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Social Foundations of Thought & Action: A Social Cognitive Theory

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... It was further added, program must define the competencies that the learners should demonstrate on completing the program that comprises the mastery of a body of knowledge; functional/practical or work competency skills; personal competency; and ethical and social responsibility skills. For that, this research begins with looking into Social Cognitive Theory by Bandura (1986) which later expanded by Brown et al. (2011) on Social cognitive career theory model of work performance which form self-efficacy judgments in order to achieve success. ...
... The student's motivation, interest, aspirations, socioeconomic status, support systems and developmental process have played an essential role in determining whether or not students have been prepared for a career has ultimately made their life ready (DiBenedetto and Myers, 2016). Thus, these were aligned with the theory of Social Cognitive by Bandura (1986), which emphasizes human behavior, which is influenced by three main factors as per Figure 2. ...
... Through definition, self-efficacy is an individual judgment of their capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to attain the designated type of performance and it has high impact on a person's beliefs of individual mastery (Bandura, 1978). Based on Self-Efficacy Theory (Refer to Figure 4), there are four significant sources of information used by individuals when forming selfefficacy judgments: performance accomplishment, various experiences, social persuasion, and physiological and emotional states (Bandura, 1986). ...
Article
TVET played an important role as one of supply mechanism on the competence human capital towards the economic growth of Malaysia including for construction industry. However, the mass of unemployed graduates has caused their readiness towards involvement in the industry become questionable. Thus, the aim of the study is to propose a TVET-CAF framework to enhance the career readiness of Construction Technology graduates through systematic reviews of literature. The major elements of the framework are: the relevance of the graduates, efficacy level of the graduates and ways to enhance level of efficacy the graduates. Therefore, it will assist in improving the quality of education for the graduate towards better student outcome alongside with RMK-11 strategic thrust which is accelerating human capital development for an advanced nation.
... In the context of the present overview, the theory of planned behavior (7 Chap. 15;Ajzen, 1991), health belief model (Rosenstock, 1974), and socialcognitive theory (Bandura, 1986) will be discussed, although it should be noted that other theories and models of motivation, such as self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985; see 7 Chap. 8), have been shown to provide explanatory power for physical activity behavior. ...
... Control factors include considerations that make the behavior easy or difficulty to perform, of required skills and abilities, and of access and availability to required resources. This construct is conceptually similar to self-efficacy (Bandura, 1986) and is presumed to influence behavior both directly (reflecting actual behavioral control) and indirectly via behavioral intention. Original theory of planned behavior theorizing posited perceived behavioral control to moderate the intention-behavior relationship, as the greater the individuals actual control over the behavior, the more likely it is that the intention will be carried out (Ajzen, 1985). ...
... According to the social-cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986), health behavior is mainly influenced by the perceived self-efficacy and outcome expectations of a person in relation to a certain health behavior. Self-efficacy expectations refer to a person's belief about their own ability to successfully and independently master the desired actions (e.g., maintaining a sporting activity), even when potential barriers may exist (e.g., time constraints). ...
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview on models that explain change processes in health behavior and change toward more physical activity. It is divided into four main parts. In the first section, models are introduced that focus on the motivational process of behavior change and how individuals' decision-making is influenced. The second section deals with theories of action execution-the part of health behavior change in which a person implements intentions into action. These models also focus on action and coping planning to overcome obstacles for intention implementation. In the third section, we address stage and process models of health behavior change that unify processes of motivation and action execution in holistic models. Finally, in the fourth section, dual-process theories are introduced that assume that human health behavior change is affected by at least two types of information processes that are automatic and reflective. Keywords (separated by "-") Exercise behavior-Behavior change-Social-cognitive theory-Theory of planned behavior-Transtheoretical model-Health action process approach-Planning-Dual-process theory-Affective-reflective theory-Physical activity adoption and maintenance model-Integrated models of health behavior AUTHOR QUERIES Q2 Please check if heading "Abstract" before paragraph starting "This chapter provides…" should be provided.
... Because the CSM model builds on social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986), it relies on many of the same core variables: The proximal antecedents self-efficacy beliefs, outcome expectations, personality, and environmental supports and barriers, and the process variables goals and actions. In the context of job search, self-efficacy refers to the belief that one is capable of organizing and executing job search behaviors . ...
... In the context of job search, self-efficacy refers to the belief that one is capable of organizing and executing job search behaviors . While self-efficacy refers to expectations about one's performance abilities, outcome expectations are beliefs about the consequences of performing certain behaviors or courses of action (Bandura, 1986). Like self-efficacy, positive outcome expectations stimulate approach behavior and persistence despite possible setbacks. ...
... Second, given the importance and malleability of job search self-efficacy, graduates (especially those scoring low on a self-assessment questionnaire) could be encouraged to follow a specific training program to help boost their job search self-efficacy. According to social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986 there are a few sources of individuals' self-efficacy: Vicarious learning through observing others, being verbally persuaded that they can do it, and practicing to obtain success experiences. Accordingly, learning job seeking through observation and practicing effective job search behaviors might boost job search self-efficacy. ...
Thesis
Due to the current tightness in several labor markets around the globe there are more jobs available than ever before. This brings about countless employment opportunities, but also uncertainty and higher risks. Limited knowledge about the available job opportunities often results in considerable uncertainty for job seekers, especially for recent graduates. Since the risks of landing a low-quality job are similar to being unemployed and can hinder future career success, it is of utmost importance that job seekers find a fitting job. Although the ability to find a fitting job depends on a variety of factors, a key determinant that is controllable by individuals is job search behavior. Research has generally focused on the quantitative aspects of job search behaviors, operationalized as the time and effort that people spend on a number of job search activities. Research shows that job seekers who spend more time looking for a job receive more job offers, are more likely to find a job, and find a job faster. However, the effects are rather small, and job search quantity seems to be unrelated to employment quality. Thus, spending a lot of time on job search activities does not necessarily mean that the search is done effectively. Along these lines, several leading scholars have called for more research looking at job search quality. Many of these studies start from the idea that job seekers should search smarter, not harder. Although this seems obvious, empirical research is still scarce and fragmented. In this dissertation, we conceptualize job search quality as a multidimensional model consisting of four dimensions: goal establishment, planning, goal striving, and reflection. We set out to investigate the added value of job search quality, the outcomes of job search quality, the antecedents of job search quality, and how job search quality can be facilitated. To address these objectives, four empirical studies were conducted. Our studies show that (a) the four dimensions of job search quality show added value beyond job search intensity and metacognitive activities, (b) job search quality is positively related to several job search outcomes, including employment quality, (c) personality, attitudinal factors, and contextual factors were identified as antecedents for job search quality, and (d) job search quality can be facilitated by conducting a positive psychology intervention.
... Hence, nurses who are exhausted are less likely to engage in their work. Self-efficacy refers to "people's judgments of their capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to attain designated types of performances" (Bandura, 1986). As a type of important personal resource, self-efficacy has been demonstrated as having vital and precursor influences on positive consequences. ...
... Accordingly, we consider that the higher a nurse's self-efficacy, the more likely the nurses engage in the nursing professional practice autonomously. According to social cognitive theory, vicarious experiences and verbal persuasion, as a contextual resource, strongly influence individual self-efficacy (Bandura, 1986). Salanova et al. (2011) have claimed that managers can effectively increase self-efficacy among nurses through role modeling and verbal encouragement. ...
... Second, our research confirmed the motivational process of work engagement based on Bandura's social cognitive theory (i.e., hypothesis 2 (Bandura, 1986). The theory indicates that the individual's attitudes and behaviors are predicted by efficacy expectations. ...
Article
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Abusive supervision could negatively influence individual work attitudes, behaviors, and work outcomes. Self-efficacy and work engagement can help to increase nursing performance. But few studies have attempted to determine the specific mechanism between them in China. The objective is to analyze the levels of abusive supervision, self-efficacy, and work engagement, and to explore the relationship between these three variables among Chinese clinical registered nurses. A predictive, cross-sectional quantitative survey was performed in a convenience sample of 923 Chinese clinical nurses. The instruments included the Demographic Data Questionnaire, Abusive Supervision Scale, Self-efficacy Scale and Work Engagement Scale. A total of 702 valid questionnaires were returned, yielding a favorable response rate of 76.1%. The level of abusive supervision was at the mid-low level, with a mean of 1.55. The nurses presented a relative high level of self-efficacy (M = 4.97) and work engagement (M = 5.01). A statistically significant negative correlation between abusive supervision and self-efficacy ( r = −0.21, p < 0.01). A statistically significant negative correlation between abusive supervision and work engagement ( r = −0.32, p < 0.01), and a statistically significant positive correlation between self-efficacy and work engagement ( r = 0.43, p < 0.01). Abusive supervision had a directly negative effect on self-efficacy ( β = −0.23, p < 0.01) and work engagement ( β = −0.24, p < 0.01). Self-efficacy positively predicted work engagement ( β = 0.41, p < 0.01). The results indicated that abusive supervision could negatively predict nurses’ work engagement directly and that abusive supervision could also indirectly influence work engagement partly through the mediation of self-efficacy. Nursing managers should take effective measures to prevent and control the abusive management and leadership behavior of head nurses, and improve nurses’ self-efficacy, so that nurses can experience full respect, support, and self-confidence. They can devote themselves to work with the greatest enthusiasm.
... While self-monitoring is required for self-regulation, it is not sufficient (Schunk, 1995), because self-monitoring is influenced by both individual processes and behavioral factors (Zimmerman, 1989). Self-monitoring strategies like self-trial and selfrecording require systematic and frequent tracking (Bandura, 1986). Design involves long and complicated cognitive processes during which ideas and/or comments can be forgotten. ...
... The role of design instructors should also include developing students' self-efficacy. Self-efficacy beliefs are shaped by earlier self-experiences but can also be influenced by the experience of others, verbal convincing, and the learner's physiological reactions (Bandura, 1986;Bong & Skaalvik, 2003;Pajares & Valiante, 2002, as cited in DiFrancesca et al., 2016. During the intervention, sharing personal experiences prompted students to relate to their own experiences. ...
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A growing number of studies indicate that self-regulated learning plays a significant role in students’ academic achievement. However, research studies on design studio education in self-regulated learning are under-researched globally, including in Turkey. In this study, I developed a self-regulated learning intervention for industrial design studio education and examined its impact on students’ self-regulated learning strategies and design performance. Twenty six third-year industrial design students were tracked in a mixed-method research study conducted during a design studio course. Following the study, quantitative and qualitative data were collected from the students using self-report questionnaires and interviews. The jury grades of the students in the experimental group were compared with the grades of the students in the control group. Integrated data analysis indicated that activities for promoting self-regulated learning strategies such as goal-setting, self-monitoring, self-evaluation, self-efficacy, and seeking help and information in design studios can assist design students to improve their strategy use and design performance.
... Par ailleurs, seulement 27,5% des parents pensent qu'il est utile de consulter à 1 an comme le recommandent les professionnels de santé dentaire pédiatrique 27 . Ces résultats confirment d'autres études : un niveau de connaissances plus élevé ne se traduit pas systématiquement par une meilleure adhésion aux comportements de santé orale recommandés par les professionnels de santé ni à un meilleur état de santé dentaire chez l'enfant (271,272). Les personnes d'origine étrangère consultent moins car l'accès aux soins leur est plus difficile, notamment en raison d'une barrière de langue. Afin de prendre en compte ce résultat, notre intervention éducative doit d'une part, être adaptée sur les plans culturels et linguistiques pour la rendre accessible, d'autre part répondre aux besoins en littératie en santé des familles faisant appel si nécessaire aux professionnels des milieux socio-éducatifs (273). ...
... Notre étude a mis en évidence que le sentiment d'auto-efficacité en santé orale était faible pour 69% des parents. En tant que déterminant du comportement, le sentiment d'autoefficacité reflète la mesure dans laquelle une personne se sent capable d'adopter les comportements de santé recommandés (272). Le sentiment d'auto-efficacité est un prédicteur des comportements de santé orale de la mère et de l'état de santé orale de l'enfant (274) ; il est également très lié aux croyances (274). ...
Thesis
La santé orale de l'enfant entretient un lien étroit avec la santé générale. Par l'intermédiaire de ses différentes fonctions, elle permet la croissance et le développement de l'enfant pour l'emmener vers l'âge adulte en bonne santé. La carie de la petite enfance (CPE) est une pathologie multifactorielle, qui touche les dents temporaires des enfants âgés de moins de six ans. Cette maladie, à fort potentiel de récidive, est considérée comme chronique dans les populations socialement vulnérables. L'impact de la CPE, tant sur le plan individuel que populationnel, et les inégalités sociales en santé orale qui en découlent montrent qu'il est indispensable de mettre en œuvre des stratégies de prévention adaptées. Dans une logique compréhensive et avec une perspective d'intervention, la complexité de la pathologie conduit à s'interroger sur les prédicteurs de la maladie. Une revue de portée nous a permis de préciser quelles sont les caractéristiques à prendre en compte pour une intervention, à savoir les connaissances des parents et leur niveau de littératie en santé orale ainsi que sur les croyances qui orientent les comportements en santé orale. Une étude épidémiologique prospective en milieu hospitalier, menée dans une région marquée par de fortes inégalités sociales de santé, les Hauts-de-France, a permis de mettre en évidence par ses résultats préliminaires, les déterminants de santé et de recours aux soins dentaires pédiatriques au niveau structurel et individuel. A la fin du recrutement, une analyse multivariée de l'ensemble des données permettra de caractériser plus précisément le profil des patients et de mettre en évidence les facteurs associés à la sévérité de la pathologie. Ce travail de recherche permet d'ores et déjà d'aboutir à la proposition d'un modèle d'intervention complexe, centré sur l'éducation thérapeutique du patient et visant à réduire les inégalités sociales de santé orale. Au-delà d'un modèle centré sur l'hôpital, cette proposition questionne quant à la mise en place sur un territoire défini d'un réseau d'acteurs gradué selon le stade de la maladie carieuse et les lieux fréquentés et mettant en œuvre des interventions en faveur du développement d'un continuum éducatif en santé orale.
... We address this gap by proposing a model that explains why and when ethical leadership is linked with frontline service sector employees' (FLEs) SRP. We use social learning theory (Bandura, 1977(Bandura, , 1986 to theorize the proposed model between ethical leadership and SRP. ...
... Drawing on social learning theory (Bandura, 1977(Bandura, , 1986, we hypothesized that supervisory ethical leadership is positively related to SRP, both directly and via perceived organizational virtuousness. We also proposed that FLE trait mindfulness moderates the relationship between ethical leadership and perceived organizational performance and the indirect relationship between ethical leadership and FLEs' SRP. ...
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In the present study, we first examined the relationship between ethical leadership and frontline employees’ (FLEs’) service recovery performance (SRP) and then tested the mediating role of organizational virtuousness in the relationship between ethical leadership and SRP in service contexts. Finally, we examined the moderating effect of FLE trait mindfulness on the direct relationship between ethical leadership and organizational virtuousness, as well as the indirect relationship between ethical leadership and SRP, via organizational virtuousness. Three-waved survey data collected from 273 supervisor-employee dyads in different service sector organizations supported our hypothesized relationships. In addition to important theoretical implications, the study carries useful practical implications, particularly for managers who are concerned about improving SRP in the service contexts.
... Self-efficacy is the belief that one can succeed at a given task or challenge and is important in almost every aspect of life as it reflects confidence in one's abilities and trust in one's capability to perform a certain task (Newman et al. 2019). Self-efficacy has long been studied in the social sciences, beginning with the social cognitive theory (Bandura 1986). According to research, self-efficacy influences a person's decision, the amount of intensity, and willpower, making it a valuable concept for understanding human behaviour (Arghode et al. 2021). ...
... Although earlier research highlights the direct connection between self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intentions, researchers need to investigate alternative mechanisms in this relationship to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the link. According to the Self-Efficacy Theory, people actively consider and plan their behaviour based on their self-confidence perceptions (Bandura 1986). Considering this, one contends that people are more likely to identify with entrepreneurial roles if they believe that they can perform an entrepreneurial task. ...
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This article investigated how entrepreneurial self-identity and self-efficacy interact to affect the entrepreneurial goal intentions of a sample of female and male college students in Zimbabwe. Researchers are urged to examine these factors’ combined influence, given that earlier studies looked at their effects separately. To achieve the research goal, a cross-sectional survey using a self-completion questionnaire on a convenience sample of 262 respondents was conducted in Zimbabwe among college students. The results confirmed that entrepreneurial self-identity and self-efficacy had statistically significant direct effects on the intention to pursue an entrepreneurial goal. They also confirmed that the relationship between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial goal intention was mediated by entrepreneurial self-identity. The study, however, found no statistically significant differences in the pattern of results between males and females. The study adds to the body of knowledge by proposing and testing a conceptual model that has never been considered before. The findings of the study have implications for the formulation of interventions and policies aimed at promoting entrepreneurship.
... Increased self-efficacy has been identified as a possible mechanism for increased global wellbeing in adolescents [13] which suggests increasing task-specific self-confidence through physical activity or sport may have positive benefits for other aspects of life for adolescents. Task-specific self-confidence, or self-efficacy [14], influences persistence, thoughts, stimulation and behaviour as self-perceptions lead to positive experiences and may be transferable across life domains. While physical appearance is generally a greater predictor of global self-worth in adolescents than athletic competence [15], Harter [16] argued that the contribution of domain-specific self-worth to global self-worth, and therefore wellbeing, is a function of the importance an individual places on each domain. ...
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Abundant evidence shows that physical activity benefits adolescents’ mental health and wellbeing. Quantitative evidence has shown that adolescents engaging in leisure time physical activity, a number of sports, and team sport, display better mental health outcomes than their peers. The specific contextual factors that contribute to increased mental health and wellbeing through physical activity are, as yet, unconfirmed. The purpose of this study was to identify the contexts of physical activity and sport that positively impact mental health and wellbeing as perceived by adolescents. A sample of 58 adolescents participated in 13 focus groups discussing various factors related to physical activity, sport and mental health. Participants brought an object that represented physical activity and an image that represented wellbeing to each focus group to aid in the discussion and representation of both. An inductive thematic analysis was conducted on transcripts of the focus groups using a six-phase approach. Five key themes were identified: (1) achievements and improvements leading to increased self-esteem; (2) the importance of meaningful experiences, a sense of belonging and contributions to identity; (3) development of resilience and responding to setbacks; (4) social connectedness and relatedness, and (5) an opportunity to experience mindfulness, distraction and flow-states. In order to enhance and support wellbeing through physical activity, adolescents should be encouraged and provided with opportunities to engage in enjoyable activities with people with whom they experience a sense of belonging, where there is an opportunity to experience mastery and improvement and that includes an element of autonomy or choice.
... Subjective norm (SN) refers to perceived social pressure to perform or not to perform the behavior. People were always influenced by the behavior of others (Bandura, 1986). Previous studies have proved that SN was a significant predictor of intention to commit academic dishonesty (Cronan et al., 2018;Maloshonok & Shmeleva, 2019;Stone et al., 2010) as well as justification (Rajah-Kanagasabai & Roberts, 2015;Stone et al., 2009). ...
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Dishonest academic behavior (DAB) by students in Chinese higher education institutions has become a significant concern. However, the related study of academic dishonesty in mainland China is very limited. This study fills this gap by examining the theory of planned behavior and its three extended versions, validating the effectiveness of predicting DAB among Chinese undergraduates, and testing 11 developed hypotheses. This study uses a quantitative research design, and responses are collected online from 525 undergraduate students from five disciplines in the second to fourth year at a public university in China. The results reveal the proposed models have good fitting indices and support 10 hypothetical relationships. These relationships demonstrate that attitudes, norms and control beliefs significantly impact intentions and justifications. Meanwhile, behavioral control, intentions, and justifications significantly influence DAB. Notably, this study found a direct and significant effect of MO on justifications. Therein, Model four best explains the variance in DAB and provides practical support for the expanded TPB models’ application in China.
... In this sense, self-efficacy seems to be one of the most important psychosocial factors for sexual risk behavior and condom use barrier [5][6][7][8][9][10], as well as other barrier methods such as dental dam [11]. That is, those people who report a better self-evaluation about their own ability to condom use are more likely to engage in safer sex behaviors [12][13][14]. ...
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Self-efficacy seems to be one of the most important resources for the different stages underlying condom use and STI prevention. For this reason, this study evaluates trends in self-efficacy by gender, from 2004 to 2008, 2013 and 2020 in Spain. Throughout these years, 6,698 people ranging from 17 to 40 years old, participated filling the Brief scale of condom use self-efficacy. According to our findings, despite the slight improvement in the recent years, self-efficacy still maintains a risky profile for safe sex, especially among the youngest people. Moreover, most of the traditional gender differences continue over the years with women reporting lower scores for condom purchase and men for putting them. However, these differences are not relevant in other dimensions such as using condoms despite drug consumption where women reveal worse results over the years. Therefore, our findings reaffirm the need of intensifying gendered preventive efforts aimed at Spanish people and, particularly, among the youngest.
... In Bandura's social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986), there are interactions between personal factors (e.g., cognitions, feelings, skills), behavioral factors (e.g., strategy use, help-seeking actions), and environmental factors (e.g., classrooms, homes, work environments), through the concept of triadic reciprocal causality, all of which affect the individual's functioning (Usher and Schunk, 2018). Based on the above theoretical foundation, a clear causal relationship between environmental factors and personal/ behavioral factors was found through our research model, while there were interaction effects between personal and behavioral factors. ...
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Adolescence is a time of dramatic physical and mental change when adolescents are extremely vulnerable to various mental health problems. Depression and poor sleep duration are increasingly common among adolescents. This study is mainly aimed to verify the important mediating role of collective integration on sleep duration and depression and examine the interrelationship between sleep duration and depression in adolescents longitudinally. The data were obtained from the Wave 1 (in 2013–2014) and Wave 2 (in 2014–2015) longitudinal surveys of China Education Panel Survey (CEPS). The analytic sample in the present study included 8,829 seventh-grade students aged about 14 years (51.50% boys and 48.50% girls). A structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to investigate parent–child/teacher factors affecting adolescent sleep duration and depression, and Monte Carlo resampling with R was employed to confirm the significance of the mediation effects of collective integration. An autoregressive cross-lagged model was employed to analyze the interrelationship between adolescent sleep duration and depression. The findings were as follows. Firstly, collective integration strongly mediated the relationships among academic self-efficacy, parental involvement, teacher praise/criticism, sleep duration, and depression. Secondly, sleep duration and depression were found to have enduring effects and have effects on each other. Thirdly, parental involvement and teacher praise were positively associated with sleep quality and negatively associated with depression. Teacher criticism was negatively associated with sleep quality and positively associated with depression. Compared with teacher praise, teacher criticism has stronger effects on youth sleep duration and depression. In conclusion, improving sleep problems and depression in adolescents as early as possible can stop the persistent and long-term consequences of these problems. Increasing teacher praise, decreasing teacher criticism, and increasing adolescents’ collective integration were effective ways to improve adolescents’ sleep duration and mediate depression.
... According to P-E t theory (Kristof-Brown et al., 2005) and social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986), people making decisions about careers, jobs, and tasks ask, "Am I a good t?" and "Do I believe I have what it takes?" Clearly, people's choices of activities are in uenced by beliefs as to whether they are a good t with that activity and whether they have what it takes to achieve performance goals. ...
Article
This chapter examines how individual creativity and teamwork impact team creativity in part through self-efficacy mechanisms. At the team level, it examines the role played by creative collective-efficacy and teamwork collective-efficacy mechanisms in a team’s creative performance. It concludes that the individual differences leading to fit with the creative task may differ from those leading to fit with teamwork. That is, individuals may prefer creative tasks due to relatively high creative self-efficacy and relatively good performance on creative tasks but may not want to work in teams because of low teamwork self-efficacy and low performance as a team player. However, while traits are stable, efficacy beliefs can be positively influenced by managers. Therefore, interventions aimed at building efficacy beliefs are useful when organizations cannot select individuals solely according to a set of desirable stable trait characteristics.
... Bandura's SCT focuses on the triadic model, in which personal factors, environmental influences and behaviour continually interact. 167 Bandura argues that goal-setting and self-monitoring are relevant components in effective interventions. In addition, Bandura suggests that the key concepts that affect health behaviour change interventions include self-control, self-efficacy, observational learning and reinforcement. ...
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Background Long-distance heavy goods vehicle drivers are exposed to a multitude of risk factors associated with their occupation. The working environment of heavy goods vehicle drivers provides limited opportunities for a healthy lifestyle, and, consequently, heavy goods vehicle drivers exhibit higher than nationally representative rates of obesity and obesity-related comorbidities, and are underserved in terms of health promotion initiatives. Objective The aim of this trial was to test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the multicomponent Structured Health Intervention For Truckers (SHIFT) programme, compared with usual care, at both 6 months and 16–18 months. Design A two-arm cluster randomised controlled trial, including a cost-effectiveness analysis and process evaluation. Setting Transport depots throughout the Midlands region of the UK. Participants Heavy goods vehicle drivers. Intervention The 6-month SHIFT programme included a group-based interactive 6-hour education session, health coach support and equipment provision [including a Fitbit ® (Fitbit Inc., San Francisco, CA, US) and resistance bands/balls to facilitate a ‘cab workout’]. Clusters were randomised following baseline measurements to either the SHIFT arm or the control arm. Main outcome measures Outcome measures were assessed at baseline, with follow-up assessments occurring at both 6 months and 16–18 months. The primary outcome was device-measured physical activity, expressed as mean steps per day, at 6-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes included device-measured sitting, standing, stepping, physical activity and sleep time (on any day, workdays and non-workdays), along with adiposity, biochemical measures, diet, blood pressure, psychophysiological reactivity, cognitive function, functional fitness, mental well-being, musculoskeletal symptoms and work-related psychosocial variables. Cost-effectiveness and process evaluation data were collected. Results A total of 382 participants (mean ± standard deviation age: 48.4 ± 9.4 years; mean ± standard deviation body mass index: 30.4 kg/m ² ± 5.1 kg/m ² ; 99% male) were recruited across 25 clusters. Participants were randomised (at the cluster level) to either the SHIFT arm (12 clusters, n = 183) or the control arm (13 clusters, n = 199). At 6 months, 209 (54.7%) participants provided primary outcome data. Significant differences in mean daily steps were found between arms, with participants in the SHIFT arm accumulating 1008 more steps per day than participants in the control arm (95% confidence interval 145 to 1871 steps; p = 0.022), which was largely driven by the maintenance of physical activity levels in the SHIFT arm and a decline in physical activity levels in the control arm. Favourable differences at 6 months were also seen in the SHIFT arm, relative to the control arm, in time spent sitting, standing and stepping, and time in moderate or vigorous activity. No differences between arms were observed at 16–18 months’ follow-up. No differences were observed between arms in the other secondary outcomes at either follow-up (i.e. 6 months and 16–18 months). The process evaluation demonstrated that the intervention was well received by participants and that the intervention reportedly had a positive impact on their health behaviours. The average total cost of delivering the SHIFT programme was £369.57 per driver, and resulting quality-adjusted life-years were similar across trial arms (SHIFT arm: 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.19 to 1.25; control arm: 1.25, 95% confidence interval 1.22 to 1.27). Limitations A higher (31.4%) than anticipated loss to follow-up was experienced at 6 months, with fewer (54.7%) participants providing valid primary outcome data at 6 months. The COVID-19 pandemic presents a major confounding factor, which limits our ability to draw firm conclusions regarding the sustainability of the SHIFT programme. Conclusion The SHIFT programme had a degree of success in positively impacting physical activity levels and reducing sitting time in heavy goods vehicle drivers at 6-months; however, these differences were not maintained at 16–18 months. Future work Further work involving stakeholder engagement is needed to refine the content of the programme, based on current findings, followed by the translation of the SHIFT programme into a scalable driver training resource. Trial registration This trial is registered as ISRCTN10483894. Funding This project was funded by the National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) Public Health Research programme and will be published in full in Public Health Research ; Vol. 10, No. 12. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.
... A badging system helps to raise a student's level of online technology self-efficacy. Bandura (1986) defines self-efficacy as an individual's understanding and belief in her/ her personal abilities and that the most important thinking is the student's perception of their technology skills. Student perception is important but should also be encouraged by online faculty. ...
Article
The purpose of this reflective critique was to explore faculty approaches to engage and motivate students while promoting community and building skills in the online classroom. One of the primary benefits of this critique is to bring focus to this often-overlooked aspect of gamification, students’ unsolicited feedback addressing the feasibility of digital badges in the online classroom. This reflective critique was supported by the theoretical framework of Lev Vygotsky and the theory of social development. We focused explicitly on the constructs of digital badging and gamification. We analyzed unsolicited student comments, which were useful in revealing additional information about student perceptions of a digital badging program. The implications of this type of analysis have value in its ability to reveal patterns in previously unused data that can be used to reflect on classroom practices. Data analysis resulted in four themes addressing the digital badging program: (a) digital badges motivate students in the online classroom, (b) digital badges promote community in the online classroom, (b) digital badges reward student participation in the online classroom, and (c) digital badges encourage skill development in the online classroom. While there are challenges in creating a digital badging program, most notably time, positive student and instructor experiences encouraged us to move forward.
... Confidence in science should support the kind of conceptual change that is the aim of science instruction because, as suggested by Bandura (1986), students with high self-efficacy engage in deeper cognitive processing strategies, exhibit greater persistence, and attempt appropriately challenging tasks more frequently than those with low self-efficacy. ...
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This study is designed to explore the attitude change toward science of students exposed to contextualized instruction. Using the explanatory sequential design, the study was divided into two (2) phases which involved quasi-experimentation using one group pretest-posttest design and qualitative phase which used key informant interviews, focus group discussion and document analysis as the data gathering tools. The first phase was carried-out in three (3) weeks, while the second phase was done in two (2) days. A total of thirty-five (35) students underwent the experimentation phase. Of the respondents, six (6) were chosen for key informant interviews and eight (8) for the focus group discussion. They were chosen based on their attitude change toward science after exposure to contextualized instruction. The results of the quantitative phase revealed that there was no significant difference between the pretest and posttest mean attitude towards science of the students across all indicators. The quantitative data also showed that positive and negative attitude change toward science of the students. The qualitative data analysis revealed the five (5) themes for the positive attitude change: (a) positive perception of the science teacher; (b) less anxiety towards science; (c) significance of science in society; (d) positive self-concept of science; and (e) desire to do science. Negative change of attitude revealed three (3) themes, namely: (a) negative perception of the science teacher; (b) more anxiety toward science; and (c) negative self-concept of science.
... In an actionoutcome learning paradigm, they manipulated whether a neutral object (e.g., a pencil) appearing on the computer screen was conceived of as an outcome (o) of response (r) by asking participants to press the spacebar before or after the presentation of the stimulus. Furthermore, they independently presented neutral (s ) or positive (s ) auditory stimuli upon visual presentation of the object (neutral auditory stimuli were words such as because or there; positive auditory stimuli were words such as good or nice that are central to the human nature of social learning and reinforcement; Bandura, 1986 1941). Results showed that actual e ort to obtain the object was only enhanced when the action was followed by the object and presented with a positive signal. ...
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The Oxford Handbook of Human Motivation, Second Edition, addresses key advances made in the field since the previous edition, offering the latest insights from the top theorists and researchers of human motivation. The volume includes chapters on social learning theory, control theory, self-determination theory, terror management theory, and regulatory focus theory and also presents articles from leading scholars on phenomena such as ego depletion, choice, curiosity, flow, implicit motives, and personal interests. A special section dedicated to goal research highlights achievement goals, goal attainment, goal pursuit and unconscious goals, and the goal orientation process across adulthood. The volume sheds new light on the biological underpinnings of motivation, including chapters on neuropsychology and cardiovascular dynamics. This resource is also packed with practical research and guidance, with sections on relationships and applications in areas such as psychotherapy, education, physical activity, sport, and work. By providing reviews of the most advanced work by the very best scholars in this field, this volume represents an invaluable resource for both researchers and practitioners, as well as any student of human nature.
... As the objective nature of fatigue (i.e., the actual fatigue) is equivalent to the changed objective capacity to meet task demands expressed with a negative sign, the perception of fatigue is presumably the perception of this changed capacity. The phenomenology of capacity or fatigue and other concepts such as self-efficacy (i.e., an individual's belief in his or her capacity to execute behaviours necessary to meet specific task performance demands; Bandura (1978); Bandura (1986); Bandura (1997)) have all been conceptualised as extensionally equivalent by other authors (Stephan et al., 2016) and self-report ratings of them have been shown to be associated with one another (Akin & Kas Guner, 2019;Findley et al., 1998). Indeed, Stephan et al. (2016) view perception of fatigue as a metacognitive phenomenon: ". . . ...
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The actual capacity to perform tasks, and actual fatigue, are concepts that have been thought of as inherently linked. These considerations also extend to their phenomenology, meaning the perception(s) of capacity or fatigue. The phenomenology of capacity or fatigue thus may be capturing the same underlying latent construct. Further, it is speculated that the actual capacity of a person to perform a given task, and their perception of that capacity, have a psychophysical relationship. The aim of this study was therefore twofold: 1) to explore the extensional equivalence of perceptions of capacity and fatigue, and 2) to explore the relationship between actual capacity and the perception of that capacity. We analysed secondary outcomes from two experiments where 21 participants performed various elbow flexion tasks with either a dumbell, or a connected adaptive resistance exercise (CARE) machine enabling measurement of actual capacity (i.e., maximal force). Mixed effects ordered beta regression models estimated the latent constructs during conditions from self-reports of perceptions of capacity and fatigue comparing the two operationalisations, and the relationship between actual capacity (i.e., % maximal force) and self-reports of perceptions of capacity. We hypothesised that, given their theoretical extensional equivalence, the latent constructs captured by self-report ratings as operationalisations of perceptions of capacity and fatigue would exhibit a strong negative relationship between each other reflecting strong identity, and a positive association albeit with weak as opposed to strong identity between actual capacity and perception of capacity. Our results appear to broadly corroborate both hypotheses. There was a very strong relationship indicating strong identity and thus extensional equivalence of perceptions of capacity and fatigue latent constructs (r =-0.989 [95% CI-0.994 to-0.981]). Further, a coarse grained directional relationship between actual capacity and the perception of capacity was present suggesting only weak identity at best. Future research should endeavour to identify conditions permitting testing of assumptions of the present work (i.e., the quantity assumption) and explore further possible psychophysical models relating actual, and perceptions of, demands, capacity, and effort to understand the impact of the former upon the latter given the conceptual relationships between them.
... Bu nedenle birçok öğretmenin öz yeterlik inançlarının düşük olduğu sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Bandura (1986)'ya göre öz yeterlik, kişinin bir amaç doğrultusunda bir görevi icra ederek sonucunda beklediğini elde edebilme yeteneğidir. Schunk (1991) ise öz yeterliliği kişinin kendi öğrenme sürecini tanıyabilme özelliği ile açıklar. ...
... The intervention, which has been described in detail previously, 22 was delivered over 2.5 school years from July 2010 to December 2012. Strategies were based on social cognitive theory, 26 behavioural choice theory 27 and ecological systems theory. 28 The programme was delivered by classroom teachers and targeted physical activity and sedentary behaviours in the school and home settings. ...
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Objective To test the efficacy of the Transform-Us! school- and home-based intervention on children’s physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB) and cardiometabolic risk factor profiles. Methods A 30-month 2×2 factorial design cluster randomised controlled trial delivered in 20 primary schools (148 Year 3 classes) in Melbourne, Australia (2010–2012), that used pedagogical and environmental strategies to reduce and break up SB, promote PA or a combined approach, compared with usual practice. Primary outcomes (accelerometry data; n=348) were assessed at baseline, 18 and 30 months. Secondary outcomes included body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) (n=564), blood pressure (BP) (n=537) and biomarkers (minimum n=206). Generalised linear mixed models estimated the interactive effects of the PA and SB interventions on the outcomes. If there was no interaction, the main effects were assessed. Results At 18 months, there were intervention effects on children’s weekday SB (−27 min, 95% CI: −47.3 to −5.3) for the PA intervention, and on children’s average day PA (5.5 min, 95% CI: 0.1 to 10.8) for the SB intervention. At 30 months, there was an intervention effect for children’s average day SB (−33.3 min, 95% CI: −50.6 and −16.0) for the SB intervention. Children’s BMI (PA and SB groups) and systolic BP (combined group) were lower, and diastolic BP (PA group) was higher. There were positive effects on WC at both time points (SB intervention) and mixed effects on blood parameters. Conclusions The Transform-Us! PA and SB interventions show promise as a pragmatic approach for reducing children’s SB and adiposity indicators; but achieving substantial increases in PA remains challenging. Trial registration ISRCTN83725066 ; ACTRN12609000715279.
... 25). In addition to the "social-cognitive learning theory" (Bandura, 1986), the "transtheoretical model of behavioral change" (Prochaska & DiClemente, 1983), or the "health action process approach" (Schwarzer, 1992), the "theory of planned behavior" (Ajzen, 1985(Ajzen, , 1991) is a widely used framework for predicting physical activity behavior. ...
Chapter
In this chapter, the prevalence of physically activity as well as sedentary behavior across the life span is presented. Empirical findings on the associations between the Big Five personality dimensions of openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism and health behavior (i.e., physical activity and sedentary behaviors) as well as various health parameters are introduced. Explanations for these relationships are discussed. It is proposed that health behavior (i.e., physical activity, sitting time) acts as mediator between personality traits and health status. Finally, a heuristic model is presented as a foundation for future research into the relationships between personality, health behavior, and health over the life span.
... involving two of the main stakeholders, namely the employee and the manager. Further, through careful verbal persuasion in the discussion, the rater can have a positive impact on the ratee's self-efficacy beliefs (Bandura, 1986). This may have a useful effect on the ratee's readiness to learn, the level of effort applied and the performance in the training session. ...
Research
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A thorough analysis of training needs is an important component of any systematic training strategy. International hotel companies face substantial challenges in terms of human resources development. This situation may lead the assumption that they would therefore apply particular care in the planning, design, implementation and evaluation of their training activities. This study's objectives were to explore whether large hotel companies sufficiently consider organizational, task and person aspects when analyzing their senior management's training needs, and on the other hand, to investigate how systematically they apply the training cycle. The 15 largest international hotel organizations were selected to participate in this qualitative study in which relevant questions were asked to one senior Human Resources Executive of each company via a semi-structured telephone interview. Answers from eleven organizations were obtained. The responses suggest that structured and exhaustive approaches to training needs analysis are the exception rather than the norm. All companies do in some way assess existing training needs. However except for one company, none comprehensively considers all three areas of training needs. The general focus seems to be on persons' needs, and to a lesser degree on the organization's needs and current industry trends. There is a clear preference to rely on performance reviews and individual assessment centre results. These two sources were mentioned by a large majority of respondents. Less often, overall company results in terms of finances, quality and sometimes other balance score card criteria provide an impetus for training activities. This suggests that organizational needs are taken into account. Very little attention seems to be paid to current job requirements, although most respondents claim taking future job requirements into account for training purposes. This seems contradictory, but may be explained by the rapid rate of change the industry is exposed to. Overall, the answers suggest that in general, training planning in large hotel organizations is less structured than the academic literature overwhelmingly recommends. While the majority-3-of the organizations interviewed set general, company wide training objectives, only about half of them also set individual development goals for their managers. This appears to be inconsistent with the hotel industry's apparent focus on the person level in training needs analysis. While most international hotel organizations do in some way evaluate their training programmes, they usually do this at a basic level. Nevertheless there are a few notable exceptions.-4-Content
... There is a growing awareness that the perceptions kept by people are the strongest measures of the choices they create in daily life (Bandura, 1986). There is rising literature in education that indicates that the perception of teachers affects their actions in the classroom (Al-Alawi, n.d.). ...
... The questionnaire "Moral Disengagement-24" (MD-24) was developed by Moore, Detert, Baker, & Mayer (2012) based on Bandura's ideas about the content and structure of the phenomenon of moral disengagement. Bandura (1986) points out that there are mechanisms that determine the selective actualization of the subject at different stages of self-regulation of certain moral prohibitions, which allows you to apply or not apply these moral prohibitions to yourself. Bandura classifies eight mechanisms of alienation of moral responsibility into four groups (loci): the behavioural locus, the personality locus of the actor, the locus of reformulating the consequences of behaviour and the locus of distorting the image of the victim. ...
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Significant transformations in postmodern society determine the need to form a space of digital communications and the involvement of information and communication technologies. Such trends make significant demands on various categories of professionals, including managers in the field of tourism. The aim of this research is to study the psychological peculiarities of morality in the representatives of digital Generations Y and Z in the field of tourism. In accordance with the aim, we paid attention to the study of such components of moral regulation as ethics attitude, moral foundations, justice sensitivity and moral disengagement. The research involved 200 participants being represented by volunteers from five regions of Ukraine, including 100 respondents in the age of 25-30 who formed part of the Generation Y group; the other 100 participants in the age of 18-23 formed the Generation Z group. The results show that millennials are more idealistic. The intercrossing of the factors of idealism and relativism allows us to characterize millennials as situationalists, and centennials as subjectivists. It is ascertained that millennials are characterised by such important moral foundations for judgments as “Faithfulness”, “Purity”, which is reflected in the greater importance of “Ethics of community”. At the same time, it was found that centennials place more emphasis on the moral foundations of care and justice, and as a result, they are more committed to the “Ethics of autonomy” and “Progressivism”. The research confirmed the uniqueness and specificity of the moral regulation of different digital generations of representatives of the tourism industry.
... Literature showed that the SCT was mostly used [25]. Besides, the interventions considered increasing self-efficacy in parents as the key construct of behavior change in SCT, which refers to belief in one's ability to organize and to produce intended achievements [26][27][28]. In other words, many studies revealed that parents' behaviors and skills, such as being role models and having good self-efficacy regarding obesity prevention in their children, play a crucial element promoting weight management among preschool children in the home environment [28][29][30]. ...
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Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children has raised public health concerns. This study aimed to design and evaluate a behaviour change intervention program to promote weight management among Tehranian preschoolers. Methods The PRECEDE-PROCEED model is one of the most popular models in health education used to develop and evaluate most educational interventions. In this one-group pre and post-pilot study, 13 mothers of preschoolers were recruited from preschools in Tehran (the capital of Iran), in August 2020. Mothers received a six-week educational intervention, including text messages and educational videos via WhatsApp, to increase their self-efficacy to overcome barriers changing their children’s lifestyle. Mothers reported preschoolers’ height and weight to assess Body Mass Index and filled out the Food Frequency Questionnaire, the Persian version of the children's health-related quality of life questionnaire, and demographic features. The “Children’s physical activity and sedentary behaviors checklist,” newly designed by the researchers, was also filled out by mothers. These behaviors were measured according to the minutes that children were involved in these activities in a day, and the days they spent in a week for them. All variables were measured at baseline, immediately after the intervention and three months later. Data analysis was performed using SPSS IBM statistics version 22. Friedman test was used to evaluate changes over time. Results The findings demonstrated that the mean BMI z-score stayed steady between baseline, immediately after the intervention and after three months (P = 0.60). Besides, after three months, the intervention programme led to a decrease in soft drink consumption (P = 0.001), and an increase in parental perception of their child’s general health (P = 0.05), the parental concern regarding their child’s emotional and physical health (P = 0.002) and minutes of physical activity per day (P = 0.02). However, fruit intake decreased (P = 0.01), and simple sugar, such as cube, increased (P = 0.03). Conclusion Results from this study are promising but should be interpreted with caution and should be replicated on a larger scale and compared with a control group to evaluate whether effects are maintained in a larger sample.
... Self-efficacy is a significant self-concept that is closely correlated to the need for competence which is refer to the sensation of being confident in one's abilities and capable of tackling challenges (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Individual self-efficacy is described by Bandura (1986) as a sense of capacity and competence to perform duties. As previously stated, helicopter parents' attitudes of over-responsibility, control, and protection toward their children's lives (Kömürcü-Akik & Alsancak-Akbulut, 2021) might decrease young adults' self-efficacy. ...
Article
Helicopter parenting (HP) has become a common concept in families with young adults. A growing body of literature revealed negative consequences of perceived HP among young adults as its developmentally inappropriate parenting. However, there is still a limitation of an empirical study on the impact of HP on young adults’ technology addiction. Accordingly, this study investigated possible relationships between HP, self-control, self-efficacy, and multi-screen addiction (MSA) among Turkish emerging adults. 556 college students (Mage=21.02) from two major universities in Turkey participated in the study. The results showed that mother helicopter parenting (MHP) and father helicopter parenting (FHP) related to MSA and a low level of self-control but not self-esteem. In addition, the results from a mediation analysis indicated that MHP had an indirect effect on MSA through a low level of self-control. The results of the study confirmed the importance of parenting in MSA among young adults.
... To address this gap, we developed and implemented a multi-component environmental, educational, and policy intervention in Baltimore City urban food pantries of different sizes to improve access and uptake of healthful foods by low-income families. The intervention targets multiple levels of the social ecological model [22] combined with key constructs of social cognitive theory geared toward behavior change [23] to evaluate whether targeting multiple components impacts the healthfulness of the foods distributed at food pantries. The research questions in this study were: (1) Did the intervention strategies lead to increased variety of healthful foods stocked in intervention pantries compared to control pantries? ...
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of a multi-modal pilot intervention on the stocking and acquisition of healthy foods in urban food pantries. An intervention that consisted of three 8-week phases, each focused on promotion of one food group: (1) lean & low-sodium proteins; (2) fruits & vegetables; and (3) healthy carbohydrates was conducted in 3 intervention and 4 comparison food pantries. Food stocking variety scores measured changes in the stocking of promoted healthful foods at pantries. Food Assortment Scoring Tool (FAST) scores measured healthfulness of client bags. Intervention and comparison pantries showed an increase during the study in the total variety score for promoted options, with no significant differences between groups. Mean healthfulness scores for intervention client bags (n = 34) significantly increased from 58.2 to 74.9 (p < 0.001). This pilot trial identified logistically feasible strategies to promote healthy options effectively in food pantries, even in pantries with limited resources.
... American psychologist Bandura (1986) proposed the theory of self-efficacy, stating that individual behavior, cognition, and environment influence each other. Self-efficacy affects which activities people choose to engage in, the amount of effort they expend in these activities, the extent to which they persevere in the face of difficulties, and the cognitive evaluations and emotional reactions brought about by successes and failures (Bandura, 1977). ...
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Objectives To study the influencing factors on college students’ physical exercise behavior and the mediating relationship of self-efficacy based on the theory of social support and self-efficacy; to provide theoretical support and practical guidance for college students engaging independently in physical exercise. Methods A total of 1,440 college students from six universities in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China were selected as the research objects, and three scales (Self-Efficacy Scale, Social Support Scale, and Physical Exercise Rating Scale) were used to construct a structural equation model. Results (1) A comprehensive sports facility environment is conducive to college students’ physical activities and the emotional support of friends and family and the campus cultural atmosphere cannot be ignored. (2) Peer support has a direct impact on physical exercise behavior, family support and school support indirectly affect college students’ physical exercise behavior, based on the intermediary role of self-efficacy. (3) According to the total effect, social support was ranked as school support (0.444), peer support (0.312), and family support (0.145). Conclusion Social support not only directly affects physical exercise behavior but also indirectly affects physical exercise behavior based on the mediating effect of self-efficacy.
... Interestingly, the school counselors in the present study with previous professional trauma and mental health experience self-reported the highest degree of confidence in their skills, even above the training obtained in their counseling graduate program. This aligns with Bandura's (1977Bandura's ( , 1986Bandura's ( , 1992 self-efficacy theory, which highlights the salience of "prior experience" in buoying one's confidence, even in K-12 settings (e.g., Shahzad & Naureen, 2017). ...
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This study explored Appalachian school counselors’ experiences responding to the ongoing opioid epidemic within their respective school communities, an underexplored topic in educational and school counseling research. In response to this gap, we utilized a transcendental phenomenological approach to explore the lived experiences of five school counselors working in communities within the Appalachia region of the United States. Three themes emerged, through the individual interviews: contextual factors, school counselor impact, and preparedness. Overall, the study is a critical first step in better understanding school counselors’ positioning in school communities adversely impacted by the opioid epidemic. Moreover, these findings support the need for school counselor and school community training centered on opioid use, trauma, trauma-informed schooling, and addiction. Additional implications are offered, along with limitations and areas for future research.
... Consequently, the students were determined to be like such teachers. This finding agrees with the social cognitive learning theory (Bandura, 1986), on imitating a role model. The relationship between medical students and their teachers was also studied in a work by Aldrup (Aldrup, Klusmann, Lüdtke, Göllner, & Trautwein, 2018). ...
Article
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In higher education, much attention has been focused on the enhancement of the educational experience, allowing students to successfully develop and thus make the most of not only their potential, but also the numerous other benefits education has to offer. Being engaged both institutionally and academically plays a vital part in developing their potential and performance. Therefore, this paper studied the engagement level towards the academics at the Institute of medicine. Factors contributing to institutional engagement were also analyzed. The participants include 229 medical students. Each participant was asked to answer a general demographic questionnaire, the Institute engagement questionnaire, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale–Student version (UWES-S) questionnaire, and a questionnaire of all relevant factors. Student engagement was assessed through statistical analysis. These included percentage, mean, standard deviation, and stepwise multiple regression of the constituent factors. The Institute engagement level was 3.73. Factors that significantly pertained to the engagement level were teachers (p = 0.01*), staff (p = 0.01*), friends (p = 0.02*), and seniors peers (p = 0.03*), respectively. Academic engagement was found to vary by the level of study. Medical students in their 1st, 2nd, and 3rd years exhibited engagement levels of 4.94, 4.87, and 4.55, respectively. Given the group, students’ engagement toward the university was of a high level. The most important contributing factors were their relationship with teachers, staff, friends, and senior peers. However, the academic engagement level tended to decrease as study progressed. It was conjectured that this notable decrease resulted from increasing complexity in the program as specified by the curriculum. Positively engaged students better adapt to the academic context of higher education. Hence, they are much likely to succeed.
... Interestingly, the school counselors in the present study with previous professional trauma and mental health experience self-reported the highest degree of confidence in their skills, even above the training obtained in their counseling graduate program. This aligns with Bandura's (1977Bandura's ( , 1986Bandura's ( , 1992 self-efficacy theory, which highlights the salience of "prior experience" in buoying one's confidence, even in K-12 settings (e.g., Shahzad & Naureen, 2017). ...
Article
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School improvement plans (SIPs) have become a central feature of schooling. Educational leaders experience tension between balancing compliance with accountability demands and continuous improvement, and neither of these lenses is centered in the social justice necessary for closing opportunity gaps. We propose a new rubric for assessing the extent to which SIPs focus on policy compliance, students, organizations, or community.
... Enmarcada dentro de la teoría sociocognitiva, se entiende la autoeficacia como el conjunto de juicios que las personas hacen sobre sus propias capacidades (Bandura, 1986). Atendiendo a autores como Álvarez-Pérez et al. (2021), es necesario tener en cuenta que estos juicios presentan efectos significativos sobre la elección de determinadas conductas, así como sobre la persistencia, el esfuerzo, los patrones de pensamiento y las respuestas emocionales en relación con las tareas escolares. ...
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En las últimas décadas se han llevado a cabo diferentes estudios que profundizan en las condiciones que explican el compromiso de los individuos con las tareas académicas. Estas investigaciones evidencian la necesidad de combinar factores cognitivos —las capacidades, conocimientos o estrategias— con aspectos de carácter motivacional, como la disposición, la intención o las creencias autorreferidas. En este contexto se sitúa este estudio, que tiene por objeto identificar perfiles motivacionales, en función de la autoeficacia y las metas académicas, y estudiar su relación con el compromiso (esfuerzo y persistencia en la tarea), las emociones (miedo al fracaso y afecto positivo) y con el rendimiento académico (matemáticas y ciencias). La muestra está formada por 7,524 estudiantes (50.9% mujeres) de Educación Secundaria que participaron en la evaluación PISA 2018 (M = 15.84, DT = 0.29). Empleando el Latent Profile Analysis s e identificaron cinco perfiles motivacionales. Los perfiles con puntuaciones más adaptativas en autoeficacia y metas de aprendizaje reconocían menor miedo al fracaso, más afecto positivo, esfuerzo/persistencia y obtenían mejor rendimiento académico (científico y matemático). Discutidos a la luz de la teoría motivacional, los resultados de esta investigación evidencian el papel de la orientación a metas y las creencias de autoeficacia en la promoción tanto del compromiso y rendimiento académico como del bienestar emocional del estudiante.
... The concept of self-efficacy proposed in the social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986) and computer selfefficacy (CSE) (Compeau & Higgins, 1995) formed the theoretical foundation of the current study. Drawing on Bandura's theory, Campeau and Higgins (p.192) put forth the term computer self-efficacy as "a judgment of one's capability to use a computer," which has been investigated in a wide range of educational contexts (Carrahar Wolverton et al., 2021). ...
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The sudden shift to online teaching following the outbreak of COVID-19 has confronted English language learners with numerous challenges. The students’ perceptions and practices in online learning environments might be influenced by their technology-oriented abilities to survive in the current educational predicament. The current study elucidated the 12th-grade high school students’ online learning experiences in a developing country during the global pandemic in light of their computer self-efficacy (CSE) level. To this end, a total number of 110 students completed the computer self-efficacy scale. The results indicated a moderate to low level of computer self-efficacy among the participants. According to the obtained scores, they were divided into low-CSE and high-CSE groups and asked to ruminate over their online learning experiences during the pandemic by answering eight questions in the form of self-reflection essays. The self-reflections of the two groups were separately analysed, and the recurrent themes were extracted. The results revealed several commonalities and discrepancies between the low- and high- CSE students considering their distant learning experiences within the COVID-19 lockdown. The findings provide pedagogical recommendations for enhancing online learning efficiency among high school students.
... Derived from Albert Bandura's Self-Efficacy Theory and General Social Cognitive Theory (Lent, 2013), SCCT develops into a comprehensive career theory that argues that an individual's career path results from the interaction between multiple career elements since it was proposed by Lent et al. (1994). General social cognitive theory assumes that people are the product of a dynamic interaction between external environmental factors, internal subjectivity factors, as well as past and present behavior (Bandura, 1986). Selfefficacy depends on four main factors: personal performance accomplishments, vicarious learning, social persuasion, and physiological and affective states (Bandura, 1997). ...
Article
Existing literature based on Social Cognitive Theory has established key environmental and cognitive variables related to problem drinking in emerging adults, but further research is needed to understand the interaction between these variables. The aim of this study was to extend understanding of how environmental and cognitive variables interact to influence problem drinking among emerging adults. We hypothesized that cognitive factors of alcohol outcome expectancies (AOEs) and drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE) would sequentially mediate the relationship between environmental factors (perceived parental/peer drinking) and problem drinking. A sample of 984 Australian emerging adults (M age = 20.55, SD = 2.19, range: 18–25) completed an online survey including measures of demographics, substance use, environmental variables (perceived drinking by parents/peers), and cognitive variables (AOEs and DRSE). This study employed a cross-sectional design. Path analysis was used to identify indirect pathways for the relationship between environmental factors and drinking behaviour, through cognitive variables. In line with the predicted model, the relationship between parental drinking and problem drinking was sequentially mediated by AOEs, and then DRSE. Participants with heavier drinking parents reported higher AOEs (positive and negative), which related to having lower DRSE, and higher problem drinking. Similarly, the positive relationship between peer drinking and problem drinking was mediated by having higher positive and negative expectancies, but contrary to predictions, DRSE did not mediate these pathways. This study extends on previous research by revealing novel pathways between environmental influences for drinking behaviour, via social cognitive factors that are conducive to change.
Article
Background: Adolescents and young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities are at risk of obesity. Parents influence their diet and physical activity behaviours and therefore, can play important roles in weight management. The aims of this qualitative study were to explore parents' experiences assisting their son or daughter to participate in a weight management study. Methods: Interviews were completed at 6 months with 27 parents whose adolescent or young adult had completed the weight loss portion of an 18-month weight management study. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematic analysis performed. Results: Parents shared insights about how well program components worked with their family, and what strategies worked best to adopt healthier dietary choices and become more physically active. The importance of meeting regularly with someone outside the family to encourage healthier habits was stressed. Conclusions: Future weight management studies should involve parents and their adolescents to help tailor strategies and adapt intervention approaches.
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I have developed and postulated the theory of affinity and proximity based on observation and my own experiences as a citizen, scholar and public intellectual. The theory is predicated on the recurrence of economic and political dualities that we see in all our neighborhoods, in both urban and rural areas and their attendant dependency, tranquility, tensions and violence. The main reasons for postulating this theory is that peace and conflict is one of the most recent disciplines in social sciences and one that has few theories, especially those developed in Africa and by African scholars. Many of the theories used in peace and conflict have been developed in Western scholarship and often fail to capture some of the germane issues affecting peace and conflict in places such as Africa. The theory of affinity and proximity seeks to explain causes of conflict in Africa, using geographical proximity as a major variant. The theory seeks to demonstrate that affinity and proximity are intimately intertwined to the point that they sometimes affect people in ways that we cannot disentangle which one of them has caused the change. We are not able to tell whether it is affinity or proximity that brings about peace or conflict and vice versa. Using African case studies and examples, this article demonstrates that sharing geographical space has implications on how groups relate to each other. The article uses examples from Kenya, to show that the rich and poor are always juxtaposed and interlocked in social, cultural, economic and political relations that promote or undermine peace. The theory focuses on spaces, sites and locations in which protagonists are sometimes living side by side, such as those in slums and those in affluent neighbourhoods. These groups are usually perpetually pursuing antagonistic goals largely as a result of mutual suspicion. What is interesting is that the groups that engage in violence against each other often live side by side but often hide their intensions during periods of positive peace and engage in violence during periods of negative peace. The people in these poor and rich neighbourhoods have different interests and aspirations, with the poor preoccupied with survival through quest for basic needs, while the rich pursue issues of self actualization. In such societies, the antagonistic forces are often represented by the 'haves' and 'have nots' existing in the same neighbourhoods in urban areas or same enclaves in rural areas. Sometimes the boundaries between them are invisible, because they are social. At many times, the boundaries are visible though infrastructure and quality of economic, social and political institutions and circle of friends and relations. These groups have capacity to camouflage their intentions. They can hide or unleash the violence from time to time and when they choose to. The affinity and proximity theory fits the Kenyan situation and all other situations where two or more groups are antagonistic to each other based on geographical and other forms of identity. Although scholars have captured the ethnic identity as a cause of conflict in Kenya, they have not mapped out urban and rural dualisms, and residential dualities in urban areas where rich and poor neighbourhoods are antagonistic against each other and survive under periods of suspicion and mutual respect. It is always easy to tell when relations have soured or normal based on level of access, movement and tolerance.
Chapter
Many of the discourses on creativity, although not explicitly so, assumes that creativity is a solitary activity—a phenomenon that happens within an individual working in isolation away from other people and other resources. But this is not how most people work. In this chapter, I look at creativity as something that can, and does, occur within groups, working collaboratively to solve problems in and among other groups also working to solve the same problem. Using burstiness as a theoretical construct to notice and name group creativity, I look specifically at how the environment can play a role in fostering and sustaining group creativity. Results indicate that one specific environment—the thinking classroom—is particularly well suited for occasioning group creativity.KeywordsCreativityGroup creativityBurstinessThe thinking classroom
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This discussion shares one working parent's experiences, as a parent aiding her daughter in an eLearning environment. In March 2019, the daughter's elementary school shut down due to COVID-19. Soon after, the schools began using Zoom and Schoology to help maintain a semblance of normalcy and a semblance of attempts towards continuing the learning process within a challenging cultural and sociological situation. What is shared is the parent's journey through which the parent struggled to sustain levels of normalcy in the home and the community. The focus of the discussion revolved around the school week, the school day, and school-based relationships, while also emphasizing the parent's voice through her perspective.
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Students who are intrinsically motivated will frequently perform better than those who are not. This paper examined the relationship between motivational belief strategies and digital literacy in digital learning among university students. Motivational belief is an intrinsic motivation that encourages an individual to self-motivate through specific strategies. This paper has its aims to contribute to assisting students, and academics in utilizing the right motivational strategies to elevate students' digital literacy. Although there is a plethora of studies given students' motivation, studies of motivational belief strategies for elevating digital literacy are still rudimentary. To achieve the research aim, three hypotheses were formulated. A total of 583 respondents were analysed empirically using structural equation modeling-partial least-squares analysis. The findings of the study corroborate a positive and significant relationship between motivational belief strategies and digital literacy competency which signifies the important role of self-motivation in promoting digital literacy as well as preparing students to be a part of the digital future.
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Inquiry-based practices have important impacts on student science learning outcomes, yet the psychological mechanisms behind the relationships are less clear. This study aimed to explore the mediating effects of science attitudes in the relationship between student-perceived inquiry-based practices and scientific literacy using data from eight countries in the 2015 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Results of multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) suggested that (1) the three science attitudinal factors, i.e., interest in science, science self-efficacy, and instrumental motivation of learning science, served as significant mediators between perceived inquiry-based practices and scientific literacy; (2) the direct effect of perceived inquiry-based practices on scientific literacy was consistently negative across the countries, yet consistently positive on the three attitudinal factors; and (3) the indirect effects of perceived inquiry-based practices on scientific literacy via interest in science and science self-efficacy were consistently positive across the countries while negative via instrumental motivation for six out of the eight countries. The results may provide deeper insights into inquiry-based practices and suggest ways for science educators to improve student science attitudes and science learning outcomes.
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Background Because of the wide use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in healthcare, medical students’ knowledge and skills of modern ICT have been considered essential for their successful learning and future careers. According to Bandura’s self-efficacy, enhancing ICT self-efficacy, which might be affected by technology experience, could be a pathway to improving ICT literacy and competence, which should be one focus of medical educationalists. However, there is a lack of suitable measurements of medical students’ self-efficacy and a clear understanding of its relationship with technology experience. Materials and methods We conducted a literature review and direct consultation with an expert panel to identify potential items for the ICT self-efficacy scale. Based on the data collected in a survey of 486 first-year medical students in China, the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was employed to confirm the structure of the final version. Furthermore, we used linear regressions to quantify the association between ICT self-efficacy and technology experience measured by the age of first access to the Internet, the age at first ownership of a personal computer (PC) or a laptop, and that of a smartphone. Results The EFA results derived 15 items of four factors, with 67.02% of the total variance explained: Privacy and Safety, Differencing, Communication, and Learning and Application. The Cronbach’s alphas for the four subscales and the overall scale ranged from 0.78 to 0.89. Regression results demonstrated a significant association of ICT self-efficacy with age at first ownership of a personal computer (PC) and the mediation role of the general self-efficacy in the ICT self-efficacy’s association with the age at first ownership of a personal smartphone. Conclusion The ICT scale developed is a reliable and valid task-specific measure to assess ICT Self-Efficacy for medical students. In addition, enhancing students’ technology experience might improve their ICT self-efficacy.
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Due to the prevalence of violent behaviors in societies, such behaviors are increasing day by day in the traffic. Verbal or physical violence experienced in traffic, often due to reasons such as not giving way among drivers, reaches serious dimensions by threatening traffic safety. This issue is called “road rage” in the literature. Some studies on road rage have shown that drivers with guns in their vehicles may be risky in terms of their tendency to display aggressive behavior. It has been suggested that the concept called "weapons effect" in social psychology may be effective on aggressive behaviors. In this study, it is aimed to make an evaluation based on the research findings in the literature on the relationship between this effect and road rage by emphasizing the weapons effect, which is one of the factors thought to affect the aggressive behaviors exhibited in the traffic environment. Within the framework of the theoretical foundations and the research results carried out in this direction, it is thought that the presence of weapons may be an important risk factor on road rage behaviors. This article comprehensively discusses the topic within the scope of traffic safety through the perspective of social psychology and traffic psychology. Keywords: Road Rage, Aggressive Driving, Weapons Effect, Review
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Aims and objectives: To determine whether self-efficacy mediates the relationship between Symptom Clusters (SC) and quality of life (QOL) in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). Background: The QOL in patients with MG can be affected not only by the SC but the self-efficacy in previous studies, while the latter may also be contributed by the former. However, it is still unclear whether self-efficacy mediates the relationship between SC and QOL in patients with MG. Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in patients with MG who were recruited from our institution from October 2021 to March 2022, which was reported in line with the STROBE guidelines. Methods: The hypothetical model was tested and all the effects of SC and self-efficacy on QOL were estimated based on structural equation modelling (SEM) analysis after conducting a confirmatory factor analysis of the scales in a separate cohort. Results: Three scales for symptoms (four summated items), self-efficacy (four plus one parcelled item) and MG-QOL (three summated items) were validated according to the confirmatory factor analysis in 72 patients. An SEM analysis of another 310 participants revealed that SC exerted significant direct effects on QOL and self-efficacy, with values of .585 and -.293, respectively, and self-efficacy also had a significant effect on QOL (-.141). The indirect effect of SC on QOL via self-efficacy was .041, accounting for 6.6% of the overall effect. Male and female patients did not differ in the direct and indirect effects of symptoms on QOL. Conclusions: This study suggests that, although self-efficacy partially mediates the relationship between SC and QOL in patients with MG, worsening of symptoms remains the leading contributor to the decreased QOL. Relevance to clinical practice: These results may provide a potential clue for doctors, nurses, and other caregivers to optimise treatment strategies for targeted patients with MG. Patient or public contribution: Involved in developing and answering research questions, management and conduct.
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Background: Emergency healthcare professionals (EHPs) face significant occupational stressors requiring the skilled use of adaptive coping strategies. Some EHP resort to maladaptive coping (MC) strategies that negatively impact their mental health, yet MC strategies are not clearly defined in the literature. Examining factors that predispose EHP to MC can support interventions to improve coping and well-being. Objective: This systematic review examined MC among EHP working in pre-hospital and hospital-based settings. The primary aim was to identify factors associated with MC strategies used by EHP. Methods: Embase, Ovid, CINAHL Plus, PsychInfo, and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched for quantitative studies measuring MC use among EHP. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) 2020 checklist was used to guide the review. Studies were included if they: (a) targeted licensed healthcare professionals providing patient care, (b) occurred in emergency department or pre-hospital emergency setting, and (c) examined provider coping. Studies were excluded if they: (a) did not include EHPs, (b) did not differentiate results in mixed samples, (c) did not clearly measure coping strategies, (d) failed to include MC strategies in the results, or (e) were not available in full text. Risk of bias and study quality was appraised using Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Critical Appraisal Checklist. Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) guided the final synthesis, drawing conclusions from the evidence to identify factors associated with MC in EHP. Results: A total of 14 cross-sectional studies, published between 2003 and 2021, were included in the review. Included studies were conducted in either pre-hospital, hospital, or a combination of both settings. Most studies included mixed samples or emergency physicians. A variety of coping strategies were significantly correlated with poor mental health outcomes including venting, denial, disengagement, self-blame, and substance use. Among personal factors, EHPs who were female, older than 50, living alone, with personal trauma history were significantly more likely to use MC strategies. Additionally, EHP with children, work experience, higher life satisfaction, and resilience were negatively associated with MC. Environmental factors positively associated with MC included work stress, workload, and poor benefits. Trauma exposure had a positive, but non-significant relationship. Conclusions: Emergency healthcare professionals use a variety of coping strategies, many of which are maladaptive and significantly related to poor mental health outcomes. Several personal and environmental factors contribute to behavior that reflect the use of MC strategies, but findings are sparse. Researchers should consider current limitations and challenges, particularly mental health stigma, when designing future studies. Clinical relevance: The evidence in this review suggests that certain factors predispose EHP for use of MC strategies. This review highlights an important research gap necessitating more robust studies to identify MC risk factors among EHP in chronically high-stress environments.
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