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An Overview (and Underview) of Research and Theory within the Attraction Paradigm

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Abstract

The initiation and subsequent development of what I once immodestly labeled `the attraction paradigm' are described. Though an after-the-fact reconstruction of a given program of research and theory may appear to result from planful, rational, insightful, and even prescient actions, the actual process is more often a combination of multiple personal motives, semi-random input from a wide variety of sources, sheer luck, and semi-delusional tenacity. In any event, some highlights and landmarks of over 35 years of attraction research are summarized. The story includes the initial decision to investigate the effect of attitude similarity-dissimilarity on attraction, the gradual development of the linear function that specifies the relationship between seemingly diverse stimulus events and evaluative responses such as attraction, and the construction of a theoretical model that began with a focus on conditioning but was eventually expanded as `the behaviour sequence', incorporating cognitive constructs in order to deal with such interpersonal complexities as love. As a postscript, I describe our current efforts to place the components of adult attachment patterns within this model in an effort to predict more precisely various aspects of interpersonal relationships.

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... Human mating is far from random and partner similarity relates to the formation and longevity of relationships (e.g., Buss, 1994Buss, , 2016. Common wisdom (e.g., "birds of a feather flock together") aligns with the similarity attraction hypothesis, which assumes that people are attracted to others who are similar to themselves in a variety of variables, including personality traits (e.g., Buss, 1994;Byrne, 1971Byrne, , 1997. Empirical research has provided robust support for the notion that similarity attracts and that partners are on average similar at the on-set as well as later phases of relationships (for an overview, see Luo, 2017;Montoya et al., 2008). ...
... The role of partner similarity has received major interest in research on romantic relationships. Studies testing the degree of partner similarity showed systematic similarity across a wide range of variables, and similarity has been argued to play a role for initial romantic attraction, satisfaction with and the longevity of relationships, and the heritability of traits (e.g., Buss, 1994Buss, , 2016Byrne, 1971Byrne, , 1997Luo, 2017;Watson et al., 2004Watson et al., , 2014Weidmann et al., 2016). Hence, the study of similarity concerns two distinct questions; namely, the description (i.e., "how similar are partners?") ...
... One might argue that these attributes resemble Peterson and Seligman's (2004) character strengths to a certain degree, and we speculate that morally positively valued traits could be sought for in partners in similar ways. Moreover, people's preferences are related to their self-reports but also to their actual spouses' self-reports, in line with the similarity attraction hypothesis (e.g., Botwin et al., 1997;Buss & Barnes, 1986;Byrne, 1997;Chick et al., 2020;Watson et al., 2014;Weber & Ruch, 2012). ...
Article
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We studied the similarity among partners' character strengths (i.e., positively valued traits) across two studies. In Study 1, N = 68 couples completed the 240-item VIA Inventory of Strengths and in Study 2, N = 143 couples completed a 24-item brief-form and measures of life-and relationship satisfaction. We computed raw, normative, and distinctive profile similarities for the 24 strengths and found support for partners' similarity in both studies (normative: rs ≥ .84; raw: rs ≥.23; distinctive: rs ≥ .06). Actor-Partner Interdependence Model analyses (Study 2) provided no evidence for the notion that similarity relates to couples' satisfaction. We discuss our findings regarding prior research, assortative mating preferences, and extensions to the study of partner-and ideal partner perceptions.
... Meanwhile, news readers may prefer human journalists over AI algorithms due to the effect of similarity-attraction [33]. Many studies in social psychology have revealed that individuals tend to prefer others who are similar to themselves based on factors such as appearance, opinion, or personality [31,33]. ...
... Meanwhile, news readers may prefer human journalists over AI algorithms due to the effect of similarity-attraction [33]. Many studies in social psychology have revealed that individuals tend to prefer others who are similar to themselves based on factors such as appearance, opinion, or personality [31,33]. This principle of human-human communication through similarity-attraction is often generalizable to nonhuman actors [31]. ...
Article
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The use of algorithms is beginning to replace human activities in the news business, and the presence of this technique will only continue to grow. The ways in which public news readers perceive the quality of news articles written by algorithms and how this perception differs based on cultural conditioning remain issues of debate. Informed by the heuristic-systematic model (HSM) and the similarity-attraction theory, we attempted to answer these questions by conducting a three-way one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test with a 2 (author: algorithm vs. human journalist) × 2 (media: traditional media vs. online media) × 2 (cultural background: the US vs. South Korea) between-subjects experiment (N = 360). Our findings revealed that participants perceived the quality of news articles written by algorithms to be higher than those written by human journalists. We also found that when news consumption occurs online, algorithm-generated news tends to be rated higher than human-written news in terms of quality perception. Further, we identified a three-way interaction effect of media types, authors, and cultural backgrounds on the quality perception of news articles. As, to the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to theoretically examine how news readers perceive algorithm-generated news from a cultural point of view, our research findings may hold important theoretical and practical implications.
... First, a long line of research dating back to Heider (16) has examined the effects of incidental similarities on affect and, in turn, behavior. Attitudinal similarity has been found to produce large increases in attraction, as well as higher evaluations of intelligence and morality (17). Sharing biographical features, such as a birthday or letters of one's name, has been found to increase compliance with a request (18), to increase motivation on some achievement-oriented tasks, such as solving a math problem (19), or to improve group performance (20). ...
... Overall, our findings are consistent with recent work showing how incidental processes based on shared relationships and other characteristics may play a powerful role in shaping political discussions (11). What is more, they also extend previous work regarding the effects of incidental similarity (16,17,19,23) and shared identity (24,25,29) on affect into the domain of opinion change. ...
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Significance Informal political discussions with peers can increase trust in democracy and improve understanding of self and others. However, these benefits do not often materialize because people tend to shy away from political discussions and because friendship networks rarely expose highly divergent political views. In a large-scale experiment, we overcome these limitations by matching participants to peers selected for sharing common interests and demographics and exposing them to a personal message about a divisive political topic: wealth redistribution. As a result, support for redistributive policies increased and polarization decreased. Furthermore, feeling close to a peer greatly increased the assimilation of a political message. Our results suggest that incidental similarities may cold-start cross-cutting political arguments and increase consensus on divisive topics.
... These assumptions are relevant in situations such as service recovery, in which the outcome often depends on how credible the service employee consider the customer's complaint to be. Previous research on in-group versus out-group behavior shows that individuals tend to favor and identify with those who possess characteristics like their own (Byrne, 1997;Kelman, 1958;Tajfel, 1982). Accents play a role in identifying individuals as belonging to an in-group or out-group as listeners use accent to infer both social categorization and stereotyping (Dragojevic et al., 2017;Ryan, 1983). ...
... Adapting these findings from psycholinguistics to a service setting, our first hypothesis tests language use based on social identity theory (Byrne, 1997;Kelman, 1958;Tajfel, 1982) by testing whether there exists a preference for customers speaking with a domestic accent (American English in our study) versus any foreign accent. Hence we hypothesize that customers speaking with a foreign accent will be judged less credible than customers speaking with no detectable accent. ...
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Discrimination represents an important moral problem in the field of business ethics, and is often directed against minority groups. While most of the extant literature studies discrimination against employees, this paper studies discrimination against minority customers, addressing whether customers speaking English with an accent are discriminated against when contacting companies with a complaint. We draw upon the two literature streams of business ethics and service recovery to address discrimination in the service recovery process, as the recovery process after a service failure constitutes a critical incident for customers, in which discrimination would be a particularly important moral problem. The findings confirm that customers speaking with an accent are discriminated against, as employees may evaluate customers as both less credible and less competent depending on their accent. We further show that this discrimination extends to negative outcomes: service employees offer customers speaking with an accent lower compensation, and are less likely to go the extra mile for them. Having identified the existence of a discriminatory practice in the service recovery process, we further uncover both an underlying reason and a potential solution. Our results show that employees’ level of cultural intelligence helps alleviate discrimination. We conclude that companies could benefit from including cultural intelligence in the recruitment and training of their employees.
... Another significant dyadic theory, the Similarity-attraction theory proposes that individuals holding similar attitudes are attracted to each other (abbr. SAT, Byrne, 1997). ...
... Dissimilarity-attraction effect informs that moral diversity in leader-follower dyads affects followers positively (Schaffer, 2019). In contrast to a long research history and popularity of Similarity-attraction theory (Byrne, 1997), the dissimilarity-attraction paradigm (abbr. DAP) is an emerging dyadic theory (Schaffer, 2019). ...
Thesis
Implications of (dis)similar ethics positions in leader-follower dyads are explored in this thesis. The aim of this research was to extend Ethics position theory by a leader-follower dyadic model knowledge, which was deduced in line with four major managerial dyadic (Leader-member exchange, Interdependence, Similarity-attraction and Person-supervisor and-environment fit) theories and available empirical evidence. The research design considered assessment of common perspectives, partners' relationship quality (LMX), ethical leadership, and promotability as suitable workplace phenomena reflecting partners' interaction. The quantitative empirical survey data (N = 160 dyads, resp., N = 320 unique participants) were collected within a single organization in Slovakia and all scales passed the reliability check. Dyadic data collected was consequently processed in Rstudio with statistical tools Actor-Partner Interdependence Model and Dyadic Response Surface Analysis. All empirical findings have exploratory research quality. Idealism was found to be a stronger predictor of outcomes studied, while relativism was found to shape more partners' roles and individual hierarchical positions. Subsequently, partners' relationship quality perceptions were differed with role and personality dimension; idealism influenced partners' relationship qualities the way, that perceived relationship quality by one partner increased on cost of perceived relationship quality by another one due to their (dis)similarity, while (dis)similarity in relativism related to partners' conflict avoidance due to similar ethics positions. Furthermore, partners' interdependence in idealism was generally stronger than in relativism. Also, actor effects were generally stronger than partner effects, except in one case; followers' perceptions of ethical leadership were found to be predominantly driven by leaders' degree of idealism. Surprisingly, the similarity-attraction effect was not identified. Instead, signs of similarity-repulsion, dissimilarity-repulsion, and evidence for dissimilarity-attraction effects were found. Besides, the alignment between perception of (dis)similarity in attitudes and actually assessed (dis)similarity in ethics potions was found only in the case of leaders' common perspective and followers' promotability, and that only in the case of their (dis)similarity in idealism. Building on (dis)similarity results, it was analogically proposed that these research results have person-supervisor and-environment (mis)fit implications. For the case of Ethics position theory development, it was proposed that the bias-accuracy ratio in partners' mutual perceptions, estimated as the actor-partner effect ratio, relates to individuals' internal-external attribution tendencies. Moreover, it was proposed that partners' degrees of idealism could predict leaders' ethical behavior towards followers. Despite theoretical limitation of exploratory findings, small differences in partners' degrees of idealism and relatively weaker correlations relativism had with other concepts, this thesis provides novel insight into leader-follower dyadic moral diversity and workplace dynamics.
... Prior research has shown that similarity is one of the most critical factors that affect not only interpersonal relationships (Ajzen 1974;Byrne 1997;Lazarsfeld and Merton 1954) but also interaction with other inanimate objects such as AI. The results from social psychology have proven that individuals are not only more attracted to others who are perceived to have similar personalities, but they also tend to be more influenced by them during interpersonal interaction (Ajzen 1974;Byrne 1997). ...
... Prior research has shown that similarity is one of the most critical factors that affect not only interpersonal relationships (Ajzen 1974;Byrne 1997;Lazarsfeld and Merton 1954) but also interaction with other inanimate objects such as AI. The results from social psychology have proven that individuals are not only more attracted to others who are perceived to have similar personalities, but they also tend to be more influenced by them during interpersonal interaction (Ajzen 1974;Byrne 1997). Numerous empirical studies in human-computer interactions have suggested that the perceived similarity of computer agents affects an individual's attitude toward the agents (Bickmore and Cassell 2001;Fink 2012;Gong 2008;Morkes et al. 1999;Nass et al. 1995;Nass and Lee 2001). ...
Article
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Artificial intelligence (AI) plays various roles in our daily lives, such as personal assistant, salesperson, and virtual counselors; thus, it stands out in various fields as a recommendation agent. This study explored the effects of perceived similarity and psychological distance on the persuasion of AI recommendation agents through two experiments. Results of Experiment 1 elucidated that individuals feel more psychologically distant when they interact with AI recommendation agents than with human agents as a result of a different level of perceived similarity. Furthermore, psychological distance plays a mediating role in determining the effectiveness of desirability- vs. feasibility-focused messages in health-related issues. In Experiment 2, we manipulated the AI speaker's level of perceived similarity via anthropomorphism and found that the AI's recommendation with secondary (vs. primary) features is more effective when AI is humanized, and the reverse was found in non-humanized AI conditions. Both theoretical and managerial implications are provided.
... The initial findings regarding the effects of similarity within the investigative interviewing context are broadly consistent with theory and empirical findings from social, organisational and evolutionary psychology that show that people often prefer to associate with similar others and that similarity may facilitate individual-and grouplevel outcomes (e.g., Byrne, 1997;Gruenfeld & Tiedens, 2010;Haun & Over, 2015). For example, the possibility that interviewees may prefer police interviewers who are similar to themselves (e.g., Jordan, 2002 ...
... with the concept of homophily-a widespread and well-established tendency for humans to associate with similar others (see McPherson et al., 2001). That this similarity may confer a practical benefit (e.g., via improved information elicitation, Akca, 2019) is also consistent with findings of an association between perceived self-other similarity and a wide range of prosocial and interpersonal effects such as behavioural mimicry (Guéguen & Martin, 2009), compliance (Burger et al., 2004), attraction (e.g., Byrne, 1997), altruism (e.g., Cialdini et al., 1997) and willingness to share intimate information (Martin & Guéguen, 2013). Collectively, these findings illustrate the importance of similarity in interpersonal contexts, even for seemingly trivial or incidental similarities (e.g., sharing a birthday; Miller et al., 1998). ...
Article
Victims can provide details necessary to resolve criminal investigations but may be reluctant to come forward and fully disclose an incident to law enforcement. Although evidence‐based interviewing techniques such as rapport‐building have shown promise in increasing cooperation, the potential impact of interviewers' inherent characteristics (e.g., age and gender) on information disclosure has been relatively under examined. We investigated mock sexual assault victims' preferences for various police interviewer characteristics and the impact of these preferences on hypothetical reporting behaviour. Participants rated interviewers' interpersonal skills as highly important. Gender differences were observed, with only female participants consistently reporting that having a same‐gender interviewer was important. Participants also indicated that if they were provided with their preferred interviewer, they would feel more comfortable, provide more detail, and would be more willing to report the offence to police. Our findings suggest that matching interviewees with their preferred interviewers may improve interviewing and investigative outcomes.
... Given that certain judges perceive certain targets more accurately than other targets, it matters which judge gets confronted with which target. Personality and social psychology research showed that liking (Human & Biesanz, 2011b;Leising, Ostrovski, & Zimmermann, 2013), gender and ethnic similarity (Letzring, 2010) as well as similarity with respect to personality and attitudes promote accuracy (Byrne, 1997;Montoya, Horton, & Kirchner, 2008;Montoya & Horton, 2013). Furthermore, physical attractiveness conceptualized as a dyadic variable when each target's attractiveness is evaluated by the judge in each judge-target dyad, has been shown to promote first impression accuracy (Lorenzo, Biesanz, & Human, 2010). ...
... In the context of first impressions, liking typically refers to a very spontaneous form of interpersonal appeal and is therefore often used interchangeably with the term interpersonal attraction (Back, Schmukle, & Egloff, 2011). Also similarity with respect to personality and attitudes, for example, can lead to an increased attraction towards the target (Byrne, 1997;Montoya et al., 2008;Montoya & Horton, 2013). As a consequence, perceivers are expected to be able to detect more cues and process them in more detail resulting in higher judgment accuracy (Biesanz et al., 2011;Funder, 1995;Lorenzo et al., 2010). ...
Article
How accurate are teachers’ first impressions and what moderates the degree of first impression accuracy? In previous teacher judgment accuracy research, teachers judged students who were well-acquainted to them, focusing on single traits. Here, we follow the zero-acquaintance paradigm and apply the Social Accuracy Model (SAM; Biesanz, 2010) to examine teachers’ first impressions regarding students’ personality profiles. Three groups of perceivers (student teachers, experienced teachers and psychology students; N = 285) rated students’ (N = 10) academic self-concept, intrinsic motivation and intelligence based on brief videos. SAM analyses revealed that teachers were accurate regarding the average students’ profile of characteristics (normative accuracy), but were not successful at detecting students' unique personality profiles (distinctive accuracy). Moreover, likeable students and those evaluated as more physically attractive were perceived with higher normative accuracy. Personality similarity and teaching experience were unrelated to accuracy. Implications for teacher judgment accuracy research and educational practice are discussed.
... To explain ethnic and racial discrimination in hiring processes, researchers often refer to classic economic theories by contrasting statistical discrimination theory (Aigner & Cain, 1977;Arrow, 1971;Phelps, 1972) and taste-based discrimination theory (Becker, 1957; but see also Bartoš et al., 2016, on attention discrimination;Rooth, 2010, on implicit discrimination;and England, 1992, on error discrimination). The central difference between statistical and tastebased discrimination theories is that according to the former, employers are risk-averse and base their hiring decisions on perceived productivity-and competence-related differences at the group level while the latter explains discrimination by personal preferences of the employer (or of customers and co-workers) that are unrelated to productivity, such as dislike of certain ethnic groups or ethnic homophily and the preference for members of the in-group (Byrne, 1997;McPherson et al., 2001). ...
... While being very successful in demonstrating the existence of discrimination in hiring, correspondence tests have been less successful in disentangling the reasons that lead employers to discriminate. In classical economic literature, discrimination is described as resulting either from assumed productivity differences at the group level and risk aversion (statistical discrimination, see Aigner & Cain, 1977;Guryan & Charles, 2013;Phelps, 1972) or from preferences that are unrelated to productivity, such as ethnic homophily and the preference for similarity (Byrne, 1997;McPherson et al., 2001) or the dislike of certain ethnic groups (taste-based discrimination, see Becker, 1957). This distinction ties in with the two fundamental dimensions proposed by the SCM. ...
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We tested whether signaling warmth and competence (“Big Two”) in job applications increases hiring chances. Drawing on a field experimental data from five European countries, we analyzed the responses of employers ( N = 13,162) to applications from fictitious candidates of different origin: native candidates and candidates of European, Asian, or Middle-Eastern/African descent. We found that competence signals slightly increased invitation rates, while warmth signals had no effect. We also found ethnic discrimination, a female premium, and differences in callbacks depending on job characteristics. Importantly, however, providing stereotype signals did not reduce the level of ethnic discrimination or the female premium. Likewise, we found little evidence for interactions between stereotype signals and job demands. While speaking against the importance of “Big Two” signals in application documents, our results highlight the importance of group membership and hopefully stimulate further research on the role of in particular ethnic stereotypes for discrimination in hiring.
... At the beginning of the sixties of the 20 th centuary, a few new concepts explaining attraction were proposed. Among them were E. Berscheid and E.H. Walster's (1969), and D. Byrne's (1961Byrne's ( , 1997 theories, according to which people like more those who reward them. ...
Book
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Ewa M. Kulesza | Laura A. Butabayeva SOCIAL ATTRACTIVENESS OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES IN THE OPINION OF NONDISABLED FIRST-GRADE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS AND THEIR PARENTS IN KAZAKHSTAN Key words: students, parents, disability, inclusion, education, attitudes, social attractiveness The publication is pioneering, because for the first time in Kazakhstan, the issue of social attractiveness of students with disabilities is discussed. The authors, through empirical way, reveal the attitudes of parents and their children with normative development towards peers with disabilities in informal (e.g. talking and playing) and formal (learning) situations. The book contains strong arguments in favor of inclusive education, in particular, it describes the significant impact of inclusive education on shaping positive relations between first grade students of primary school.
... Principles of similarity indicate that we tend to feel stronger levels of relatedness to others who we perceive to be similar to ourselves (Byrne, 1997). Mentors who have engaged in delinquent behaviors may feel they are better able to relate to at-risk mentees who either have engaged in or are at high risk for engaging in delinquent behaviors. ...
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Cultivating a sense of meaning in life (MIL) is a critical task for emerging adults that can be fostered through engagement in prosocial activities like mentoring at-risk youth. While mentoring may promote MIL for some, the potential benefits likely vary. This study explored trajectories and predictors of change in MIL in 641 college student mentors of at-risk youth who participated in a 12-week mentoring program. Three unique trajectories were identified (1) a class exhibiting stable, high levels of MIL (high class, 86%), (2) a class exhibiting the lowest initial levels of MIL that increased over time (increasing class, 5%), and (3) a class exhibiting decreased MIL (decreasing class, 8%). Results indicated mentors’ adverse experiences, role self-efficacy, and the quality of the mentor–mentee relationship were associated with unique change trajectories. Results indicate heterogeneity in the process of deriving MIL, with certain individuals benefitting more than others from serving as a mentor.
... This suggests that while personal control may produce a compensation effect, meaning that those who lack control compensate it through partner selection, SES may Effects of baseline (T1) personal control before the simulated dating interaction on feelings of personal control after the interaction (T2) depending on whether participants imagined dating a high-status (dark) or low-status (gray) hypothetical partner. produce a similarity effect, meaning that people prefer romantic partners who have a similar status level as themselves (Byrne, 1997;Montoya et al., 2008). ...
Article
The question what people desire in their romantic partner has hitherto been dominated by a focus on gender. It has been repeatedly found that, when asked what they find important in selecting a partner, women indicate that they find status more important compared to men. Across five studies, we move beyond gender and base ourselves on general theories of control deprivation to test the effect of differences in perceived personal control on stated partner preferences. We find that low-control people—both women and men—value characteristics associated with status more in romantic partners at the expense of other desirable traits (Study 1a and 1b). Furthermore, in simulated dating settings, low-control people make corresponding dating choices and prefer hypothetical high-status partners over low- (Study 2a) or average-status partners (Study 2b). Our final study suggests a beneficial aspect: Thoughts of dating a high-status partner can repair low-control people’s feelings of control (Study 3).
... One recent meta-analysis shows that when reading the actual content written by humans and algorithms, people perceive no difference in terms of news credibility; however, people perceive news purportedly attributed to algorithms as slightly less credible than news attributed to humans (Graefe & Bohlken, 2020). Algorithmic author attribution may reduce message credibility through an indirect pathway of source anthropomorphism because people prefer human rather than machine sources possibly due to the principle of similarity attraction (e.g., Byrne, 1997;Simons et al., 1970). Anthropomorphism is defined as the attribution of human traits, motivations, emotions, or behaviors to non-human and nonliving entities (Airenti, 2015). ...
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The relative hostile media effect suggests that partisans tend to perceive the bias of slanted news differently depending on whether the news is slanted in favor of or against their sides. To explore the effect of an algorithmic vs. human source on hostile media perceptions, this study conducts a 3 (author attribution: human, algorithm, or human-assisted algorithm) x 3 (news attitude: pro-issue, neutral, or anti-issue) mixed factorial design online experiment ( N = 511). This study uses a transformer-based adversarial network to auto-generate comparable news headlines. The framework was trained with a dataset of 364,986 news stories from 22 mainstream media outlets. The results show that the relative hostile media effect occurs when people read news headlines attributed to all types of authors. News attributed to a sole human source is perceived as more credible than news attributed to two algorithm-related sources. For anti-Trump news headlines, there exists an interaction effect between author attribution and issue partisanship while controlling for people’s prior belief in machine heuristics. The difference of hostile media perceptions between the two partisan groups was relatively larger in anti-Trump news headlines compared with pro-Trump news headlines.
... Virtual communities allow users to articulate a network of "friends" with whom they share a connection as an essential feature (Boyd & Ellison, 2007). Virtual communities offer individuals opportunities to verify their identities through a supportive friendship network (Byrne, 1997). For instance, studies indicate that virtual communities enable identify verification behaviors, described as "the perceived confirmation from other community members of a…person's belief about his [or her] identities" (Ma & Agarwal, 2007, p. 46). ...
... Similarly, faultline theory suggests that faultlines divide a group's members not only based on attributes such as demographic diversity (Lau & Murnighan, 1998), but also more deep-level differences (e.g., van Knippenberg et al., 2010). In other words, differences in values and attitudes often act as a barrier or deterrent that makes team members less attractive to one another, reduces their interest in collaborating and spending time together, makes interactions less satisfying, and, thus, impedes the development of interpersonal relationships (e.g., Berkowitz & Walster, 1976;Berscheid & Hatfield, 1969;Byrne, 1997;Layton & Insko, 1974). Furthermore, cultural diversity may disrupt the exchange and integration of information between team members, which is critical for team performance (van Knippenberg et al., 2010). ...
Article
Global virtual teams (GVTs), electronically connected workgroups of geographically dispersed team members in multinational settings, may suffer from less social integration. However, they may also benefit from an increased ability to process information due to a richer portfolio of ideas and problem-solving approaches that the team's diversity provides. We propose that the cultural intelligence (CQ) of team members contributes positively to social integration in GVTs and improves performance. Using data from 263 GVTs, we utilized both structural equation modeling and necessary condition analyses to explore the associations between motivational CQ and a team's social integration and performance. The results identified the must-have (bottlenecks) and should-have (drivers) levels of motivational CQ among team members in GVTs. We contribute to the CQ and GVT literature by linking variation in the team's CQ levels (team average, lowest, highest, and leader CQ) to its social integration and performance.
... • Uncontexteplurilinguepeutparadoxalementrenforcerlaséparationentrelesgroupeslinguistiqueset,parlà, leursdifférencesculturelles:j'aipuobserveràmaintesreprises,mêmedansdescontextesquiofficiellement valorisent la diversité des langues et des cultures, que nous avons tous tendance à nous regrouper par ressemblance, principalement sur le plan linguistique et/ou culturel (ce que les psychologues sociaux appellent l'attraction par la similitude, Byrne, 1997). Dans un contexte plurilingue, sans lingua franca reconnuevoireimposée,s'iln'yapasunevolontéinstitutionnelleclaireetuntravailintensedes'opposerà cette tendance au regroupement par similitude et de travailler le contact et l'échange, les individus se regroupent par langues. ...
... Pitchers exercise discretion in targeting members of the opposition. Research on the similarity-attraction hypothesis (Byrne, 1997) and on homophily (Marsden, 1988) predicts that trust and friendship ties form most readily with others who are alike in psychological, physical, and social characteristics. These principles also predicted target selection for vicarious retribution in our sample of games. ...
Article
Acts of negative reciprocity can generate destructive sequences of reprisal. In baseball, hitting a batter with a pitch generally represents a vicarious form of retribution on behalf of a teammate. To understand a practice prone to escalation, we examine how dyadic relationships and team characteristics influence punitive aggression during games. Constructing a suite of indicator variables with data from two decades of play enabled us to track the shifting state of relational accounting between opposing teams. Even though motives to engage in further retribution may exist, logistic regression establishes that curbs limit escalation beyond an initial exchange sequence during games. Aspects of the dyadic relationship between a pitcher and his teammate enhance the intention to take vicarious retribution but relationships with the opposing batter exert a countervailing force against aggression. Our findings yield insights about the origin and evolution of intergroup conflicts with implications for theories of conflict and for organizational practice. Keywords: conflict, retribution, relationships
... Nevertheless, future research should optimally examine the role of shoppers' own gender and the gender composition of each customer-employee dyad to get a better understanding of different gender (in) congruency effects. Whereas similarity-attraction and homophily theories postulate more favorable consumer responses in male-male and female-female dyads (Byrne, 1997;McPherson et al., 2001;Montoya and Horton, 2013), sexual selection theory rather implies the reverse and hence seems to favor opposite-sex over same-sex dyads (Anderson and Simmons, 2006;Miller, 2011), at least in certain consumption contexts (Griskevicius et al., 2007;Hill and Durante, 2011;Otterbring, 2018;Prendergast et al., 2014). ...
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This field study examined how customer-employee interactions are affected by the congruency between an employee’s gender and the perceived gender image of the consumption context in one of the most gender equal cultures in the world (Scandinavia). Mystery shoppers had a service encounter with an employee across a set of physical commercial settings that were classified according to their gender image. The mystery shoppers noted the gender of the employee, provided employee evaluations, and indicated word-of-mouth (WOM) ratings. Shoppers who had a gender congruent service encounter (e.g., a female employee in a “feminine” consumption context) reported more favorable employee evaluations and WOM ratings than shoppers who had a gender incongruent service encounter (e.g., a female employee in a “masculine” consumption context), with the impact of gender congruency on WOM ratings mediated by employee evaluations, particularly with respect to competence inferences. These findings highlight the ethical dilemma of a positive gender congruency effect, as it can generate superior consumer responses but also risks resulting in gender occupational segregation.
... Since the pioneering work of Byrne [52] (for a review of attraction as a research paradigm, see [53]), researchers have investigated interpersonal attraction in relationships [54]. Researchers widely accept Newcomb's definition of attraction as the most comprehensive one, and it is defined as follows: "Attraction refers to any direction orientation (on the part of one person toward another) which may be described in terms of sign and intensity" (Page 6) [55]. ...
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With the prevalence of virtual avatars and the recent emergence of metaverse technology, there has been an increase in users who express their identity through an avatar. The research community focused on improving the realistic expressions and non-verbal communication channels of virtual characters to create a more customized experience. However, there is a lack in the understanding of how avatars can embody a user's signature expressions (i.e., user's habitual facial expressions and facial appearance) that would provide an individualized experience. Our study focused on identifying elements that may affect the user's social perception (similarity, familiarity, attraction, liking, and involvement) of customized virtual avatars engineered considering the user's facial characteristics. We evaluated the participant's subjective appraisal of avatars that embodied the participant's habitual facial expressions or facial appearance. Results indicated that participants felt that the avatar that embodied their habitual expressions was more similar to them than the avatar that did not. Furthermore, participants felt that the avatar that embodied their appearance was more familiar than the avatar that did not. Designers should be mindful about how people perceive individuated virtual avatars in order to accurately represent the user's identity and help users relate to their avatar.
... Similarly, victims of natural disasters elicit more donations than victims of man-made calamities, who are more likely to be blamed for their plight (Zagefka, et al., 2011). Prospective donors are more attentive to the needs of others who are similar to them (Byrne, 1997), or to members of their own in-group (e.g., Dovidio et al., 1997;Levine & Thompson, 2004), or to causes that trigger their own personal fears or anxieties (Kogut & Ritov, 2011). Finally, Gneezy, Keenan, and Gneezy (2014) found that organizations with lower overhead costs raise more money than those with higher costs (see also Sargeant & Woodliffe, 2007b). ...
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The success of non-profit organizations depends mainly on the strategies they use to recruit new donors. One common strategy is to solicit donations upfront (mostly online)—but is this indeed an effective approach? We conducted three experiments (Ntotal = 1287), in which we compared an upfront appeal of that sort with one that offered prospective donors the opportunity to express their opinion about a given fundraising campaign—and then asked if they cared to donate to it. Drawing on foot-in-the-door and escalation of commitment theories, we found that soliciting an opinion (as opposed to a donation) led to greater engagement with the charity among prospective donors, as reflected by their greater willingness to read about the cause. This, in turn, encouraged them to donate. In experiment 1, we showed that the direct effect of request type on donations was mediated by the donors’ willingness to learn about the charity. In experiment 2, we showed that pairing an appeal for an opinion with a donation request was more effective than merely appealing for a donation. Finally, in experiment 3, we found that the more donors learn about a given cause, the stronger their emotional response to it, and the greater their donations to it. Further, we showed that soliciting an opinion (as opposed to a donation) made donors feel a greater connection with the organization. In sum, we propose a simple and cost-effective intervention that may help non-profit businesses become more effective.
... Pitchers exercise discretion in targeting members of the opposition. Research on the similarity-attraction hypothesis (Byrne, 1997) and on homophily (Marsden, 1988) predicts that trust and friendship ties form most readily with others who are alike in psychological, physical, and social characteristics. These principles also predicted target selection for vicarious retribution in our sample of games. ...
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Acts of negative reciprocity can generate destructive sequences of reprisal. In baseball, hitting a batter with a pitch generally represents a vicarious form of retribution on behalf of a teammate. To understand a practice prone to escalation, we examine how dyadic relationships and team characteristics influence punitive aggression during games. Constructing a suite of indicator variables with data from two decades of play enabled us to track the shifting state of relational accounting between opposing teams. Even though motives to engage in further retribution may exist, logistic regression establishes that curbs limit escalation beyond an initial exchange sequence during games. Aspects of the dyadic relationship between a pitcher and his teammate enhance the intention to take vicarious retribution but relationships with the opposing batter exert a countervailing force against aggression. Our findings yield insights about the origin and evolution of intergroup conflicts with implications for theories of conflict and for organizational practice. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... According to fit theory, it is rewarding and thus desirable if a person and its environment match (Kristof, 1996;Kristof-Brown and Guay, 2011). The similarity-attraction paradigm explains this mechanism by suggesting that individuals appreciate an environment similar to their selves and that this similarity predicts attraction (Byrne, 1971(Byrne, , 1997 because "individuals favor stimuli that reinforce the logic and consistency of their world" (Montoya et al., 2008). Thus, the more job seekers perceive an organization to be similar to their characteristics, the more attractive they perceive the organization as a potential employer. ...
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Organizations may need to attract occupational groups they did not recruit so far to implement strategic changes (e.g., digital transformation). Against the backdrop of this practical problem, this study introduces and explores an occupation-based measure of person-organization fit: occupational fit. I investigate its relationship with employer attractiveness based on human capital theory and explore the role of employer image as a moderator in this relationship. I surveyed 153 software engineers and mechanical engineers to analyze whether their occupational fit with software engineering and mechanical engineering firms is related to employer attractiveness. I find that occupational fit is only related to a firm’s employer attractiveness among software engineers. Employer image does not moderate this relationship. A qualitative follow-up study proposes first explanations for the unexpected differences between the two occupations by indicating that occupations may differ in the logic they apply to determine fit and their degree of professionalization. The study contributes to research by highlighting the neglected role of occupation in recruitment research and exploring potential boundary conditions of recruitment for fit. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
... Studies utilising the theoretical framework of similarity-attraction have focused on understanding the role of personality and similarity of attitudes, to explain why people are attracted to others e.g. (Byrne, 1997). Those that extend this theory include Darr and Kurtzberg (2000) who examine the role of partner similarity and knowledge transfer, Klein et al. (2004) who investigate team work effectiveness and Deverdorf and Highouse (2008) who examine E u r o p e a n J o u r n a l o f M a r k e t i n g 3 employee-employer fit. ...
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Purpose The purpose of this study is twofold: first to demonstrate the application of an algorithm using contextual data to ascertain consumer personality traits; and second to explore the factors impacting the relationship between personality traits and advertisement persuasiveness. Design/methodology/approach A mixed method approach that comprises two distinct yet complimentary studies. The first employs quantitative methods and is based on a sample of 35,264 retail banking customers. Study 2 explores the findings that emerge from Study 1 using qualitative methods. Findings We find that matching consumer personality with congruent advertising messages can lead to more effective consumer persuasion for most personality types. For consumers who exhibit neurotic personality traits, ameliorating perceived risks during purchasing, and providing cues for social acceptance and goal attainment, are important factors for advertising effectiveness. These factors also had a positive impact on the purchasing behaviour of extroverted consumers. Originality Building on advances in natural language processing, enabling the identification of personality from language, this study demonstrates the possibility of influencing consumer behaviour by matching machine inferred personality to congruent persuasive advertising. It is one of the few studies to use contextual instead of social media data to capture individual personality. Such data serves to capture an authentic rather than contrived persona. Further, the study identifies the factors that may moderate this relationship, and thereby provides an explanation of why some personality traits exhibit differences in purchasing behaviour from those that are anticipated by existing theory.
... Nevertheless, perceived credibility mediates the relationship between self-congruence and purchase intention (Zogaj et al., 2021). Based on similarity-attraction theory (Byrne, 1997), individuals are more likely to take recommendations from SMIs similar to them, especially in terms of attitudes, values, preferences, and attractiveness. This theory explains why self-congruence is essential for influencing purchase intentions, given that it positively affects individuals' perceived trustworthiness towards people they perceive as similar to them (Zogaj et al., 2021). ...
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Designing theory-driven social recommender systems (SRSs) has been a significant research challenge for over a decade. This study aims to identify behavioural factors that could improve the persuasiveness and quality of recommendations made by SRSs. Given both research streams’ striking similarity, it uses the recent yet rich research on social media influencers (SMI) to inform SRS research. Drawing on 72 publications, we classified 52 independent variables into 12 categories regrouped into three broad categories that characterise the relationships between the consumer and the (i) recommender system, (ii) product or brand, and (iii) and advert. The metanalysis results determined the relative importance of each category in predicting purchase intentions, placing recommender credibility and attitude towards the recommended product or brand at the top of the charts. Our findings are expected to facilitate more refined theory-building efforts and theory-driven designs in SRS research and practice.
... Recrui-ter_innen unterliegen, wie alle Menschen, einer kulturellen Sozialisierung (Pettigrew, 2016;Tajfel & Turner, 1986) und können sich nicht ohne weiteres Einflüssen durch kulturell bedingtes, ihnen fremdes Verhalten entziehen (Parsons & Liden, 1984;Roulin et al., 2014). Zudem lässt sich nicht ausschließen, dass Recruiter_innen voreingenommen oder vorurteilsbelastet sind (Byrne, 1997;Derous, 2017). Auch bestimmte Stereotype können Vorurteile aktivieren (Phills et al., 2020). ...
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Zusammenfassung: Bisherige Forschungen zu interkulturellen Job-Interviews fokussieren vorwiegend die Sicht der Bewerbenden und im-plizieren eine Benachteiligung kulturferner Bewerber_innen, möglich wäre jedoch auch, dass diese Bewerber_innen Kriterien nicht erfüllen. In der vorliegenden Studie wurden Kurzgutachten und numerischen Beurteilungen von N = 287 Bewerbungsinterviews regionaler Flugbe-gleiter_innen qualitativ und quantitativ untersucht. Eine Besonderheit lag darin, dass sich die Bewerber_innen in ihrem jeweiligen Heimat-land (China, Indien, Deutschland) bei einer deutschen Fluggesellschaft auf die gleiche Stelle beworben haben. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass Recruiter_innen zwar meistens in der Lage sind, ihre spontanen Reaktionen zu reflektieren, dass bei ihnen aber in einigen Fällen Stereotype wirksam werden. Dies und fehlende kulturspezifische Verhaltensanker können für die deutlich höhere Ablehnungquote chinesischer Be-werber_innen mit verantwortlich sein. To date, research regarding intercultural job interviews has mainly focused on the applicant's perspective, suggesting a disadvantage for applicants from more distanced cultural backgrounds. However, it is also possible that these applicants fail to meet certain recruiting criteria. This study examines short candidate reports and numerical evaluations of N = 287 recruiting interviews of regional flight attendants qualitatively and quantitatively. A peculiarity of this setup was that applicants applied from their home country (China, India, and Germany) to the same position of this German airline. The results indicate that recruiters are largely able to reflect on their spontaneous reactions but likely also harbor some stereotypes. This and the absence of more culture-specific behavior anchors might be responsible for the higher rejection rate of Chinese applicants.
... For example, we mentioned above that similarity-attraction might be a key mechanism in cybervetting. While only political affiliation has been tested so far Wade et al., 2020), this bias might also be triggered by, e.g., personality, values, and preferences (Byrne, 1997;Van Hoye & Turban, 2015). CYBERVETTING VALIDITY: TOO EARLY TOO CALL 9 Likewise, demographic similarity biases (age, race, gender) have remained unaddressed. ...
... In this line, many theories were related to diversity management in order to explain its importance and necessity within organizations, such as, for example, the social identity theory [24], explaining that individuals usually classify their perceptions according to the social groups and based on some common attributes; similarity-attraction theory [25], highlighting that individuals are willing to be closer to those who share similar attributes and attitudes and put themselves in challenging situations with those who dispose different attitudes, values, and experiences; and finally, the social exchange theory [26], reporting the importance of the mutual exchange that grants social stability. Therefore, a safe environment could be created when effective diversity management is implemented within the organizations where people are willing to engage and commit. ...
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Abstract: The frequent world changes raised by globalization, new technology development, and the increase in migration movements have generated an immensely diversified workforce. To face these challenges, managers started to seek the best strategies to effectively run this mixed environment and implement the leading diversity management policies for human resource management sustainability, which is also considered as very constructive in boosting employees’ performance, motivation, satisfaction, as well as their work engagement. Consistently, this paper examines the impact of service companies’ diversity management systems on employees’ en-gagement and the moderating role of organizational trust and job insecurity in that relationship. As we opted for a quantitative study, we managed a survey based on a questionnaire dedicated to 580 employees working in Hungarian companies, specializing in Marketing, Management con-sulting, IT, and logistics services, to effectively assess the hypothesis concluded from the literature review. With the use of structural equation modeling (SEM) as a data analysis tool, our findings reveal that diversity management has a positive significant effect on Employees’ engagement and that organizational trust and job insecurity truly and significantly mediate that association. Along with social exchange theory, our research contributes to affirming that by implementing proper diversity management practices and by ensuring a trustworthy environment and outstanding work conditions, managers are constructively able to assist their employees, raise their involvement, and minimize the level of job insecurities.
... Similarity appears to be a major factor in person-to-person attraction. According to Byrne (1997), the effect of similarity-attraction among individuals is one of the most robust phenomena within the field of social psychology, and demographic similarity is one aspect of it (Tsui & O'Reilly, 1989). Although to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the role of age demographics as depicted by organizations as visual cues, race and gender demographics have been previously researched. ...
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Argentina declared independence from Spain on July 9th, 1816 (Latin American Wars of Independence). From its creation Argentina has been shaped by immigration, political turmoil, and economic uncertainty. Despite its many challenges this country, rich in Spanish and Italian culture, has been slowly establishing itself in the world. Despite the recession experienced by Argentina in 2001, for the five years, its real GDP grew at an annual rate of approximately nine percent, with lower unemployment rate, and higher purchasing power parity of $558 billion. This paper aims to provide an overall insight to Argentina’s background from the administration of the Federalists and Unitarians, to Peronist populism that impacted on the culture and government of Argentina. A series of literature survey conducted in this paper discusses issues on Argentina’s human rights, freedoms, and ethics, its culture distance, foreign trade background, political economy, and financial/global markets. The descriptive analysis will in turn provide the information that one needs to begin a business relationship with Argentina and the many reasons why this interesting country could be viewed as an up and coming economic power (Argentina: the Challenges of Modernization).
... Interestingly, the client's age and gender or potential interaction between the client and MHP's age and gender have received no attention in relation to the impact of client suicide. Similarity-attraction theory supposes that individuals tend to like and connect to other individuals who are more similar to themselves (Byrne, 1997). As such, this theory would allow one to expect that characteristic-matching, for instance, a female MHP and female client, would influence the impact following client suicide. ...
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Objective: Previous research has revealed that mental health professionals (MHPs) often experience severe, yet varying, levels of short-term impact in the aftermath of client suicide. Individual differences are significant, yet what factors help explain these differences remains unclear. The current study investigated the role of the MHPs’ and the clients’ age and gender upon the impact of client suicide. Method: An international sample of 213 MHPs, aged between 18 and 75, reported on a client’s suicide and its short-term impact (IES-R). Results: The results indicate that both MHPs’ and clients’ gender did not affect impact. MHPs’ and clients’ age did not affect impact individually, although a significant interaction effect was revealed. Conclusion: Age, not gender, of the MHP and client are relevant in light of the impact of client suicide. Potential implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
... IPA is fundamentally important to interpersonal relationship development (Byrne, 1971(Byrne, , 1997), yet it rarely receives attention in services marketing, with a few exceptions pertaining to buyer-seller relationships (Dwyer et al., 1987;Ellegaard, 2012) or selling (Crosby et al., 1990). Thus, we seek a more nuanced sense of how CP influences CCB, through the development of IPA, and the boundary conditions for this mediating effect. ...
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This paper addresses the lack of clarity on the linkage between customer participation (CP) and customer citizenship behavior (CCB) by using reinforcement theory to investigate the mediating role of interpersonal attraction (IPA) and the moderating effect of three types of reinforcers (people, task, and environment) in the impact of CP on CCB. Dyadic data from a field survey of both customers and designers from an interior design institute confirms the mediating role of IPA, particularly under high level of shared similarity between customers and employees, and when the task outcomes are better than expected. Moreover, the effect of IPA on CCB is stronger when customers perceive the organizational climate as highly customer-oriented. Besides extending the CP and CCB literature by exploring the impact of IPA on CCB with CP as a mediator and several reinforcers as moderator, this paper also suggests how service firms may influence their customers' citizenship behaviors.
... Schelling's results also apply to the structure of networks; namely, segregated networks always emerge even if the users are assumed to have only a small aversion from being connected to others who are dissimilar to themselves, and yet no actor strictly prefers a segregated network [111]. The power of aversion is often amplified by homophily, a tendency for people to have ties with people who are similar to themselves [41]. For example, [24] develops and tests empirical models of how social networks evolve over time; particularly, how people in a social network choose links on the basis of their own attributes, and how individual attributes are in turn shaped by network structure. ...
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This survey draws a broad-stroke, panoramic picture of the State of the Art (SoTA) of the research in generative methods for the analysis of social media data. It fills a void, as the existing survey articles are either much narrower in their scope or are dated. We included two important aspects that currently gain importance in mining and modeling social media: dynamics and networks. Social dynamics are important for understanding the spreading of influence or diseases, formation of friendships, the productivity of teams, etc. Networks, on the other hand, may capture various complex relationships providing additional insight and identifying important patterns that would otherwise go unnoticed.
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Grounded in sensitive interaction systems theory, this study examined whether communication competence, emerging adults’ gender, conversation initiation, and stressor appraisal moderated the association between received parental support and emerging adults’ relational satisfaction with parents when discussing a stressor. A cross-sectional, online survey (n = 338, Mage = 20.82, female: n = 190, 56.2%, males: n = 148, 45.8%) was conducted. Results indicated communication competence, more so than parental support, affected relational satisfaction but only under particular conditions. The first condition was when emerging adults initiated the stressor conversation and had lower communication competence. The second condition was when they had similar levels of communication competence as their parent and appraised the stressor as an individual stressor.
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This study investigates the role and effectiveness of political chatbots’ anthropomorphism in influencing voting intentions. Our findings reveal that participants show higher voting intention when they were exposed to the political chatbot with higher (vs. lower) levels of anthropomorphic visual cues. This research also investigated two moderators underlying this relationship: message type (factual vs. emotional message) and message interactivity (high vs. low interactivity). We found that compared to the less anthropomorphized political chatbot, participants’ voting intention was enhanced when the highly anthropomorphic chatbot delivered emotional (vs. factual) messages. In terms of message interactivity, the participants exhibited higher voting intentions when the political chatbot had lower levels of anthropomorphism and higher (lower) message interactivity. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
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The loss of followers poses a severe threat to the development of microblogging platforms and bloggers. However, the reasons behind users’ unfollowing behavior remain unclear. Drawing on the person-environment fit framework, we examined how different types of person-environment misfits affect users’ unfollowing intention and the relationship between these misfits. We collected the data to test the research model from 305 Weibo users via an online survey. The results suggest that from the perspective of complementary misfit, information overload increases social media fatigue, and information irrelevance increases followers’ expectation disconfirmation. From the perspective of supplementary misfit, perceived value dissimilarity positively affects followers’ fatigue and disconfirmation. These negative psychological states consequently lead to followers’ unfollowing intention. Furthermore, our results revealed the positive effects of perceived value dissimilarity on information overload and information irrelevance. We also discuss the theoretical contributions and practical implications of this study.
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We employed the Attraction-Selection-Attribution perspective to examine the effect of gender on crowdfunding. Based on the gender of both project founders and backers, we identified two types of fit, superficial and characteristic. Further, based on characteristic fit, we developed a typology of crowdfunding attractions. We then hypothesized that both superficial and characteristic fits can lead to crowdfunding success. We collected and analyzed data to demonstrate how different characteristics may be important to each attraction. Our findings suggest that similarity is positively related to funding intention for all crowdfunding founders. Male crowdfunding founders should demonstrate their credibility (trustworthiness and expertise) in front of their backers. Female crowdfunding founders should focus on their physical attractiveness, friendliness and warmth to attract more funding from their backers.
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Research on close relationships has tended to focus on the dyad (e.g., friends, romantic partners, rivals). Less attention has been paid to the myriad third parties who impact our social lives through their own relationships with our dyadic partners. What drives our feelings toward such third parties? A classic formalist theory, Balance Theory, suggests we like third parties who share our feelings toward our existing partners (and dislike those who do not) because of affective balance. Here, we propose a new embedded dyad framework which foregrounds the substantive indirect effects that third parties can have on our outcomes through their relationships with our partners. Consistent with the embedded dyad framework, we find that people like third parties who share our hatred for our rivals and our love for our friends (as predicted by both views); but we dislike those who share our love for our spouses (countering Balance Theory). Further supporting predictions uniquely derived from an embedded dyad framework, (a) greater perceived exclusivity in positive dyadic relationships (e.g., friendships) drives dislike toward third parties who share our love for our positive partners; (b) greater perceived welfare suppression by our negative partners (e.g., rivals) drives liking toward third parties who share our hatred of our negative partners. This framework thus critically extends cognitive consistency views by emphasizing the real costs and benefits of navigating dyadic relationships within larger social networks.
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Durch den demographischen Wandel und den damit verbundenen Fachkräftemangel stehen für Unternehmen immer weniger qualifizierte Fachkräfte zur Verfügung. Um in diesem sogenannten "War for Talents" wettbewerbsfähig zu bleiben, müssen Arbeitgebende für ihre Zielgruppe als attraktiv wahrgenommen werden. Dafür setzen immer mehr Unternehmen darauf, ihre Werte deutlich zu kommunizieren, um so eine starke, emotionalisierte Marke als Arbeitgebende aufzubauen. Denn: Nach der Theorie des "Person-Organization-Fit" bevorzugen Mitarbeitende Unternehmen als Arbeitgebende, die ähnliche Werteidentitäten aufweisen. Neben diesen Entwicklungen fordern immer mehr Konsument:innen, aber auch Mitarbeitende, dass Unternehmen und Arbeitgebende Haltung zeigen und Verantwortung für Gesellschaft und Umwelt übernehmen, zum Beispiel in Form von Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Insbesondere Angehörige der Generationen Y und Z (zwischen 1980 und 2010 Geborene) wünschen sich eine emotionale Bindung und übereinstimmende Werte zu bzw. mit ihren Arbeitgebenden. Als informierte Generationen erwarten sie mehr als andere eine deutliche Positionierung von Unternehmen zu aktuellen Missständen: Ethisches Verhalten ist wichtiger als Gehalt und Glück schlägt Geld. Ein Lösungsansatz, dem Fachkräftemangel und dieser Forderung zu begegnen, könnte dabei die Anwendung und Integration von Brand Activism sein, indem es der Steigerung der Arbeitgebendenattraktivität dient und Arbeitgebende die Rolle als "Agents of Change" einnehmen. Mit den Unternehmenswerten als Treiber umfasst Brand Activism sowohl die Kommunikation als auch spezifische aktivistische Handlungen, meist in Form von Kampagnen, die die eigene Haltung verdeutlichen. In diesem Zusammenhang untersucht die vorliegende Experimentalstudie, inwiefern Brand Activism die wahrgenommene Arbeitgebendenattraktivität bei den Generationen Y und Z, insbesondere im Vergleich zu CSR, beeinflusst. Zudem wurde der moderierende Einfluss von bestimmten Persönlichkeitseigenschaften und Wertvorstellungen auf den Effekt von Brand Activism auf die Attraktivität von Arbeitgebenden untersucht. Die Ergebnisse der quantitativen Online-Befragung mit drei Experimentalgruppen zeigten, dass Brand Activism einen signifikant positiven Einfluss auf die wahrgenommene Arbeitgebendenattraktivität bei den Generationen Y und Z hat; im Detail auf den Innovations-, Entwicklungs- und Transferwert sowie auf einen Teil des ökonomischen Wertes und die Absichten gegenüber dem Unternehmen. Die untersuchten Persönlichkeitsmerkmale (Ausprägung der prosozialen Persönlichkeit und Communion) sowie Wertevorstellungen (Selbst-Überwindung) verstärken diesen Effekt von Brand Activism dabei nicht. Hierbei wurde lediglich in Zusammenhang mit dem sozialen Wert der Marke eine disordinale Wechselwirkung zwischen der Manipulation von Brand Activism und der Ausprägung der prosozialen Persönlichkeit aufgedeckt, die sich jedoch ausschließlich auf Personen mit geringer prosozialer Persönlichkeit in Verbindung mit der Beurteilung des sozialen Wertes der CSR-Marke bezieht und nicht pauschalisiert werden kann.
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Despite humanoid service robots having attracted considerable research attention, it remains unclear how consumers respond to some specific human characteristics of robots. Drawing from theories on social categorization and identification, we study the role of consumer perceived control as a psychological mechanism to explain how human-robot gender congruity alters consumers’ affective reactions (feelings of comfort in the service encounter and service brand attitudes). We also consider that such gender congruity effects may be contingent on the individual cultural value of masculinity. We demonstrate experimentally that human-robot gender congruity (vs. incongruity) elicits more positive affect, while masculinity moderates some of these effects. Moreover, perceived control mediates effects of gender congruity on affective reactions only for consumers high on masculinity. We offer three major theoretical contributions as we 1) focus on social identity theory to shed light on how human-robot gender congruity affects consumer behavior in service encounters, 2) demonstrate the role of perceptions of control as a psychological process variable to explain these effects, and 3) provide insights into the role of the cultural value of masculinity as a factor that shapes human-robot gender congruity effects.
Purpose This study aims to investigate the influence of supervisor incivility on employees’ general self-efficacy and engagement and their mediating roles in a relationship between supervisor incivility and employees’ service delivery. The study also explores how gender (dis)similarities between supervisors and subordinates affect these relationships. Design/methodology/approach A total of 276 frontline hotel employees in the US Midwest participated in the study. The research model was examined through a two-step structural equation modeling. Findings The study findings suggest that an uncivil supervisor negatively influences hotel employees’ self-efficacy and engagement level, which served as underlying mechanisms connecting supervisor incivility with reduced service delivery. The findings did not support the moderating role of gender (dis)similarity. Practical implications The results of the current study should urge organizations to acknowledge the detrimental impact of workplace incivility and to commit to the prevention and termination of employee mistreatment. Organizations make efforts to ensure that supervisors serve their internal customers with support and gratitude and help enhance employees’ psychological resources. Originality/value The current study advanced the body of literature by suggesting an integral psychological underlying mechanism linking uncivil treatment and declined performance in the hospitality industry.
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Purpose This paper aims to examine whether brands derive their personalities from their culture of origin, the stereotypes about their cultures of their origin or the cultures of their buyers. It also examines which of a culture’s personality traits are more transmittable to brand personalities (BPs), as well as the consequences of the BP resemblance to the personalities of the brand’s culture of origin and consumers’ culture on BP’s clarity and consumer attachment to the brand. Design/methodology/approach Hypotheses were developed and tested on survey data from a sample figure of 1,116 US consumers of luxury brands on 23 luxury brands originating from France, the USA, Britain, Italy and Germany. Trait by trait and personality profile analyses were performed using hierarchical model analysis (linear mixed effects models) and Cattell’s (1969) pattern similarity coefficient. Findings The culture of a brand’s origin accounts for differences of different brands personalities. The personality profiles of a country’s brands are distinct from the BP profiles of brands from other countries. The conscientiousness trait of a culture is the most transmittable to BPs. BPs derive their characteristics from stereotypes of a culture’s personality than the actual personality of the culture. The assimilation of a brand’s personality to consumer’s culture is not supported. The similarity of a BP to both real and stereotypical personality of the culture of the brand’s origin enhance perceived clarity of the BP. Research limitations/implications The study’s focus is limited to established luxury brands coming from countries that are the traditional producers of luxuries. Empirical evidence also comes only from American consumers of luxury brands. New luxury brands from countries that have recently emerged as luxury producers need to be included. Practical implications Brands retain a significant space to differentiate their personalities beyond the influence of their culture of origin on BPs. With the exception of conscientiousness, personality traits of culture are not automatically inherited or transmitted to the brands. Cultural stereotypes find their way into BPs easier than real personality traits and managers should focus on them. BP matching with the personality of a culture is a good way for managers to increase the perceived clarity of their brands’ personality. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to examine the culture’s influence on BP using a compatible to the BP construct cultural framework, McCrae and Terracciano’s (2005a) personality of a culture framework. Three cultural meaning transfer processes are examined (cultural inheritance, cultural stereotyping and acculturation to the consumer’s culture) within the same study from a trait-by-trait and a configurational (i.e. personality profile) perspective. The consequences of BP similarity to the brand’s culture of origin as well as consumer’s culture on the BP’s appeal are also assessed.
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Attraction toward a stranger is a positive linear function of the proportion of his responses to an attitude scale which are similar to those of the S. Though various Es have utilized different stimulus modes for presenting the stranger, the effects of such stimulus differences have not been systematically compared nor has the linear function been demonstrated to be generalized across conditions. Ss were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental conditions in which a stranger was either depicted in a sound 8 mm color movie, recorded on tape, or represented by responses on a mimeographed attitude scale. After learning 12 of the stranger's opinions, Ss were asked to evaluate him. In all 3 stimulus modes, attraction was found to be a function of proportion of similar attitudes, with no significant differences attributable to conditions. A straight-line function was fitted to the data, yielding the formula Y = 6.74X + 5.06. This finding adds to the generality of the attitude-attraction relationship and also provides a methodological improvement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The theory of social comparison processes suggests that individuals are attracted to each other on the basis of similarity in opinions, abilities, and emotional state. Generalizing further, attraction was hypothesized to be a function of similarity-dissimilarity in economic status. 84 Ss were divided into high and low economic status on the basis of their responses to items dealing with spending money. 3 experimental conditions were devised in which Ss evaluated a stranger on the basis of his or her responses to the economic and some attitudinal items. In 1 condition, low-status Ss responded to a high-status stranger; in a 2nd condition, high-status Ss responded to a low-status stranger; and in a 3rd condition, high- and low-status Ss responded to strangers similar to themselves. As hypothesized, attraction was significantly (p < .001) affected by similarity-dissimilarity of economic status. It was found that the specific responses of Ss could be predicted on the basis of a law of attraction formula derived in earlier work on attitude similarity-dissimilarity. An attempt was made to account for the findings in reinforcement terms. (33 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Three studies, involving 146 undergraduates and 68 heterosexual couples, assessed the construct validity of the self- and other-model dimensions underlying the 4-category model of adult attachment. Five methods were used to assess the hypothesized dimensions: self-reports, friend-reports, romantic partner reports, trained judges' ratings of peer attachment, and trained judges' ratings of family attachment. Study 2 related the latent attachment dimensions to theoretically relevant outcome latent variables. As predicted, Ss' self models converged with direct measures of the positivity of their self-concepts, and Ss' other models converged with direct measures of the positivity of their interpersonal orientations. Study 3 related the latent attachment dimensions to 3 alternate self-report measures of adult attachment and showed that the 2 dimensions served as an organizing framework for the different measurement approaches. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Hypothesized that females respond more negatively than males to side-by-side invasions of personal space, while males respond more negatively than females to face-to-face invasions. In an experimental field study, 62 male and 63 female university students were "invaded" by a male or female confederate in 1 of 3 spatial positions. Regardless of the invader's sex, a consistent pattern of interactions was observed such that affect, attraction, environmental perceptions, and attributions of intent were negative for males when a stranger sat across from them and negative for females when a stranger sat adjacent to them. In an observational field study of 66 university students, solitary males in a library were observed to erect barriers against face-to-face invasions, and females were found to erect barriers against adjacent invasions. (29 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Thirteen previously unacquainted males lived together for ten days under simulated fall-out shelter conditions. Subjects' attitudes regarding 44 issues were assessed one day prior to the beginning of confinement and positive and negative sociometric choices were assessed at the end of the first, fifth, and ninth days of confinement. Attraction to other group members, as assessed by sociometric choices, was significantly and positively related to two indices of attitude similarity on each of the three assessment days. Relevant to critics' comments regarding laboratory based findings, attraction and preacquaintance attitude similarity were shown to be significantly related when (a) similarity and dissimilarity are not explicity communicated to Ss by the experimental procedures and (b) previously unacquainted Ss interact freely over an extended period of time.
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In brief reply to Staats, it is suggested that separatism is in the eye of the beholder, integration is not normally obtained on demand, and parallelism within an identifiable research tradition is to be expected.
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A basic principle of attachment theory is that early attachment relationships with caregivers provide the prototype for later social relations. Working within an attachment framework, a new 4-group model of characteristic attachment styles in adulthood is proposed. In particular, two forms of adult avoidance of intimacy are differentiated: a fearful style that is characterized by a conscious desire for social contact which is inhibited by fears of its consequences, and a dismissing style that is characterized by a defensive denial of the need or desire for greater social contact. This distinction corresponds to two differing models of the self: people who fearfully avoid intimacy view themselves as undeserving of the love and support of others, and people who dismiss intimacy possess a positive model of the self that minimizes the subjective awareness of distress or social needs. The emotional and interpersonal ramifications of the two proposed styles of adult avoidance are discussed.
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Although it has generally been assumed that most instances of coercive sexual acts involve male coercion against female targets, recent data (appearing in the literature beginning in the late 1980s) suggest that the reverse experience is also common. In the present investigation, the Ross and Allgeier Sexual Experience Questionnaire was administered to 214 university students (113 women and 101 men) who reported past interactions in which they engaged in sexual coercion, were the targets of such coercion, both, or neither. The findings (p
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• As the title suggests, this book examines the psychology of interpersonal relations. In the context of this book, the term "interpersonal relations" denotes relations between a few, usually between two, people. How one person thinks and feels about another person, how he perceives him and what he does to him, what he expects him to do or think, how he reacts to the actions of the other--these are some of the phenomena that will be treated. Our concern will be with "surface" matters, the events that occur in everyday life on a conscious level, rather than with the unconscious processes studied by psychoanalysis in "depth" psychology. These intuitively understood and "obvious" human relations can, as we shall see, be just as challenging and psychologically significant as the deeper and stranger phenomena. The discussion will center on the person as the basic unit to be investigated. That is to say, the two-person group and its properties as a superindividual unit will not be the focus of attention. Of course, in dealing with the person as a member of a dyad, he cannot be described as a lone subject in an impersonal environment, but must be represented as standing in relation to and interacting with another person. The chapter topics included in this book include: Perceiving the Other Person; The Other Person as Perceiver; The Naive Analysis of Action; Desire and Pleasure; Environmental Effects; Sentiment; Ought and Value; Request and Command; Benefit and Harm; and Reaction to the Lot of the Other Person. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved) • As the title suggests, this book examines the psychology of interpersonal relations. In the context of this book, the term "interpersonal relations" denotes relations between a few, usually between two, people. How one person thinks and feels about another person, how he perceives him and what he does to him, what he expects him to do or think, how he reacts to the actions of the other--these are some of the phenomena that will be treated. Our concern will be with "surface" matters, the events that occur in everyday life on a conscious level, rather than with the unconscious processes studied by psychoanalysis in "depth" psychology. These intuitively understood and "obvious" human relations can, as we shall see, be just as challenging and psychologically significant as the deeper and stranger phenomena. The discussion will center on the person as the basic unit to be investigated. That is to say, the two-person group and its properties as a superindividual unit will not be the focus of attention. Of course, in dealing with the person as a member of a dyad, he cannot be described as a lone subject in an impersonal environment, but must be represented as standing in relation to and interacting with another person. The chapter topics included in this book include: Perceiving the Other Person; The Other Person as Perceiver; The Naive Analysis of Action; Desire and Pleasure; Environmental Effects; Sentiment; Ought and Value; Request and Command; Benefit and Harm; and Reaction to the Lot of the Other Person. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
IN INVESTIGATIONS EMPLOYING COLLEGE UNDERGRADUATES AS SS, A STABLE FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIP HAS BEEN FOUND BETWEEN THE PROPORTION OF SIMILAR ATTITUDES HELD BY A STRANGER AND ATTRACTION TOWARD THAT STRANGER. SPECIFICALLY, A POSITIVE LINEAR RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ATTRACTION AS MEASURED BY THE INTERPERSONAL JUDGMENT SCALE AND PROPORTION OF SIMILAR ATTITUDES HAS OFTEN BEEN REPORTED. IN THE PRESENT INVESTIGATION, THE GENERALITY OF THIS EMPIRICAL LAW OF ATTRACTION WAS EXTENDED BY EMPLOYING 272 STUDENTS IN GRADES 4-12. EACH S RESPONDED TO AN ATTITUDE SCALE, EXAMINED A SCALE PURPORTEDLY FILLED OUT BY ANOTHER STUDENT, AND THEN INDICATED HIS ATTRACTION TOWARD THIS STRANGER. AT EACH AGE LEVEL, AS PROPORTION OF SIMILAR ATTITUDES INCREASED, ATTRACTION INCREASED SIGNIFICANTLY (P < .001). PRECISELY THE SAME LINEAR FUNCTION ESTABLISHED WITH COLLEGE STUDENTS WAS FOUND AT EACH AGE LEVEL. THE REINFORCING EFFECTS OF CONSENSUAL VALIDATION APPARENTLY ARE OPERATIVE AT LEAST BY AGE 9. (19 REF.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In a 2 X 2 design, Ss were led to believe that a person with whom they had interacted either liked or disliked them and that his attitudes on several issues were either similar or dissimilar to the Ss' own attitudes. The results indicate that "liking" has a significant effect upon the S's feelings for the other person—regardless of attitude similarity or dissimilarity. The results are discussed in terms of a possible alternative explanation for the bulk of the data showing a positive relationship between attitude similarity and interpersonal attraction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Reviews research on the attitude similarity-attraction relationship and argues that the generally accepted view of attitude similarity as attractive is untenable. Attitude similarity is associated with attraction in some circumstances, but there is no justification for the strong belief that attitude similarity creates attraction. Studies of several relationship types (e.g., romantic and spousal, friendship, and roommate relationships) provide little evidence for this myth. Attitude dissimilarity may cause repulsion when attitudes are discovered during pre-acquaintance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Attraction may be conceptualized as a form of information processing in which attraction at any point in the informational sequence varies as a function of the proportion of similar attitudes in the preceding series. In Exp. I, 24 attitude statements constituting .50 similarity were presented in 3 different sequences with responses obtained after each statement. Unexpectedly, a recency effect was found. In Exp. II, it was hypothesized and confirmed that recency effects occur only when attraction responses are interpolated in the attitude sequence. It was found that Ss respond to the proportion of similar attitudes presented since their last attraction response. In Exp. III, it was hypothesized and confirmed that the interpolation of implicit attraction responses (instructions to think about a response after each stimulus) also yields significant recency effects. It was proposed that the explicit or implicit symbolization of evaluative responses results in the tendency to discount previous information so that later evaluations are based on later information. (33 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The laboratory study of attraction is based almost exclusively on verbal measures of the dependent variable. Various findings suggest that the physical distance separating 2 individuals indicates the degree of attraction between them. In 2 experiments, attitude similarity between an s and 2 stooges was manipulated. Females were more attracted to and sat more closely beside a similar than a dissimilar stranger (p < .01); males were more attracted to and sat directly across from a similar rather than a dissimilar stranger (p < .02). (37 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Conducted a computer dating field study as a test of the nonlaboratory generalizability of attraction research. A 50-item questionnaire of attitudes and personality was administered to 420 undergraduates, and 44 male-female pairs were selected on the basis of maximal or minimal similarity of responses. Each couple was introduced, given differential information about the basis for their matching, and asked to spend 30 min. together on a "coke date." Afterward, they returned to the E and were independently assessed on a series of measures. It was found that attraction was significantly related to similarity and to physical attractiveness. Physical attractiveness was also significantly related to ratings of desirability as a date, as a spouse, and to sexual attractiveness. Both similarity and attractiveness were related to the physical proximity of the 2 individuals while they were talking to the E after the date. In a follow-up investigation at the end of the semester, similarity and physical attractiveness were found to predict accurate memory of the date's name, incidence of talking to one another in the interim since the coke date, and desire to date the other person in the future. (26 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Rosenbaum (1986b) proposed a reinterpretation of attraction research and theory in which similar attitudes constitute irrelevant stimuli; only dissimilar attitudes affect either attraction or performance in a learning task. He presented data seemingly consistent with these propositions, but Byrne, Clore, and Smeaton (1986) criticized the adequacy of his designs and suggested appropriate empirical tests of the competing hypotheses. This article reports two experiments in which the results are clearly inconsistent with the repulsion hypothesis. With number of dissimilar attitudes held constant, attraction toward a stranger increased as the number of similar attitudes increased. In a discrimination learning task, response acquisition occurred when correct responses were followed by similar attitude statements and incorrect responses by nonsense syllables, or when correct responses were followed by nonsense syllables and incorrect responses by dissimilar attitude statements. Despite the inadequacy of the repulsion hypothesis, Rosenbaum's analysis has raised several new and interesting possibilities for attraction research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
journal abstract: It was hypothesized that attraction toward another individual is a positive linear function of the proportion of his personality characteristics which are similar to those of S. In the 1st experiment, 151 Ss examined the responses of a stranger to the Repression-Sensitization (R-S) Scale. The stranger responded as S did on .20, .50, or .80 of the items. Analysis of variance indicated that attraction was affected by proportion of similar responses (p<.001) and by repression-sensitization (p<.01). In a 2nd experiment, employing 149 Ss, attitude similarity influenced attraction (p<.001), but repression-sensitization did not. In the 1st experiment, subject-stranger discrepancy in R-S Scale scores was found to influence attraction (p<.001); represser-sensitizer differences were thus artifactual. The relationship between personality similarity and attraction is entirely consistent with the findings of attitude-similarity studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
40 male and 40 female college students were classified as high or low in sex guilt (HSG and LSG, respectively) using the Mosher Forced-Choice Guilt Inventory. Experimental Ss were shown erotic slides following each "correct" choice in a discrimination task and nonerotic slides following each "incorrect" choice. Controls were shown nonerotic slides following all choices. HSG Ss made fewer choice responses leading to erotica than did LSG Ss, and females made fewer erotica-producing choices than did males. HSG and female Ss were less positive in their affective reactions to the erotica than were LSG and male Ss. Correlational and regression analyses revealed that sex guilt and gender differences in choice behaviors leading to erotica were predicted solely on individual differences in intensity of positive affective responses. Regardless of sex guilt and gender, for those high in positive affect, the erotic stimuli functioned as rewards, but for those low in positive affect, the stimuli functioned as punishers. (23 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Employed a cross-cultural design to test the relationship between the proportion of similar attitudes expressed by a stranger and attraction toward that stranger, usually conceived as a linear function. Ss were 506 students from 4 different cultures (Hawaii, India, Japan, and Mexico). The relationship was supported in each of the cultural groups. Sample differences did not indicate differences in the general nature of the function but rather in the no level of attraction responses. There were not significant sex differences in attraction responses. (18 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The similarity-dissimilarity of a stranger's attitudes with respect to those of Ss and the importance of the attitudinal topics were experimentally varied, and the attraction responses of 112 Ss obtained. Proportion of similar attitudes was found to have a highly significant effect on attraction, but neither topic importance nor the interaction was statistically significant. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
"Perhaps the simplest… of the notions concerning determinants of positive attraction is that of propinquity." Essentially the proposition of propinquity says: Other things equal, people are most likely to be attracted toward those in closest contact with them. In general, as frequency of interaction between 2 or more persons increases, the degree of their liking for one another increases. A number of general statements relating to interpersonal attraction are considered including propositions of complementarity and perceived similarity. An original investigation of male transfer students to the University of Michigan all of whom were strangers to each other before sharing a student house is discussed. 18 references. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A universal contention in the psychological literature is that attitudinal similarity leads to attraction. I argue that attitudinal similarity does not lead to liking but that dissimilarity does indeed lead to repulsion. Primary attention is given to Byrne's experimental paradigm in which subjects are shown the attitude scale of a stranger that is similar or dissimilar to their own and who are then asked to indicate their attraction to the stranger. Consistently, Byrne and others have found a linear relation between similarity and attraction. Unfortunately, the Byrne paradigm has never included a control condition in which ratings are made in the absence of attitudinal information. Research that used the Byrne paradigm and other procedures that included an appropriate control group is reported, and support is found for a repulsion hypothesis. Byrne's reinforcement model of attraction is also shown not to be supported. Consideration is given to special conditions in which attitudinal similarity does lead to attraction, to the origins of the hypothesis that similarity leads to attraction, and to the theoretical basis for the repulsion effect. (49 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The attempts of psychologists to discover general laws of behavior are examined, with special emphasis upon the auxiliary theoretical devices used. After pointing out that the task of the psychologist is to discover the general laws of behavior, a critical outline of five methods of approaching the task is given. Conclusions reached include: (1) Theory is still at a very primitive level in psychology. (2) A variety of theoretical procedures is possible. (3) Some psychologists substitute phenomenological introspection and anthropometric thinking for theorizing. (4) Many theories have provided response-response laws rather than stimulus-response laws. (5) The most promising theoretical technique is the so-called 'intervening variable' method proposed by Hull and Tolman. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
It was found that students occupying neighboring seats would be more likely to become acquainted than classmates in general.
Article
Two investigations examine the effect of similarity of sexual attitudes on (a) attraction to a stranger and (b) marital sexual satisfaction. In an experiment using undergraduates, manipulation of subject-stranger similarity in general affective orientation to sexuality affected attraction and other evaluative dependent variables. In the second investigation, married couples revealed sexual attitudes and sexual satisfaction. Husbands and wives were similar (r= 0.58, p < 0.001) in their affective orientations to sexuality. Discrepancy between the partners’ scores predicted sexual dissatisfaction in both partners. In addition, the wife's affective orientation to sexuality predicted more indices of sexual satisfaction and adjustment in both the wife and the husband than did the husband's affective orientation to sexuality. Finally, spouses with a positive affective orientation to sexuality were more accurate when judging their partner's sexual enjoyment, compared to spouses with a negative orientation. The findings have implications for the effects of similarity of attitudes on interpersonal attraction and on relationship quality.
Article
The effect of attitude similarity-dissimilarity on attraction has been interpreted as a special case of the effect of positive and negative reinforcement on attraction through the operation of consensual validation and invalidation. The drive which is presumably being aroused and reinforced by attitudinal material has been designated as the effectance motive. It is proposed that the degree to which effectance motivation is aroused by a given issue varies as an inverse function of the ease with which empirical verification may be attained. Further, it is hypothesized that as verifiability increases, the effect of attitude similarity-dissimilarity on attraction decreases. Each of 168 undergraduates was asked to respond to a stranger who was similar to himself at one of four levels of proportion of similar attitudes with respect to issues at one of three levels of verifiability. Attraction was found to be significantly influenced by proportion of similar attitudes (p < .001) and by the interaction between verifiability and similarity (p < .05). In addition, trend analysis indicated a significant overall linear trend (p < .001) and that each of the three verifiability groups was different in slope from the others. Similarity-dissimilarity on the unverifiable issues had the greatest effect on attraction; issues verifiable in the future yielded the least effect on attraction. Alternate interpretations of the data are discussed.
Article
Skin conductance and heart rate were recorded during verbal exchanges in which subjects were either agreed or disagreed with on a variety of issues. The manipulation of attitude similarity had significant effects on interpersonal attraction, perceived competence, and skin conductance, but not on heart rate. Disagreement produced higher skin conductance than agreement, and speaking was more arousing than listening. The correlations between arousal and attraction showed that heightened arousal was associated with both attraction toward agreers and dislike toward disagreers. As predicted, the linear relationship between attitude similarity and attraction increased in slope (0.00, 3.75, 8.75) with increasing levels of conductance (low, medium, high). The failure of subjects to prefer agreers to disagreers under conditions of low arousal suggests that information without affect does not influence attraction.
Article
Investigated the influence of ambient effective temperature on interpersonal attraction of 40 undergraduates using 2 levels of effective temperature combined factorially with 2 levels of attitude similarity. Attraction was found to be negatively related (p < .04) to effective temperature and positively related (p < .001) to attitude similarity. Also included as dependent variables were several measures of affective feelings which were found to be positively related to attraction responses but negatively influenced by effective temperature. In combination, 2 stimulus variables and 2 affective response variables were highly related (p < .001) to attraction responses. Results are discussed from the standpoint of an affective model of interpersonal evaluative behavior and with respect to the ubiquitous potential influence of effective temperature on affective behaviors. (19 ref.)
Article
THE MOTIVATIONAL CONSTRUCT PROPOSED BY COGNITIVE AND REINFORCEMENT THEORISTS TO ACCOUNT FOR THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ATTITUDE SIMILARITY-DISSIMILARITY AND ATTRACTION IS TENTATIVELY EQUATED WITH R. W. WHITE'S (SEE 35:4) EFFECTANCE MMOTIVE. USING MORE THAN 600 SS, 2 DIFFERENT EXPERIMENTAL APPROACHES TO EFFECTANCE AROUSAL WERE EMPLOYED, AND A SCALE WAS DEVISED AS AN INDEX OF AROUSAL. A MODERATE LEVEL OF EFFECTANCE AROUSAL RESULTED IN AN INCREASE IN THE SLOPE OF THE ATTITUDE-ATTRACTION FUNCTION, WHILE A HIGH AROUSAL LEVEL DECREASED THE SLOPE OF THE FUNCTION. THE AROUSAL PROPERTIES OF ATTITUDE STATEMENTS WERE CONFIRMED. (44 REF.)
Article
It was hypothesized that positive and negative reinforcements concerning personal attributes are of greater magnitude and hence exert a greater effect on attraction than reinforcements involving attitude similarity-dissimilarity with respect to impersonal topics. In a 4 X 3 factorial design, 4 levels of attitude similarity (1.00, .67, .33, and .00) and 3 types of evaluation conditions (positive, negative, and control) were employed. Each of 180 Ss was asked to read an attitude scale purportedly filled out by an anonymous stranger and to evaluate him on a number of variables, including attraction. In the positive and negative conditions, Ss also received information concerning the stranger's evaluation of them. Analysis of variance indicated that attraction was significantly influenced by both independent variables (p < .001) and by their interaction (p < .01). The effect of the personal evaluation items was found to be greater than that of the impersonal items (p < .001). It was suggested that the equation for the law of attraction should include a weighting factor to designate the effect of reinforcement magnitude.
Article
Some of the implications of Heider's concept of balance were investigated using 104 students as Ss. Based upon their responses to the Revised Allport-Vernon Scale of Values, partially completed test booklets were prepared incorporating different degrees of similarity to each Ss' original answers. The Ss were required to complete them in the way the hypothetical person had. The results confirmed the hypotheses.
Article
It "was hypothesized that (a) a stranger who is known to have attitudes similar to those of the subject is better liked than a stranger with attitudes dissimilar to those of the subject, (b) is judged to be more intelligent, better informed, more moral, and better adjusted and (c) is evaluated more positively on four [other] variables." The first 2 hypotheses were confirmed. From Psyc Abstracts 36:04:4GE13B.
Article
Similarity of attitudes, interpreted as reward via consensual validation, has been found to exert a positive effect on interpersonal attraction. It was hypothesized that with respect to relatively important topics, husbands and wives have similar attitudes. Working from Newcomb's A-B-X model, it was further hypothesized that assumed similarity of attitudes is greater than actual similarity. Ss were 36 married couples who responded to Rokeach's Left Opinionation, Right Opinionation, and Dogmatism scales as they themselves felt and as they guessed their spouses would respond. As predicted, significant husband-wife correlations were found for all 3 scales. Further, the correlations indicating assumed similarity (the relationship between self-scores and assumed spouse scores) were significantly larger than the actual husband-wife relationships, regardless of length of marriage. (30 ref.)
Article
The finding that attraction is a function of attitude similarity has been interpreted as a special case of the effect of positive and negative reinforcements on attraction. A simple discrimination learning task was employed in which the reinforcements were attitude statements similar and dissimilar to the opinions of the subject. The presentation of similar attitude statements after each correct response and dissimilar attitude statements after each incorrect response significantly changed response probability. The hypothesis that such statements could be used as reinforcers in a learning situation was thus confirmed.
Article
In various investigations of the effects of the similarity of a stranger's attitude on attraction toward him, the proportion of similar attitudes has not been distinguished from the number of similar attitudes. In a 4 X 3 factorial design, 4 levels of proportion and 3 levels of number were employed. Each of 168 Ss was asked to read an attitude scale purportedly filled out by an anonymous stranger and to evaluate him on a number of variables including attraction toward him. As hypothesized, analysis of variance indicated that attraction was significantly (p < .001) affected only by proportion. Utilizing these and other data for a total of 790 Ss, the functional relationship between proportion of similar attitudes and attraction was found to be a linear one. The conceptualization of attitude similarity as constituting positive reinforcement was strengthened by the finding of a linear relationship in McDonald's (1962) data between proportion of high creativity ratings given to 192 Ss and their attraction toward the rater. (20 ref.)
Article
Results of experiments dealing with the consequencies of deviation from a group standard are described. The effect of degrees of cohesiveness and relevance of the issue on the degree of rejection of a deviate is considered. The effects of these variables on communication and induction within the groups are studied in detail. 18 references.