than did dogs playing other types of games. Dogs playing tug-of-war and fetch scored high on Confident Interactivity. Winning or losing these games had no consistent effect on their test scores. If the dog started the majority of the games, the dog was significantly less amenable and more likely to exhibit aggression. The results suggest that how dogs play reflects general attributes of their temperament and relationship with their owner. This study provides no evidence that games play a major deterministic role on dominance dimensions of dog-human relationships, but the results suggest that playing games involving considerable body contact may affect attachment dimensions.
... The mutual attention and social coordination of both dog and owner in interspecific play not only allows the play to occur, it is emblematic of the dog-human bond (Hecht and Horowitz 2015). Research has looked at-and dismissed-the notion that rough (tug) play may lead to displays of ''dominance'' in dogs (Rooney and Bradshaw 2002). Yet, little research has examined the common claim that all forms of dog-human play lead to positive affect in humans (Rooney and Bradshaw 2014). ...
... For each bout, a descriptive characterization of the ''kind of play'' engaged in (with the possibility of many kinds within one bout) was made, and the play signals used by person and dog were recorded. Play signals (''play bow'', ''chase-me'', ''open mouth'', ''bow head'', ''play slap'', ''leap on'') are described as communicating play intent (Bekoff 1974;Rooney and Bradshaw 2002) and can be identified functionally by the change they effect (Horowitz 2009). Vocalizations by humans in each bout were transcribed. ...
Article
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Despite the growing interest in research on the interaction between humans and dogs, only a very few research projects focus on the routines between dogs and their owners. In this study, we investigated one such routine: dog-human play. Dyadic interspecific play is known to be a common interaction between owner and charge, but the details of what counts as play have not been thoroughly researched. Similarly, though people represent that "play" is pleasurable, no study has yet undertaken to determine whether different forms of play are associated with different affective states. Thus, we aimed to generate an inventory of the forms of dyadic play, the vocalizations within play, and to investigate the relationship of affect to elements of play. Via a global citizen science project, we solicited videotapes of dog-human play sessions from dog owners. We coded 187 play bouts via frame-by-frame video playback. We then assessed the relationship between various intra-bout variables and owner affect (positive or neutral) during play (dog affect was overwhelmingly positive). Amount of physical contact ("touch"), level of activity of owner ("movement"), and physical closeness of dog-owner dyad ("proximity") were highly correlated with positive affect. Owner vocalizations were found to contain different elements in positive- and neutral-affect play. One novel category of play, "tease", was found. We conclude that not all play is created equal: the experience of play to the owner participant is strongly related to a few identifiable characteristics of the interaction.
... Rodway et al. 2019). Despite further studies being needed to exclude low-level effects completely, high-level aspects are more likely to explain our results, due to dogs' behavioural repertoire: when dogs interact with conspecifics, they do not spend much time face to face, instead placing themselves more laterally to each other (Rooney and Bradshaw 2002), and they usually inspect each other's body (mostly for odour recognition, Rooney and Bradshaw 2002), but not faces. In dogs, a fixed stare is also part of agonistic displays (McGreevy et al. 2012), and hence dogs might generally avoid prolonged gaze at faces. ...
... Rodway et al. 2019). Despite further studies being needed to exclude low-level effects completely, high-level aspects are more likely to explain our results, due to dogs' behavioural repertoire: when dogs interact with conspecifics, they do not spend much time face to face, instead placing themselves more laterally to each other (Rooney and Bradshaw 2002), and they usually inspect each other's body (mostly for odour recognition, Rooney and Bradshaw 2002), but not faces. In dogs, a fixed stare is also part of agonistic displays (McGreevy et al. 2012), and hence dogs might generally avoid prolonged gaze at faces. ...
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Dogs have remarkable abilities to synergise their behaviour with that of people, but how dogs read facial and bodily emotional cues in comparison to humans remains unclear. Both species share the same ecological niche, are highly social and expressive, making them an ideal comparative model for intra- and inter-species emotion perception. We compared eye-tracking data from unrestrained humans and dogs when viewing dynamic and naturalistic emotional expressions in humans and dogs. Dogs attended more to the body than the head of human and dog figures, unlike humans who focused more on the head of both species. Dogs and humans also showed a clear age effect that reduced head gaze. Our results indicate a species-specific evolutionary adaptation for emotion perception, which is only partly modified for heterospecific cues. These results have important implications for managing the risk associated with human–dog interactions, where expressive and perceptual differences are crucial.
... Pay Attention! Can the Type of Interaction between Handler and Dog Preceding an Agility Run Affect a Dog's Attention during a Run? (Rooney & Bradshaw, 2002, Rooney & Bradshaw, 2003, Schwab & Huber, 2006, Pongracz, Miklosi, Timar-Geng, & Csanyi, 2004, Call, Brauer, Kaminski & Tomasell, 2003. Previous research has suggested that play (a pleasurable game or activity which involves both humans and dogs, such as tug-of-war or fetch) is a very important part in a dog's social, cognitive and motor development (Ward, Bauer &smuts, 2008, andSmuts, 2007). ...
... Their results showed that dogs who received more playful interactions with their owners showed less fear and avoidant behaviors during play in an unfamiliar place than owners who did not play with their dogs as often, and also these dogs showed stronger motivation to play tug-ofwar than dogs who did not play with their owners as often. In another study, Rooney and Bradshaw (2002) found that dogs who were considered more playful achieved higher scores on involvement and attention seeking when they won a game of tug-of-war (gaining possession of the object being tugged) with their owner in contrast to when they lost (losing possession of the object being tugged) a game. This implies that play is rewarding for a dog and can affect other dimensions of dog behavior such as involvement and attentiveness. ...
Article
There has been an increase of interest in investigating human-dog interactions in recent years. One area of interest for dog owners and animal behaviorists is how interactions and play between humans and dogs affect performance on object choice and detour tasks (Rooney & Bradshaw, 2002, Rooney & Bradshaw, 2003, Schwab & Huber, 2006, Pongracz, Miklosi, Timar-Geng, & Csanyi, 2004, Call, Brauer, Kaminski & Tomasell, 2003). Previous research has suggested that play (a pleasurable game or activity which involves both humans and dogs, such as tug-of-war or fetch) is a very important part in a dog’s social, cognitive and motor development (Ward, Bauer & smuts, 2008, and Bauer & Smuts, 2007). Also, dog behaviorists have suggested that different types of play can affect dimensions of the dog-human relationship such as dominance, submissiveness, involvement, motivation, avoidance behaviors and aggression (Rooney & Bradshaw, 2003, Toth, Casci, Topal, & Miklosi, 2008). In addition human behavior, such as human attention and how humans interact with dogs can also affect dog behavior such as their obedience and performance in a game situation task (Call, et al., 2003, Schwab & Huber, 2006, Gasci, Mkiklosi, Varga, 2004). In general, human and dog interactions, and human and dog play can effect dog behavior.
... This is especially the case when the owner was present at a distance (e.g. Rooney and Bradshaw, 2002) but the absence of the owner may reduce play behaviour markedly (e.g. Topál et al., 1998). ...
... Inter-test effects may still be significant, for example the playing interaction with the stranger may have influenced the dogs' reaction to her behaviour in the subsequent test. Rooney and Bradshaw (2002) reported also that playful interaction (independent from its nature) had a positive effect on obedience attentiveness (better compliance with commands, more gazing at experimenter). Finally, these observations are limited to family dogs and their owners how practice a relatively 'outgoing' life style, as they were interested in participating voluntarily in this study. ...
... Heavier dogs have also been selected for fighting and restraining behaviours. The findings of Rooney and Bradshaw (2001) support this, as dogs in that study were more motivated during play sessions in which they were allowed to win, than those in which they lost [31]. ...
... Heavier dogs have also been selected for fighting and restraining behaviours. The findings of Rooney and Bradshaw (2001) support this, as dogs in that study were more motivated during play sessions in which they were allowed to win, than those in which they lost [31]. ...
Article
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The domestic dog shows a wide range of morphologies, that humans have selected for in the process of creating unique breeds. Recent studies have revealed correlations between changes in morphology and behaviour as reported by owners. For example, as height and weight decrease, many undesirable behaviours (non-social fear, hyperactivity and attention seeking) become more apparent. The current study aimed to explore more of these correlations, but this time used reports from trained observers. Phenotypic measurements were recorded from a range of common dog breeds (n = 45) and included cephalic index (CI: the ratio of skull width to skull length), bodyweight, height and sex. These data were then correlated with results from the Dog Mentality Assessment (DMA), which involves trained observers scoring a dog's reaction to stimuli presented over 10 standardised subtests. Each subtest is designed to evoke a behavioural response. Backward elimination and weighted step-wise regression revealed that shorter dogs demonstrated more aggressive tendencies, reacting defensively toward both assistants dressed as ghosts (p = 0.045), and to a dummy (p = 0.008). Taller dogs were more affectionate when greeting and being handled by humans (p = 0.007, p
... Research has demonstrated that dogs can form attachment bonds to their human caregivers Palmer and Custance, 2008;Mariti et al., 2013) and humans can form attachment bonds to their dogs (Barker and Barker, 1988;Cohen, 2002;Kurdek, 2009). Once established, these bonds have the potential to benefit both the animal (Serpell and Barrett, 1995) and human with the strength and quality of attachment (e.g., attachment style) serving as predictive variables for health and welfare outcomes (Garrity et al., 1989;Rooney and Bradshaw, 2002;Bennett and Rohlf, 2007;Meyer and Forkman, 2014;. Furthermore, it is possible that the influence of AAI's conducted with a participant's own pet could be impacted by the nature and strength of the pre-established bond between the participant and animal , or that participation in an AAI could alter the quality of the dyad's attachment bond, potentially in both the AAI and home settings. ...
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Whilst humans undisputedly shape and transform most of earth's habitats, the number of animals (domestic and wild) living on this planet far outnumbers that of humans. Inevitably, humans have to interact with animals under a variety of circumstances, such as during conservation efforts, wildlife and zoo management, livestock husbandry, and pet keeping. Next to the question of how humans deal with these interactions and conflicts, it is crucial to understand the animal's point of view: How do animals perceive and differentiate between humans? How do they generalize their behavior towards humans? And how does knowledge about humans spread socially? In this Research Topic, we aim to collect original empirical work and review articles to get a more comprehensive and diverse picture on how humans are part of the sensory and cognitive world of non-human animals. We strongly invite contributions that pinpoint shortcomings and limitations in interpreting the available research findings, that provide new cross-disciplinary frameworks (e.g. links between conservation biology and comparative psychology, or human-animal interactions at zoos and animal welfare) and that discuss the applied implementation of these findings (e.g. for conservation attempts or livestock husbandry management).
... C 7 play: this is a social activity involving an instructor, a dog and a toy. The toy can be a tennis ball or something else, but we preferred the tennis ball because it allowed interaction with the instructor without the complex relations of a ''tug-of-war'' game (Rooney and Bradshaw, 2002). In these human–animal interactions, the first thing to assess was the dogs' ability to play with a human and not their tendency to play in general. ...
Article
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The paucity of dogs dedicated to animal-assisted therapy (AAT) for disabled people creates long waiting lists worldwide and compromises the health of the few certified animals by demanding too much work from them at times, thus jeopardizing their future as service dogs. In an attempt to obviate this situation, a mathematical model has been conceived to select animals endowed with a set of specific inborn skills from a population of sheltered dogs. The model is able to select dogs capable of creating a special bond with humans and able to work anywhere and with any human partner or team; it represents a rapid, inexpensive and coherent method and has been validated after 1 year of observation. The algorithm consists of three steps. Step A is a test assessing the aggressiveness and temperament of animals and selection occurs based on a binary criterion (yes or no). Step B is a test comprising three items and selects animals able to interact with humans; dogs have to fulfil two conditions to pass on to Step C. Step C is a test evaluating the animal's ability to respond appropriately to easy commands (trainability) given by different partners; dogs have to fulfil two interrelated conditions judged more flexibly than in test B. The aims of the Ethotest are: (a) to prevent aggressive animals from entering animal-assisted activity and/or Therapy programmes; (b) to select dogs with the right aptitude and especially to restrict selection to dogs that offer consistent responses; (c) to include both male and female purebreds or mix breeds older than 1 year of age; (d) to identify animals able to work with different partners.
... This suggests that playing such games actually suppresses some types of individual differences in the behaviour of dogs, and therefore the behaviour in such games might not be a good indicator for personality measures like cooperativeness or sociability. Earlier it has been assumed that competitive games increase agonistic tendencies in the behaviour, suggesting an effect of play activity on later sociability with partners (McBride, 1995), although Rooney and Bradshaw (2002, 2003) found no evidence that competitive games increased competitiveness. On the basis of our results one could also assume just the opposite case; ''cooperability'' and ''competitiveness'' of an individual might determine the type of game it would prefer to play. ...
Article
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Individual differences and causative factors could modify the behaviour of dogs in object related games played with a human partner. In a two-by-two within-subject design we observed 68 family dogs’ behaviour when playing two different types of games (ball game and tugging) with two different play partners (owner or unfamiliar experimenter) in order to categorize each dog's playing style. In all four conditions we have measured the following behavioural variables: tendency for possession, willingness to retrieve, behaviours related to fear/avoidance and aggression, and occurrence of play bows. We also calculated the relative duration of time when the dogs oriented “outwards” from the play situation to the other non-interacting person (owner or experimenter) during a session. Than we examined the effect of six factors on dog–human play behaviour: the familiarity of the play partner, the type of the game, the dogs’ gender, age and breed, and the duration of daily active interaction between dog and owner.
... In contrast, one could assume that a dog's competitiveness might determine whether it would prefer to play tug-of-war or not (Tóth et al., 2008). In other studies, no direct link was found between commonly played competitive games and dogs' aggression, or the dominance relationship between a dog and its human partner (Podberscek & Serpell, 1997;Rooney, 1999;Rooney & Bradshaw, 2002). In our experiment, the tugof-war test did not differentiate among the three groups, as we did not observe marked aggressive responses in any of the groups. ...
Article
Many test series have been developed to assess dog temperament and aggressive behavior, but most of them have been criticized for their relatively low predictive validity or being too long, stressful, and/or problematic to carry out. We aimed to develop a short and effective series of tests that corresponds with (a) the dog's bite history, and (b) owner evaluation of the dog's aggressive tendencies. Seventy-three pet dogs were divided into three groups by their biting history; non-biter, bit once, and multiple biter. All dogs were exposed to a short test series modeling five real-life situations: friendly greeting, take away bone, threatening approach, tug-of-war, and roll over. We found strong correlations between the in-test behavior and owner reports of dogs' aggressive tendencies towards strangers; however, the test results did not mirror the reported owner-directed aggressive tendencies. Three test situations (friendly greeting, take-away bone, threatening approach) proved to be effective in evoking specific behavioral differences according to dog biting history. Non-biters differed from biters, and there were also specific differences related to aggression and fear between the two biter groups. When a subsample of dogs was retested, the test revealed consistent results over time. We suggest that our test is adequate for a quick, general assessment of human-directed aggression in dogs, particularly to evaluate their tendency for aggressive behaviors towards strangers. Identifying important behavioral indicators of aggressive tendencies, this test can serve as a useful tool to study the genetic or neural correlates of human-directed aggression in dogs. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX-XX, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... We then recorded the behaviour of the dog and the owner in each of five standardised test scenarios and compared this to the training methods advocated by their owner. The behaviour test used in this study was a modified version of that used by Rooney and Bradshaw (2002, 2003) to quantify aspects of the dog–owner relationship, but here shortened to only examine the key interactions hypothesised to be important with the addition of a novel training task. The scenarios used were: relaxed social behaviour towards a novel person and owner, response to being ignored, obedience to basic commands, dog–owner play and response to owner training a novel task. ...
Article
The methods by which owners train their pet dogs range widely, with some exclusively using rewards, and others using a combination, or only punishment-based methods. This paper examines links between the way in which owners reported to have trained their dogs and observations of the dogs’ subsequent behaviour. It also explores associations between behaviour of owner and dog when tested in their own home. A total of 53 owners were surveyed about their preferred methods for training each of seven common tasks, and were each filmed interacting with their dog in a series of standardised scenarios. Dogs owned by subjects who reported using a higher proportion of punishment were less likely to interact with a stranger, and those dogs whose owners favoured physical punishment tended to be less playful. However, dogs whose owners reported using more rewards tended to perform better in a novel training task. Ability at this novel task was also higher in dogs belonging to owners who were seen to be more playful and who employed a patient approach to training. This study shows clear links between a dog's current behaviour and its owner's reported training history as well as the owner's present behaviour. High levels of punishment may thus have adverse effects upon a dog's behaviour whilst reward based training may improve a dog's subsequent ability to learn.
... These tests have primarily been designed to address specific questions, e.g. interactions with humans (Gacsi et al 2005;Miklosi & Soproni 2006), play behavior (Rooney & Bradshaw 2002;Rooney et al 2000), aggression (Blackshaw 1996;Dodman et al 1996;McGreevy & Masters 2008;Netto & Planta 1997) or coping style in a stressful situation (Horvath et al 2007). There are also several tests developed in order to test for the dog's suitability for certain tasks, e.g. ...
... Recently, pet parenting styles have been identified among dog caretakers (van Herwijnen et al., 2018;Brubaker & Udell, in prep), and preliminary evidence suggest that there is likely a relationship between pet parenting style and dog-human attachment style. More broadly, positive factors within a human-dog relationship (such as play, positive reinforcement training, and lack of punishment) have been found to profoundly influence the human-dog bond, including correlations between attachment reported by the human caregiver and pro-social behaviors by the dog, dog training success, and reduced problem behaviors in dogs (Hiby et al., 2004;Rehn et al., 2013Rehn et al., , 2014Rehn et al., , 2017Rooney & Bradshaw, 2002;Rooney & Cowan, 2011). Therefore, with more research it may be possible to predict likely attachment outcomes for dog-human pairs based on parenting style and human behavior, and perhaps to educate humans on best practices for establishing a secure relationship with their dog, similar to the promotion of positive parenting practices when parenting human children. ...
Chapter
The capacity for dogs to form attachment bonds to humans has been recognized by scientists for over two decades. However, evaluations of dog-human attachment styles, including to what extent dogs experience attachment security with their human caregivers, are relatively new. In humans, the development of secure attachments is considered a predictor of social wellbeing and positive cognitive outcomes including future relationship success, persistence, mental wellbeing and executive functioning. A better understanding of dog-human attachment relationships could have important scientific and applied implications. Here we provide an overview of attachment research as it relates to the dog-human bond, and take a closer look at one experimental approach, the Secure Base Test (SBT), currently used to evaluate dog-human attachment styles.
... In particular it is thought that allowing a dog to win uncontrolled games such as Tug-of-War will increase the likelihood of it attempting to become dominant over its owner. However questionnaires (Goodloe & Borchelt, 1998) and experimental studies of Labrador and Golden Retrievers (Rooney & Bradshaw, 2002) have found no evidence for these postulated effects. In this paper we further investigate possible links between the types of games played in the domestic environment and both dominance and attachment dimensions of the dog-owner relationship. ...
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Introduction It is often claimed that certain dominance-related problems in dogs can be triggered by the games played by dog and owner. In particular it is thought that allowing a dog to win uncontrolled games such as Tug-of-War will increase the likelihood of it attempting to become dominant over its owner. However questionnaires (Goodloe & Borchelt, 1998) and experimental studies of Labrador and Golden Retrievers (Rooney & Bradshaw, 2002) have found no evidence for these postulated effects. In this paper we further investigate possible links between the types of games played in the domestic environment and both dominance and attachment dimensions of the dog-owner relationship. Methods Fifty dog-owner partnerships were recruited. The dogs were aged between 20 months and 14 years (mean =7 years); there were 29 males and 21 females representing 17 different breeds. When classified according to Kennel Club categories there were 17 gundogs, 16 working dogs, 10 terriers, 3 hounds, 2 toy and 2 utility dogs. Each dog and owner was filmed during a three-minute play session in which the owner chose the games played. All partnerships then undertook a one-hour test designed to measure dominance-and attachment-related behaviour of the dog. This test included sixteen components during which the owner performed a variety of actions towards the dog including removing its food bowl, grooming it and leaving it alone for three minutes. The test was video recorded throughout and from the tapes, the dog's behaviour recorded in 88 variables, which were reduced by Principal Components Analysis to two dominance-related factors (Amenability and Confident Interactivity) and four factors describing aspects of attachment (Non-Specific Attention-Seeking, Preference for Owner, Preference for Unfamiliar Person, and Separation-Related Behaviour). The effects of the types and style of games played on these six factors were tested using nonparametric statistical tests (Spearman Rank Correlation, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann Whitney U, and Fisher's Exact tests). Results Dogs which played Rough-and-Tumble scored higher for Amenability (U=207, p<0.05), and lower on Separation-Related Behaviour (U=210, p=0.05), than dogs which played other types of games. Dogs which played Tug-of-War (U=197, p<0.05) and also those which played Fetch (U=192, p<0.05), scored high on Confident Interactivity, but whether they tended to win or lose these games had no consistent effect on any of their test scores. If the dog rather than the owner started the majority of the games, the dog was significantly less Amenable (U=162, p=0.005) and more likely to exhibit aggression (Fisher's exact test: p<0.01). Conclusions The test procedure proved to be an effective way of quantifying both attachment and dominance dimensions of a dog-owner relationship. The results of this study provide no evidence that the outcome of games have a significant effect upon dominance dimensions of dog-human relationships, but suggest that attachment dimensions may be affected by playing games which involve considerable body contact. We conclude that the way in which dogs play reflects general attributes of their temperament and their relationship with their owner, but for the majority of dogs the outcome of games are not deterministic. However, we suggest that if play signals are absent or misinterpreted then games may have more serious consequences (Rooney et al. 2001), and for a minority of "potentially dominant" dogs, games may have greater significance. An important aspect of play seemed to be not which player wins the game, but which player initiates it. Dogs which were reported to initiate play frequently scored lower for Amenability and were more likely to exhibit aggression. This is evidence for the popular claim that dogs which are frequently allowed to initiate social interactions also behave with increased dominance towards their owner. Acknowledgements We would like to thank the 50 kind volunteers who were filmed with their dogs. We also thank WALTHAM and the BBSRC for financial support of the project.
... However, our observations and testing of dog-owner relationships found no evidence for this: those dogs whose owners allowed them to "win" tug-of-war games showed no consistent differences in behaviour from those that were not allowed to win (Rooney and Bradshaw, 2003), and similarly Tóth et al. (2008) found no connection between the playing of object-orientated games and competitive behaviour in non-playful contexts. When we experimentally manipulated the proportion of wins to losses in a group of golden retrievers, no change in confident behaviour (= that commonly described as "dominant", such as standing over the (supine) owner, high stance and tail position) could be detected, but there was an increase in "obedient attentiveness" (a factor combining behaviours such as pricked ears, offering a paw or licking the experimenter, and shorter latency to comply with commands) towards the person who played with the dog between the first and last of the twenty games (Rooney and Bradshaw, 2002). These dogs were more spontaneously playful after winning ten consecutive games than after losing ten games, suggesting that winning may simply be more rewarding than losing. ...
... For example, lack of human (or other) company for dogs can lead to signs of stress (Hubrecht 1993;Bradshaw et al. 2002;Fallani et al. 2007;Yeates 2012) with 'hyper-attached' dogs appearing especially stressed when separated from their usual carer (King et al. 2000). Indeed, the company of humans and other dogs may be separate motivations (Rooney et al. 2000;Odendaal and Meintjes 2003), and the former may be more important (Rooney and Bradshaw 2002). Completing the circle, this dependency can further affect our relationship with them. ...
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Considerations of ethical questions regarding pets should take into account the nature of human-pet relationships, in particular the uniquely combined features of mutual companionship, quasi-family-membership, proximity, direct contact, privacy, dependence, and partiality. The approaches to ethical questions about pets should overlap with those of animal ethics and family ethics (and, for veterinary issues, with healthcare ethics), and so need not represent an isolated field of enquiry, but rather the intersection of those more established fields. This intersection, and the questions of how we treat our pets, present several unique concerns and approaches for focused examination.
... Although a number of studies have examined the structure of human-dog play (Koda 2001;Rooney et al. 2000Rooney et al. , 2001Rooney et al. , 2002Tóth et al. 2008;Horowitz and Hecht 2016), few studies have directly assessed the role of human interaction Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved. ...
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Domestic dogs are a highly playful species that are evidently sensitive to the attentional state of conspecifics as well as humans. Given that an animal’s social environment can influence play, audience effects may catalyze social play. While prior research has shown that intraspecific attention maintains social play in dog–dog dyads, it is unknown whether interspecific (specifically, human) attention maintains social play between dogs. Our objective in the present study was to examine whether a relationship exists between the availability of human attention and social play in domestic dogs. Familiar dog–dog dyads were exposed to three sessions each consisting of three experimental conditions that differed in the degree of availability of owner attention. Observed levels of social play were significantly higher during conditions in which an attentive owner was present than during conditions in which an owner was either inattentive or absent. Furthermore, this effect was maintained across repeated sessions. This is the first experimental evidence of an interspecific audience effect facilitating social play in domestic dogs. The availability of caretaker attention may be a proximate explanation for social play in canids that have ontogenetically rich histories with humans and also retain neotonized behavior as adults. Further research is needed to clarify the mechanisms contributing to the relationship between interspecific attention and social play in these populations and establish a more comprehensive understanding of play behavior in animals.
... In recent years, the bonds formed between humans and their pets have more frequently been regarded as attachment relationships 32,33 that often benefit both the animal 34 and human [35][36][37][38] in terms of health and welfare outcomes. To date, the majority of this research has focused on adult human-pet attachment, and consequently attachment to pets has most commonly been evaluated through selfreport surveys, such as the Lexington Attachment to Pets Scale (LAPS), 39 that are designed to assess relative attachment strength as opposed to the attachment style categories described in Table 1. ...
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Shelby H Wanser, Kristyn R Vitale, Lauren E Thielke, Lauren Brubaker, Monique AR UdellDepartment of Animal and Rangeland Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USAAbstract: Research suggests that humans can form strong attachments to their pets, and at least some pets display attachment behaviors toward their human caretakers. In some cases, these bonds have been found to support or enhance the physical and emotional well-being of both species. Most human–animal interaction research to date has focused on adult owners, and therefore less is known about childhood pet attachment. However, there is growing evidence that pets may play an important role in the development and well-being of children, as well as adult family members. Research conducted to date suggests that child–pet relationships may be especially impactful for children who do not have stable or secure attachments to their human caretakers. However, given that human–animal interactions, including pet ownership, can also introduce some risks, there is considerable value in understanding the nature of child–pet attachments, including the potential benefits of these relationships, from a scientific perspective. The purpose of this review is to provide background and a brief overview of the research that has been conducted on childhood attachment to pets, as well as to identify areas where more research would be beneficial.Keywords: human–animal interactions, pet ownership, attachment style, secure base, child development
... We remove all these factors, including the food reward, by focusing upon human-directed play with an unfamiliar person as a behavior exemplifying human-animal cooperation and animals' ability to interpret human social cues. Human-directed play behavior has been reported in some domesticated species (Melotti et al., 2014;Mertens and Turner, 2015), including dogs (Horvá th et al., 2008;Rooney and Bradshaw, 2002;Rooney et al., 2001;Tó th et al., 2008). Dogs can interpret human play cues and adjust their behavioral repertoire when playing with a human instead of a conspecific (Rooney et al., 2000(Rooney et al., , 2001. ...
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... While this whole set of playful tactics has often been explored at the intra-specific level (Power, 2000;Pellegrini, 2009;Pellis et al., 2010;Norscia and Palagi, 2016;Pellis and Pellis, 2016), only few studies have been devoted to inter-specific playful interactions (Rose, 1977). Studies on dogs have shown that there are differences between dog-dog play and dog-human play (Rooney et al., 2001;Rooney and Bradshaw, 2002;Horowitz and Hecht, 2016;McGreevy et al., 2012). ...
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... Cada individuo fue identificado con un collar de diferente color para facilitar el muestreo focal 20 . El registro inicial de actividades se realizó teniendo en cuenta un etograma (Tabla 1) con variables que describieran el patrón de comportamiento y su grado de variación en, al menos, el diez por ciento de los individuos 25,26 . De esta manera, fueron seleccionadas tanto actividades dirigidas hacia las hembras intervinientes y a los hermanos (juego social), como la exploración del ambiente (actividades individuales). ...
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Animal-Assisted Interventions (AAI) have become more prevalent in recent years, with dog-assisted interventions among the most popular. The literature suggests that a variety of dog-human interventions have the potential for beneficial outcomes for human participants and owners, however, critical gaps in knowledge still exist. Research addressing intervention outcomes for dogs, and the impact of AAI on the dog-human bond, has lagged behind. Even less is known about how dogs perceive child partners in AAI settings. The current study, which involved AAI for youth with developmental disabilities and their family dog, aimed to determine if the dog’s style of attachment to a primary adult caretaker in the home was predictive of dog-child attachment style pre-and post-intervention. Using a Secure Base Test (SBT), the attachment style of the family dog toward an adult owner/parent was evaluated, and the attachment style of the dog toward the participating child was assessed before and after the dog-assisted interventions. The dog’s attachment style to the child was then compared to the dog-parent attachment style. The findings show that all dogs with a secure attachment to the child at the initial assessment also had a secure attachment to the parent. It was also demonstrated that AAI has the potential to change the attachment style between a family dog and child to a more secure attachment, and that the dog-parent attachment style is a significant predictor of which dogs were able to develop a secure attachment to the child over the course of the AAI.
... Dogs that explored the exam room were also more likely to explore in other environments, supporting the finding that the RSPCA Qld socialisation test predicts their friendless and sociability in a new environment after adoption [23]. The high tail position and frequent gazing behaviour show that socialised dogs were more confident and more engaged in their interactions with handlers [74,75]. Dogs that were calmer and more relaxed when seeing a person running and freezing less frequently gazed at the handler and displayed lip-licking behaviours, but they spent a higher percentage of time sniffing. ...
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I argue that an enactivist framework has more explanatory power than traditional philosophical theories of cognition when it comes to understanding the mechanisms underlying human-animal relationships. In both intraspecies and interspecies exchanges, what we often find are novel forms of cognition emerging from such transactions, but these “co-cognitive” processes cannot be understood apart from the interaction itself. I focus on a specific form of human-animal interaction—play, as it occurs between humans and domestic dogs—and argue that the best theory suited to the task of explaining how these two species create unique thought processes is a “sympoietic enactivism.” Rather than the more common “autopoietic” arguments defended by many enactivists, I argue that what is more accurately occurring during bouts of human–dog play is sympoietic, or “collectively producing.” Drawing on several different disciplines that converge on similar conclusions about creativity and collaboration, I show that human–dog play is a quintessential case of cognition that cannot be readily understood by appealing to the inner workings of either individual among the dyad. Thinking, on this view, is a form of play, and in playful interaction what gets created are wholly intersubjective modes of thought.
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Cambridge Core - Educational Psychology - The Cambridge Handbook of Play - edited by Peter K. Smith
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Part 1: Evolution and NeurobiologyPart 2: Development and Control Of Puppy Competitive Behavior
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In these papers we mainly consider how analyses of social play in nonhuman animals (hereafter animals) can inform inquiries about the evolution of cognitive mechanisms. Social play is a good behavioral phenotype on which to concentrate for when animals play they typically perform behavior patterns that are used in other contexts (e.g. predation, aggression, or reproduction). Thus, individuals need to be able to tell one another that they do not want to eat, fight with, or mate with the other individual(s), but rather, they want to play with them. In most species (primarily mammals) in which play has been observed, specific actions have evolved that are used to initiate or to maintain play. Furthermore, sequences of play usually differ from nonplay sequences (within species) and self-handicapping has also been observed, in which, for example, dominant individuals allow themselves to be dominated _only_ in the context of play. In our consideration of how play is initiated and maintained, we discuss issues including the evolution of play, the ecology of play, the sorts of information that are shared during play, what cognitive psychologists who study humans can learn from cognitive ethologists who study other animals, and what play can tell us about the emergence of mind in animals. These essays draw on literature from ethology, psychology, and philosophy.
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In these papers we mainly consider how analyses of social play in nonhuman animals (hereafter animals) can inform inquiries about the evolution of cognitive mechanisms. Social play is a good behavioral phenotype on which to concentrate for when animals play they typically perform behavior patterns that are used in other contexts (e.g. predation, aggression, or reproduction). Thus, individuals need to be able to tell one another that they do not want to eat, fight with, or mate with the other individual(s), but rather, they want to play with them. In most species (primarily mammals) in which play has been observed, specific actions have evolved that are used to initiate or to maintain play. Furthermore, sequences of play usually differ from nonplay sequences (within species) and self-handicapping has also been observed, in which, for example, dominant individuals allow themselves to be dominated _only_ in the context of play. In our consideration of how play is initiated and maintained, we discuss issues including the evolution of play, the ecology of play, the sorts of information that are shared during play, what cognitive psychologists who study humans can learn from cognitive ethologists who study other animals, and what play can tell us about the emergence of mind in animals. These essays draw on literature from ethology, psychology, and philosophy.
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Play signals are known to function in the solicitation and maintenance of intraspecific play, but their role in interspecific play is relatively unstudied. We carried out two studies to examine interspecific signalling when humans play with domestic dogs, Canis familiaris. In the first, we recorded dog–owner play sessions on video to identify actions used by 21 dog owners to initiate play with their dogs. Thirty-five actions were each used by three or more owners. These included postures, vocalizations and physical contact with the dog. The actions varied greatly in their apparent success at instigating play which was, surprisingly, unrelated to the frequency with which they were used. We then did an experiment to determine the effect of composites of commonly used signals upon the behaviour of 20 Labrador retrievers. The performance of both ‘Bow’ and ‘Lunge’ by a human altered the subsequent behaviour of the dogs. Both signals caused increases in play, and Lunge produced significant increases in play bout frequency and mean bout duration. The efficiency of both these postural signals was enhanced when they were accompanied by play vocalizations. Thus, specific actions used by humans do communicate a playful context to dogs and can be described as interspecific play signals.
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Play behavior, as indicated by frequency and duration of pinning behavior, was studied in young rats between 18 and 64 days of age. The incidence of play was markedly increased by social isolation. Play increased from 18–28 days of age, peaked between 32 and 40 days of age, and gradually declined thereafter. Animals developed stable “dominance hierarchies” during the course of testing so that one animal pinned the other on the average 70% of the time. Also, “dominant” animals exhibited the longer pin durations. The data indicate that social play can be efficiently studied in the laboratory rat and, further, that one function of play may be to establish stable social relationships.
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In the popular literature, it is often assumed that a single conceptual framework can be applied to both dog–dog and dog–human interactions, including play. We have, through three studies, tested the hypothesis that dog–dog and dog–human play are motivationally distinct. In an observational study of dogs being walked by their owners (N=402), dogs which were walked together, and had opportunities to play with one another, played with their owners with the same frequency as dogs being walked alone. This finding was supported by a questionnaire survey of 2585 dog owners in which dogs in multi-dog households played slightly more often with their owners than dogs in single-dog households. The performance of dog–dog play does not, therefore, seem to suppress the dogs' motivation to play with their owners as would be predicted if they were motivationally interchangeable. In an experimental comparison of dog–dog and dog–human toy-centred play, the dogs were more likely to give up on a competition, to show and present the toy to their play partner, if that partner was human. When two toys were available, dogs playing with other dogs spent less time showing interest in both toys and possessed one of the toys for longer, than dogs playing with people. Overall, the dogs were more interactive and less likely to possess the object when playing with a person. We conclude that dog–dog and dog–human play are structurally different, supporting the idea that they are motivationally distinct. We therefore suggest there is no reason to assume that the consequences of dog–dog play can be extrapolated to play with humans.
Article
The development of facial expressions in the wolf, coyote and grey fox is described, and facial expressions of these species also compared with the red and Arctic fox. In the various species of fox, which lack the high degree of social organization of the wolf, facial expressions are clearly identified under different motivational or social situations, associated with an increase or decrease of social distance. These same expressions are seen in the coyote and in the wolf (with the exception of the jaw-gape which is not seen to the same degree in the wolf). The wolf, coyote and domesticated dog differ from the foxes in that they manifest a wider range of simultaneous combinations of various facial expressions. This may indicate an evolutionary advancement of visual signals in more social species. During ontogeny in these latter species, the more 'primitive' facial expressions common to the foxes were seen earlier than other expressions, simultaneous combinations thereof, and more complex social behavior patterns which emerged later in life. These later emerging components may be phylogenetically more recently acquired than those patterns which are common to both the foxes and other canids. These findings are correlated with the social behavior and organization of these various canids and are closely compared with other studies of the facial expressions of primates. The contribution of specific facial markings and of body movements associated with different facial expressions are considered.
Article
multifactorial aspect of the distribution of behavior / aspects of social differentiation / dominance was regarded as the basic principle of social organization / concept has come to be questioned / doubts also arose concerning the explanatory value of the concept / dominance as an explanatory principle / intervening variable (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In this paper I suggest that play is a distinctive behavioural category whose adaptive significance calls for explanation. Play primarily affords juveniles practice toward the exercise of later skills. Its benefits exceed its costs when sufficient practice would otherwise be unlikely or unsafe, as is particularly true with physical skills and socially competitive ones. Manipulative play with objects is a byproduct of increased intelligence, specifically selected for only in a few advanced primates, notably the chimpanzee. The adaptiveness of play in pongid evolution is traced through the probable changes in selective pressures that occurred in hominid evolution. It is argued that fantasy was an emergent property in hominids, made possible by symbolic intelligence and language, and serving to make play complex enough to continue to provide useful practice for increasingly complex later skills. The advent of organised instruction and education has meant that play's unplanned, intrinisic goal-setting could be replaced by extrinsic goal-setting in the systematic development of particular skills. However, the need to ensure adequate motivation has continued to give play educational value. In addition, its capacity to enhance innovative behaviour seems to be a residual function of play which has acquired a new cultural importance.
Article
From weaning until sexual maturity, the rates at which young male rats hold each other supine during play fighting appear to become progressively asymmetrical. These changes have been previously thought to reflect an initial lack of dominance and a later development of dominance-subordinance relationships. In this paper it is shown that pairs of male rats exhibit asymmetries in playful attack and playful defense throughout development. The changes, resulting in greater asymmetry of pinning rates, are shown to result from age-dependent changes in defensive tactics; the relationship, therefore, remains constant while the form of the behavior changes. Furthermore, it is not the animals showing the highest rates of playful attack who become dominant in older ages.
1.1. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) angiotensin 2 (A2) levels, plasma Na+ concentration, osmolality, and hematocrits were measured in desert and nondesert rodents during food and water deprivation induced dehydration.2.2. During food deprivation, polydipsia was observed in the xerophilous species (Dipodomys spectabilis and Meriones unguiculatus), while decreased water consumption was evident in the mesically adapted species (Rattus norvegicus). All species revealed reductions in intravascular volume during fasting with no change in plasma or CSF A2 levels.3.3. A five-fold elevation in plasma A2 was observed in water deprived rats while the desert rodents evidenced only slight elevations. There were no changes in CSF A2 concentrations in response to water deprivation.4.4. Plasma osmolality was chronically elevated during water deprivation in all species.5.5. The present findings question the importance of the renin-angiotensin system in the normal maintenance of body water balance by desert rodents subjected to dehydration challenges.
Article
Yearling-male squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) were paired with play partners either matched or different from them in age and/or sex. The frequency of play was maintained at equally high levels with both matched and mismatched partners. However, play between mismatched partners was marked by an unusually high incidence of nondirectional wrestling, a less threatening form of playfighting, and an increase in role reversal, suggesting that youngsters had considerable flexibility in the use of alternate strategies to sustain play activity with partners who were atypical for them. These results also attest to the robustness of play and its importance in the behavioral repertoire. The technique of restricting youngsters to atypical play companions is suggested as an effective means of manipulating play, with minimal disruption of other social experiences, for long-term studies of the developmental impact of social play.
Article
Play signals are known to function in the solicitation and maintenance of intraspecific play, but their role in interspecific play is relatively unstudied. We carried out two studies to examine interspecific signalling when humans play with domestic dogs, Canis familiaris. In the first, we recorded dog–owner play sessions on video to identify actions used by 21 dog owners to initiate play with their dogs. Thirty-five actions were each used by three or more owners. These included postures, vocalizations and physical contact with the dog. The actions varied greatly in their apparent success at instigating play which was, surprisingly, unrelated to the frequency with which they were used. We then did an experiment to determine the effect of composites of commonly used signals upon the behaviour of 20 Labrador retrievers. The performance of both ‘Bow’ and ‘Lunge’ by a human altered the subsequent behaviour of the dogs. Both signals caused increases in play, and Lunge produced significant increases in play bout frequency and mean bout duration. The efficiency of both these postural signals was enhanced when they were accompanied by play vocalizations. Thus, specific actions used by humans do communicate a playful context to dogs and can be described as interspecific play signals.
Article
The intent of this paper is to outline a process by which we redefined an ambiguous behavioral category, rough-and-tumble play (R&T), using ethological and ethnographic methods (i.e., factor analyses, motivational/functional analyses, and interviews). Results suggest that sociometrically rejected and popular elementary school children have different concepts of R&T. For the former group, R&T and aggression seem to be interrelated and serve similar functions, while for the latter group R&T is a playful, social affiliative category. Interview results suggest that a cognitive processing difference between the groups may be at the root of this difference.
Article
The classic study of dog behavior gathered into one volume. Based on twenty years of research at the Jackson Laboratory, this is the single most important and comprehensive reference work on the behavior of dogs ever complied. "Genetics and the Social Behavior of the Dog is one of the most important texts on canine behavior published to date. Anyone interested in breeding, training, or canine behavior must own this book."—Wayne Hunthausen, D.V.M., Director of Animal Behavior Consultations "This pioneering research on dog behavioral genetics is a timeless classic for all serious students of ethology and canine behavior."—Dr. Michael Fox, Senior Advisor to the President, The Humane Society of the United States "A major authoritative work. . . . Immensely rewarding reading for anyone concerned with dog-breeding."—Times Literary Supplement "The last comprehensive study [of dog behavior] was concluded more than thirty years ago, when John Paul Scott and John L. Fuller published their seminal work Genetics and the Social Behavior of the Dog."—Mark Derr, The Atlantic Monthly "Genetics and the Social Behavior of the Dog is essential reading for anyone involved in the breeding of dogs. No breeder can afford to ignore the principles of proper socialization first discovered and articulated in this landmark study."-The Monks of New Skete, authors of How to Be Your Dog's Best Friend and the video series Raising Your Dog with the Monks of New Skete.
Article
Developmental changes in the frequency of occurrence of some 23 action patterns were studied in pairs of coyotes, wolves, dogs and their hybrids. Over 4,300 entries were recorded from days 24--42 (85.5 h observations in toto). All subjects showed a decrease in contactual behaviors from 24--30 days, and a subsequent increase in play fighting and chasing. In all species, with the exception of the coyotes, the bite was inhibited and play behavior was recorded from 24 days onwards, but only after the 30th day in the coyotes. Species differences in occurrence and frequency of certain action patterns were evident in the wolves, coyotes and dogs, and these differences were also reflected in their hybrids.
Article
Rewards, as diverse as food, sweetened solutions, copulation, electrical brain stimulation, and drugs abused by humans, have been shown to condition place preferences in rats. Juvenile rats will readily learn to traverse a T-maze for the opportunity to interact with another similar-aged rat. This suggests that play behavior is rewarding. Experiment 1 examined whether play (as quantified by rough-and-tumble pinning) would act as a sufficient reward to condition a place preference (CPP). Experiment 2 examined whether pairings with a nonplaying partner would decrease the time spent in the preferred side and thus suggest a conditioned place aversion (CPA). In Experiment 1, dominant juvenile rats were given free access to a CPP apparatus and a side preference for one of the two physically distinct sides was determined. Dominant rats were then conditioned twice daily over four days in the CPP apparatus. They spent their first session confined in their preferred side with a scopolamine-treated partner (that rendered the partner unable to respond to play solicitations) and during the second session, dominant rats were confined to their less preferred side with a submissive play partner. The number of dorsal contacts, as well as frequency and duration of pinning, were recorded. Following conditioning, side preference was redetermined. A similar procedure was used in Experiment 2 except that the subjects underwent conditioning on their less-preferred side without a play partner. Results of Experiment 1 demonstrated that the dominant rats significantly increased (198.6%) the time spent on the originally less-preferred side after play conditioning.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
The social play of pairs of juvenile rats can be brought under tight experimental control using social deprivation, and it can be objectively quantified by measurement of pinning behavior. Research and conceptual issues concerning this paired-encounter procedure are summarized, including issues related to measurement, gender differences (and the absence thereof), relations between play and aggression, the regulatory processes interacting with and underlying play, the neurochemical and neuroanatomical substrates of play, the functions of play in dominance and other adult behaviors. Existing results suggest the operation of a harmoniously operating brain process which generates a unique emotive brain process that is appropriately referred to as social play. Although the concept of play remains to be adequately defined, the position is advocated that rigorous psychobiological analysis will ultimately provide an empirical definition based upon neural circuit characteristics. Analysis of the underlying circuits may help reveal the manner in which more complex levels of behavioral competence arise ontogenically, and work in the area may yield clues to the genesis of several psychopathologies.
Article
One-hundred-and-twelve small animal veterinarians and 56 dog care professionals were asked to rate the behavioural characteristics of 49 breeds of dog, and to compare males and females by means of a 13-point questionnaire. From their replies, factor analysis was used to extract three underlying traits, labelled aggressivity, reactivity and immaturity. On the basis of these traits, eight groups of breeds were derived. Membership of these groups did not correspond exactly with any of the four existing breed classification systems (Mégnin, the Fédération Cynologique International, ancient breeds and Kennel Club of Great Britain), but significant differences between Kennel Club groups were found on all three traits. Male dogs were rated higher than females on both aggressivity and immaturity; the components of reactivity were also rated higher in males, apart from the demand for affection which was rated higher in females. Females were also considered easier to train than males.
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Ain't Misbehavin': A Good Behaviour Guide for Family Dogs Distance-increasing postures of dogs
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The ontogeny of play in rats
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The psychobiology of play: theoretical and methodological perspectives
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Panksepp, J., Siviy, S., Normansell, L., 1984. The psychobiology of play: theoretical and methodological perspectives. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 8, 465±492.
Canine behavioural therapy The Domestic Dog: Its Evolution, Behaviour and Interactions with People
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Mugford, R.A., 1995. Canine behavioural therapy. In: Serpell, J. (Ed.), The Domestic Dog: Its Evolution, Behaviour and Interactions with People. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 139±152.
British Small Animal Veterinary Association
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O'Farrell, V., 1992. Manual of Canine Behaviour, 2nd Edition. British Small Animal Veterinary Association, Cheltenham.
Role reversal changes during the ontogeny of play fighting in male rats: attack versus defence
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Pellis, S.M., Pellis, V.C., 1991. Role reversal changes during the ontogeny of play fighting in male rats: attack versus defence. Aggress. Behav. 17, 179±189.
Ain’t Misbehavin’: A Good Behaviour Guide for Family Dogs
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The psychobiology of play: theoretical and methodological perspectives
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