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Abstract

Cereals are used as staple food almost all over the world. Wheat is the mostly used for human consumption in many areas of the world. Common wheat or bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is the most widely cultivated in the world. Large quantity of wheat is milled into atta (a high-extraction flour), which is used for the production of flat breads, especially chapattis and naans. Wheat is highly nutritious crop which is rich in carbohydrates, vitamins and minrals. Minerals play a vital role in the maintenance of human health. Cereals and legumes are rich in minerals but the bioavailability of these minerals is usually low due to the presence of antinutritional factors such as phytate, trypsin inhibitor and polyphenoles. Phytic acid is most important anti-nutrient because it is found in most of the cereals and have strong ability to complex multi-charged metal ions, especially Zn, Ca and Fe and make them unavailable for human body utilization. The simple traditional household technologies such as roasting, germination and fermentation, cooking and soaking have been used to process the cereal in order to improve the nutritional quality. The article described the antinutritional factors present in cereals and measures to minimize their effects.
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An overview of anti-nutritional factors in cereal grains with special
reference to wheat-A review
Muahamad Nadeem*, Faqir Muhammad Anjum*, Rai Muhammad Amir*, Moazzam Rafiq Khan*, Shahzad Hussain**,
Muhammad Sameem Javed
*National Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-Pakistan
**2Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh,
Saudi Arabia
Corresponding Author: mnadeem11@gmail.com
Abstract
Cereals are used as staple food almost all over the world. Wheat is the mostly used for human consumption in many
areas of the world. Common wheat or bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is the most widely cultivated in the world. Large
quantity of wheat is milled into atta (a high-extraction flour), which is used for the production of flat breads, especially
chapattis and naans. Wheat is highly nutritious crop which is rich in carbohydrates, vitamins and minrals. Minerals play a
vital role in the maintenance of human health. Cereals and legumes are rich in minerals but the bioavailability of these
minerals is usually low due to the presence of antinutritional factors such as phytate, trypsin inhibitor and polyphenoles.
Phytic acid is most important anti-nutrient because it is found in most of the cereals and have strong ability to complex
multi-charged metal ions, especially Zn, Ca and Fe and make them unavailable for human body utilization. The simple
traditional household technologies such as roasting, germination and fermentation, cooking and soaking have been used to
process the cereal in order to improve the nutritional quality. The article described the antinutritional factors present in
cereals and measures to minimize their effects.
Keywords: Cereals, antinutritional factors, Germination, Frementation, Phytic acid,
Introduction
Cereals such as rice, wheat and maize are
members of the grass family Graminae and are
particularly important because of their role as staple food
crops in many areas of the world. Cereal foods are
important components of the daily diet, providing
carbohydrates, proteins, dietary fibers and vitamins.
Epidemiological studies have indicated protective role of
whole grain foods against several diseases associated
with westernized societies such as type 2 diabetes
(Murtaugh et al., 2003; Pereira et al., 2002; Simin et al.,
2000), cardiovascular diseases (Jacobs and Gallagher,
2004) and certain cancers (Larsson et al., 2005). Wheat is
the main cereal crop used for human consumption in
many areas of the world. Common wheat or bread wheat
(Triticum aestivum) is mostly cultivated in the world
(Pomeranz et al., 1981). Pakistan is the 8th largest wheat
producer country, contributing about 3.17 % of the world
wheat production from 3.72% of wheat growing area
(GOP, 2008). Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a major
source of dietary energy and protein for people whom
daily diet is composed of cereal products. It is the world’s
most important crop in terms of production and
consumption. (FAO, 2009).
The main wheat producing countries are USA,
China, Russia, India, Pakistan, Canada, Argentina,
Australia and some countries of European Union. Wheat
ranks first among the cereals in Pakistan and is associated
with growth and survival of the people of the country. It
accounts for 36% of cropped area and 30% of value
added by major crops (Hussain et al., 2004). More than
60% of the total daily requirements of protein and
calories are met through wheat (Butt et al., 1997). Wheat
provides 360 kilo calories (Chopra et al., 2002). It
contributes 68-75% of the total food intake in the daily
diet and provides 75% of the total protein requirements
(Aslam et al., 1982). It is a staple food, consumed world
wide in the form of bread and biscuits etc. It is the
predominant cereal produced and eaten in Pakistan
(Economic survey, 2001). In Pakistan, dietary pattern
varies widely from one region to another but tends to
weigh largely in favour of cereals (wheat, rice etc.),
pulses and meat. Large quantity of wheat is milled into
atta (a high-extraction flour), which is used for the
production of flat breads, especially chapattis and Naans.
In Pakistan, the most commonly consumed least
expensive products are chapattis and rotis, using almost
80% of the total wheat production. These are primary and
cheapest source of protein and calories in the diet (Akhter
et al., 2005). In Punjab and Sindh provinces chapatti and
roti doughs are unleavened while in Baluchistan and
Khaber pakhton provinces fermented roties are prepared.
Wheat is used to make flour for flat and steamed
breads, biscuits, cookies, cakes, pasta, noodles and for
fermentation to make beer, alcohol, and vodka. Wheat
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holds a unique position due to its ability to form dough
and in Pakistan about 80% of the wheat flour produced is
utilized in the form of unleavened flat bread locally
known as chapatti and other culinary purposes (Hussain
et al., 2004). Approximately 50% of the world's calories
are provided by rice, wheat and maize. To improve
nutritional quality and organoleptic properties of cereal
based foods genetic improvement, amino acid
fortification, supplementation or complentation with
protein rich sources and processing technologies are
employed (milling, malting, fermentation and sprouting)
(Chavan and Kadam, 1989a).
The simple traditional household technologies
have been used to process the cereal in order to improve
the nutritional quality (Nout, 1992) which includes
roasting, germination and fermentation, cooking and
soaking. The application of such technological processes
provokes changes physicochemical characteristics of the
components. As far as it concerned germination (Nout,
1992) when grains are hydrated in ambient conditions,
endogenous enzymes start to modify the grains
constituents in particular, changes in soluble (Katina et
al., 2007) sugars, protein and activities in enzymes.
Germination has profound effect on nutritional quality of
the cereal. (Chavan and Kadam, 1989b). Wheat grains are
traditionally processed by germination and fermentation
prior to consumption. In cereals the plant hormone
gibbereline is an important regulator of germination and
it has been reported to stimulate the release of different
ions and also to enhance the synthesis and secretion of
enzymes particularly alpha amylase in the aleurone cells
of the endosperm (Jacobsen and Chandler, 1990).
Germination is a natural biological process of all superior
plants by which the seeds come out of latency stage once.
The minimal environmental conditions such as humidity,
temperature and nutrients need for its growth and
development (Sangronis and Machado, 2007).
During germination certain changes occur as the
quantity and type of nutrients within the seed. These
changes can vary depending on the type of vegetable, the
variety of seed and the condition of germination (Bau et
al., 1997; Dhaliwal and Aggarwal, 1999). An increase in
bioavailability of minerals and weight has been observed
due to germination. Germinated seeds are good source of
ascorbic acid, riboflavin, choline, thiamine, tocopheroles
and pantothenic acid (Sangronis and Machado, 2007).
Traditional methods as germination and fermentation
tend to improve the nutrient quality of foods. Fermented
food is widely exploited source of value-able protein.
Fermentation causes degradation of grain components,
especially starch and soluble sugars, by both grain and
fermented media enzymes (Chavan and Kadam, 1989a,
b). Fermentation is associated with many chemical
changes that enhance organoleptic response, contents of
free sugars and vitamins, as well as bioavailability of
minerals (Zamora and Fields, 1979), and results in the
breakdown of some of the antinutritional endogenous
compounds. Fermented cereal products are widely
consumed in India and many countries of central and
southern Africa. Fermentation usually involves malting
and souring by mixed cultures of yeast and lactobacilli.
Minerals play a vital role in the maintenance of
human health. Iron for instance, is an important
component of blood and enzymes involved in electron
transfer. Its deficiency results in fatigue, headache and
sore tongue in addition to anemia. Calcium is needed for
bone formation while zinc is essential for protein and
nucleic acid synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism,
successful pregnancy, delivery and normal development
(Wintrobe and Lee, 1974). Cereals and legumes are rich
in minerals but the bioavailability of these minerals is
usually low due to the presence of antinutritional factors
such as phytate and polyphenoles (Valencia et al, 1999).
An adequate mineral absorption is important for infants,
children, elder people and people in clinical situation
(Bergman et al., 1999). Sorghum is also rich in minerals
content but its nutritional quality is dictated by its
chemical composition and presence of considerable
amount of antinutritional factors such as tannin, phytic
acid, polyphenoles and trypsin inhibiters that are
undesirable (El-Sheikh et al., 2000). Higher HCL
extractability may be partly ascribed to the decreased
content of phytic acid as a significant negative co-relation
between the phytic acid and HCL extractability of
essential minerals (Rakhi and Khetarpaul, 1995). During
different food processes such as soaking, germination and
fermentation it has been demonstrated that there is
reduction of phytate content in cereals and vegetables as
well as large increase in phytse activity (Centeno et al.,
2001). In ungerminated seeds very little endogeneous
activity is detectable while during germination
phosphatase activities increases and phytate level
decreases (Viveros et al., 2000).
Antinutrient phytic acid reduces the
bioavailability of minerals (Lesteinne et al., 2005). Phytic
acid as powerful chelating agent reduces the
bioavailability of divalent cations by the formation of
insoluble complexes (Weaver and Kanna, 2002). The
high polyphenole content in plant food grains (Saharan, et
al., 2001) may also adversely affect the mineral
availability. Phytic acid is widely distributed in
commonly consumed foods. It is found in high
concentrations in the seeds of grains, pulses and
oleaginous products, and in lesser amounts in tubers and
garden produce (Alabaster et al., 1996). In cereals,
approximately 1-2% weight of the seed is phytic acid,
and it can even reach 3-6%. Referring to its location, 90%
is found in maize germ, while in wheat and rice it is
distributed in larger proportions in the external covers in
the pericarp and in the aleurone layer (Cheryan, 1980).
Phenolic compounds such as lignans,
alk(en)ylresorcinols and phenolic acids are potential
bioactive compounds due to their antimicrobial,
antioxidative and anticarcinogenic effects (Pratt, 1992).
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Folates are cofactors in many enzymatic reactions and
deficiency increases the risk of mutations and DNA
breakdown (which may lead to cancers). Furthermore,
sufficient intake of folate lowers elevated level of serum
homocysteine, which is a risk factor for coronary heart
disease (Brouwer et al., 1999). Although phenolic and
polyphenolic compounds constitute an important class of
secondary metabolites that act as free radical scavengers
and inhibitors of LDL (low density lipoprotein),
cholesterol oxidation and DNA breakage (Shahidi, 2004)
but complex is formed with minerals which reduce the
bioavailability of minerals. Unfortunately, iron and zinc
in cereal based foods are poorly bioavailable due to
factors that reduce their intestinal absorption, resulting in
high rates of iron and zinc deficiency especially in infant,
children and women of child bearing age (Sandsteed,
2000). Further more mineral absorption is also influenced
by the level of mineral contents and by the factors that
enhance their absorption in the diet as well as by the
physiological status of the subjects (Monsen et al., 1978).
Many minerals and trace elements are inefficiently and
variably absorbed from the diet for instance iron (<1-
30%). Most of minerals are essentially require in our diet
in minute amount and their deficiency may result in
occurrence of some type of malnutrition disorders (Bamji
et al., 1998).
Sprouting improve the extractability of Ca, Fe
and P to varying extent (Saharan et al., 2001). The most
effective treatments are fermentation and sprouting to
improve the extractability of minerals but their
application remains limited because of additional
workload they imply or the particular organoleplic
characteristics they produce. Fermentation decreases the
level of antinutrients in food grains and increases mineral
extractability (Badau et al., 2005).
Antinutritional factors
Phytate are the principal storage form of
phosphorus and are particularly abundant in cereals and
legumes (Reddy et al., 1989). These chelate divalent
cations such as calcium, magnesium, zinc and iron,
thereby also reducing their bioavailability (Sandberg,
2002). Germination has been an effective treatment to
remove antinutritional factors in cereals e.g. phytate.
These are the mobilizing secondary metabolic
compounds which are thought to function as reserve
nutrients (Reddy et al., 1978). The phytic acid serves as
an important reserve of phosphate generated by the action
of phytase during seed germination for the developing
seedling. However, this conversion depends upon the
germinating conditions. As the phytate cannot be
absorbed and humans have a limited ability to hydrolyze
this molecule, an adverse effect of the phytic acid on the
bioavailability of minerals is predicted (Pawar and Ingle,
1988). The concentrations of adenosine triphosphate
and phytic acid in testa, embryo plus scutellum, aleurone,
and endo sperm fractions from grain of Triticum vulgare
cv. have been determined during development under both
normal conditions and those of water stress. Phytic acid
was not detected in the endosperm. In the embryo plus
scutellum and aleurone fractions there was a rapid build-
up of phytic acid, but the adenosine triphosphate level did
not change markedly at this time. These results are not
consistent with physiological roles previously suggested
for phytic acid other than the role of phytin as a
phosphorus and cation store for the germinating seed
(Williams, 1970). Generally in many plant species, 90%
of phytic acid is localized in the aleurone layer and only
10% in the embryo. There are many factors, such as
genetics, environmental fluctuations, location, irrigation
conditions, type of soils, year and fertilizer application
that can effect the phytic acid content and phosphorus
availability in cereal grains. During germination, phytate
salt is degraded by the action of phytase enzymes which
provides the growing seedling with phosphate. Phytic
acid has long been considered as an anti-nutrient because
of its strong ability to complex multi-charged metal ions,
especially Zn (II), Ca (II) and Fe (III) (Harland and
Oberkas, 1987). In consequence, the consumption of
great quantities of food containing high phytic acid levels
could produce a deficit in the absorption of some dietary
minerals (Reddy and pierson, 1994). Although, the
adverse effect of phytic acid could be defeated by
controlling the consumption of phytic acid rich cereal
products. Germination of cereal (Glennie et al., 1985) and
legumes (Duhan et al., 1989) has reduced the level of
phytic acid resulting in better nutritional value of sprouts
(Grewal, 1992). Pakistani spring wheat cultivars were
tested for phytate and mineral contents in different
fractions. Bran contains the high amount of phytic acid
followed by whole wheat flour and straight grade flour.
The phytic acid was reduced during baking of bread and
chapatti. The concentration of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn ranges
from 5-52.00, 26 -147.50, 0.00-97.00 and 9-80.80 ppm
respectively in different milling fractions of wheat
cultivars (Akhter et al., 2005)
Cereals are major source of antioxidants and
having hundred of chemicals with antioxidant activity
and potentially beneficial effects on human health. In
wheat TPC would vary according to growth location.
Processing techniques as soaking and germination reduce
the extractable phenols (Parker and waldron, 2005).
Processing is important both for the sensory and
nutritional quality of grains. In the case of whole grains,
it especially may influence the levels and bioavailability
of the bioactive compounds. Yeast, lactic acid and mixed
fermentation were shown to vary in their effect on native
and germinated whole meal rye flour. The presence of
Saccharomyces cerevisiae was important for enhanced
levels of the analyzed compounds. The levels of folates,
free phenolic acids, total phenolic compounds, lignans
and alkylresorcinols were increased especially by
fermentation of germinated rye, which also resulted in
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lower pH when compared with native rye flour, the level
of folate was increased up to seven-fold and that of free
phenolic acids by up to ten-fold after germination and
fermentation. Fermentation thus offers a tool to further
increase the bioactive potential of whole meal rye (Katina
et al., 2007). The two cultivars were naturally fermented
at room temperature and pH, moisture content, protein,
tannin, total polyphenols and phytic acid content were
determined. Fermentation was found to cause a
significant reduction in total polyphenols and phytic acid
content for the two cultivars. Fermentation showed that
room temperature was found to cause no changes in
tannin content of fermented dough for the two millet
cultivars (Elyas et al., 2002). Germination time and
conditions for wheat grain were studied to determine
optimum conditions that would maximize the production
of antioxidants. Wheat grains were first steeped in water,
followed by incubation in the dark for at 98% RH and
16.5°C. The changes in the concentration of vitamins C
and E, β-carotene, ferulic acid and vanillic acid were
monitored over the germination period. Vitamins C and E
and β-carotene were barely detectable in the dry grains.
However, upon germination the concentrations of these
antioxidant vitamins steadily increased with increasing
germination time, reaching their peaks at 550 μ/g for
vitamin C, 10.92 μg/g for tocopherol and 3.1 μg/g for β-
carotene. Concentrations of ferulic and vanillic acids
were also increased, reaching their maximum at 932.4
μg/g and 12.9 μg/g, respectively. The grains steeped for
48 hours before germination became wet, sticky, yellow-
brown color with acidic smell. These results suggested
that wheat grains steeped and germinated would produce
the most desirable sprouts with respect to antioxidant
concentrations and sensory properties (Yang et al., 2001).
Anti-nutritional factors reducing strategies
The removal of undesirable components is
essential to improve the nutritional quality of cereals. In
this way, these could effectively be utilized to their full
potential as human food. It is widely accepted that simple
and inexpensive traditional processing techniques are
effective methods of achieving desirable changes in the
composition of seeds. Fermentation and germination may
improve the quality of cereals due to the removal of some
antinutritional factors. In many instances, usage of only
one method may not impart the desired removal of
antinutritional compounds and a combination of two or
more methods is required.
The simple traditional house hold technologies
have been used to process the cereal in order to improve
nutritional quality as germination, fermentation, roasting
and cooking, as far it is concerned germination when
grains are hydrated in ambient conditions endogenous
enzyme start to modify the grain constituents in particular
changes to soluble sugars, protein and activities in
enzyme. Millet grain was steeped before germination and
fermentation. Increasing germination and fermentation
led to increased content of soluble sugars for germination
and fermentation (Kouakou et al., 2008). Processing
techniques as soaking, cooking, germination and
fermentation have been found to reduce significantly the
level of phytate and tannin by exogenous and endogenous
enzyme formed during processing. Germination of seeds
decreases tannin and phytic acid contents of the guar gum
seeds with decrease in albumin fraction (Ahmed et al.,
2006). Fermented cereal products are widely consumed
in India and many countries of central and Southern
Africa. Fermentation cause degradation of grain
compounds, especially starch and soluble sugars by both
grain and fermented media enzyme. Germination of
grains of pearl millet increased the protein content and
digestibility and fermentation of the germinated and
course ground grains increases the protein content and
thus protein digestibility greatly improves (Hassan et al.,
2006). Finger millet known as ragi in India source of
carbohydrate, protein and mineral that is comparing to
other common cereal grain antinutrients like phytate and
tannin reduce the nutrient bioavailability which can be
improved by suitable processing methods such as
germination and fermentation. Major biochemical
changes in finger millet occurred during fermentation as
compare to germination. The phytate contents decreases
by 60% with an increase in HCL extractable minerals
47% and antinutrient level also decreases (Sripriya et al.,
1997). Decreasing of phytic acid is very advantageous
due to its influence on nutrition therefore interest has
been grown to reduce its antinutritional effect. Phytic acid
contents decreases significantly (p<0.01) with increase in
fermentation time in pearl millet cultivars and pH
decreases with increase in mineral content and HCL
extractability. Good correlation exists between
antinutritional factors as phytic acid contents reduction
and increase in extractable minerals of pearl millet
cultivars with increase in fermentation time (Abdel
Rehman et al., 2005). Fermentation is a metabolic
process serving for some microorganisms to get energy
through digestion of simple fermentable sugars, mostly
glucose and fructose. In bakery fermentation, the
production of carbon dioxide (CO2) is required serves for
fluffing up the dough. The principle of reheological
apparatus, used for the evaluation of fermented dough
properties during its maturation, is the measurement of
gaseous volume or pressure produced (Bloksma, 1993).
Turkish Tahrana a fermented cereal food shows
fermentation loss by increase in total ash and phosphorus
content. Millet grains were steeped before germination
and fermentation. Increasing germination and
fermentation time led to increased production of amylase
and corresponded to increased content soluble sugars
(reducing and total sugars) for germination and
fermentation. Since germination provokes increasing the
content in protein contrary fermentation decreases the
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content during the processing. The study of inter-
relationship of crude enzyme extract of millet seed to
technological treatment of cereals revealed that cooking,
germination, roasting and fermentation affected
differently the digestibility of a flour and consequently
flour from germinated millet could be added to different
flour to initiate starch degradation and thereby reduce
viscosity (Kouakou et al., 2008) the effect of the
germination and natural fermentation on the quality of
instant“fura”(a Nigerian cereal food) was checked.
Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) seeds were
soaked at room temperature (32±2C0) and sprouted at the
same temperature. The sprouted seeds were washed, dried
and milled into flour. The flour was divided into two
portions; the first was allowed to ferment naturally at
room temperature for 48 hours and used to produce
germinated and fermented fura (GFF). The second
portion was used for the production of germinated Fura
(GF). The cleaned, ungerminated grains were milled and
the flour was also divided into two portions. The first
portion was wetted, fermented and used to produce
fermented Fura (FF). The second portion was used to
produce traditional Fura (TF). Standard assay procedures
were used to evaluate the fura samples for nutrient
composition and phytic acid levels. Germination and
fermentation increased the protein, ash, crude fibre,
phosphorus, calcium and iron levels of the fura samples.
The phytic acid levels were significantly reduced
(p<0.05) compared with the control (220mg/100g for
GFF, 230 mg /100g for GF, 266 mg 100/g for FF and 416
mg 100/g for the control. Germination appeared to be a
promising food processing method for improving the
nutrient and energy densities of fura and when combined
with fermentation, reduced phytic acid significantly
(Inyang and Zakari, 2008). Tarhana is dried soup
prepared through lactic acid fermentation, initiated by the
presence of yoghurt or sour milk. Fermentation is usually
carried out by yoghurt bacteria, Lactobacillus bulgaricus
and Streptococcus thermopiles and yeast. Tarhana is a
popular and widely consumed traditional Turkish
fermented wheat flour-yoghurt mixture. The effects of
fermentation and drying on the contents of several water-
soluble vitamins (ascorbic acid, niacin, pantothenic acid
(vitamin B5), pyridoxine (vitamin B6), thiamine (vitamin
B1), folic acid and riboflavin (vitamin B2) in tarhana, a
traditional Turkish cereal food, have been studied. The
contents of water-soluble vitamins showed that
fermentation and drying had significant effect (P<0.05)
on the contents of water-soluble vitamins of tarhana. The
fermentation resulted in significant increases of
riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, ascorbic acid and
folic acid contents of the samples, but no significant
differences with thiamine and pyridoxine. Highest losses
of the water-soluble vitamins were at 70°C for the 35
hours drying period (Ekinci, 2005) .The effect of
processing following by fermentation on antinutritional
factors content of pearl millet cultivars has been checked
and results showed that phytic acid decreased (P<0.05)
and with that polyphenols and tannins also decreased and
reduction in antinutritional factors obtained when
processed grains fermented for 12 and 24 hours (Eltayeb
et al., 2007). Fermentation of pearl millet at temperature
of 35, 40, 45 and 50°C for 3, 6 or 9 hours to prepare
Rabadi which is an indigenous fermented food of India
showed that with fermentation its mineral HCL
extractability increases and largest improvement found in
extractable Fe and Mn extractability did not change as a
result of fermentation (Dhankher and Chauhan, 2006).
Two varieties of finger millet (Eleusine
coracana) processed by treatment with enzymes
(cellulase and hemicellulase) and fermentation with
starters (from previously fermented finger millet batter),
achieved the desirable goals of reduced fermentation time
increased acidity (2.2 to 2.4%), enhanced in vitro protein
digestibility (IVPD) (14 to 26%), and mineral availability
(Antony and Chandra, 1999). Fermentation with starters
alone increased titrateable acidity (1.02 to 1.88%), IVPD
(5.5 to 22%) and mineral availability, and decreased
phytate (23 to 26%) and tannin (10.8 to 40.5%) in the
millets. Enzymatic treatments did not significantly alter
the pH, phytate, tannins, IVPD or HCl mineral
extractability but enhanced fermentative changes.
Overall, the changes were marked when the 48 hours
starter was used and the improvements in nutrient
availability, titratable acidity (1.02 to 1.88%), IVPD (5.5
to 22%) and mineral availability and decreased phytate
(23 to 26%) and tannin (10.8 to 40.5%) in the millets.
Enzymatic treatment (50°C) did not significantly alter the
pH, phytate, tannins, IVPD or HCl mineral extractability
but enhanced fermentative changes. Overall, the changes
were marked when the 48 hours starter was used (Chitra
et al., 1996). Traditional food processing usually involves
the use of endogenous enzymes activated by germination
or produced by microorganisms during fermentation. The
use of exogenous enzymes from plants, animals or
microbes to improve existing reactions or initiate new
reactions is more recent. A number of enzymes such as
amylases, cellulases, and hemicellulases are used in the
processing of cereals such as wheat, rye, barley, etc. in
the manufacture of breads and beers to improve the
texture, volume, viscosity, water holding capacity, shelf
life etc. (Tucker and Woods, 1995).
Cereal grains constitute a major source of dietary
nutrients all over the world. Although cereals are
deficient in some basic components (e.g. essential amino
acids), fermentation may be the most simple and
economical way of improving their nutritional value,
sensory properties and functional qualities. Products
produced from different cereal substrates (sometimes
mixed with other pulses) fermented by lactic acid
bacteria, yeast and/or fungi are included (Blandino et al.,
2003). Fermentation of raw as well as autoclaved wheat
flour with buttermilk at 30, 35 and 40°C for 6, 12, 18, 24
and 48 hours significantly decreased the level of phytic
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59
acid maximum decrease was observed at 40°C for 48
hours. Starch as well as protein digestibility (in vitro)
improved with an increase in temperature and period of
fermentation. Phytic acid had a significant (P<0.05)
negative correlation with digestibility (in vitro) of both
starch and protein of rabadi. (Gupta et al., 1991).
Germination of water pretreated wheat seeds on 1% NaCl
was 8 percent, while pretreatment with 1% CaCl2. 2H2O
resulted in 90% germination on 1% NaCl. Pretreatment
with sodium and potassium chlorides enhanced
germination only slightly. The beneficial effects of
calcium pretreatment could be duplicated only partially
by increments of CaCl2 to the NaCl germination medium.
Pre treatment concentrations ranging from 1 to 5%
CaCl2. 2H2O and times ranging from 3 to 24 hours were
about equally effective. The beneficial effect of
pretreatment persisted even though the seeds were
subsequently dried and planted several months later.
Pretreatment with calcium resulted in about a 25%
reduction in Na uptake from the germination medium
(Chaudhuri and Wiebe, 1968). Germinated wheat and
barley increased significantly (P < 0.05) in percent
Relative Nutritive Value (RNV); the increase in % RNV
was highly significant (P<0.01) for germinated rice. The
increase in available lysine was highly significant
(P<0.01) in germinated wheat, barley, oats and rice.
Natural lactic acid fermentation increased the % RNV
significantly (P<0.05) for wheat, barley and rice and
significantly for millet and maize. The available lysine
content increased significantly (P<0.05) in fermented
oats, rice, millet, and maize but the available lysine
increase was highly (P<0.01) significant in fermented
wheat. Both germination and fermentation had equivalent
effects as procedures to improve the protein quality of
cereals (Hamad and Fields, 2006).
Conclusion
Keeping in view the above facts described by
different scientists it revealed that processing of wheat
through roasting, cooking, fermentation and germination
not only improved nutritional attributes but also enhance
the sensory properties of wheat flours. The outcome of
present studies point out that germinated and fermented
wheat flour ranked the highest with regard to
improvement in mineral extractability and decreasing
antinutritional factor as phytic acid and phenols. Sensory
properties of chapattis prepared from germinated and
fermented wheat flour showed acceptable organoleptic
characteristics. The results of present study suggest that
under utilized cereal crops should be explored for their
extensive food use. Strategies should be devised to reduce
the anti-nutritional factors in underutilized cereal crops as
wheat. Germination and fermentation are potential
processes to improve mineral extractability and decrease
antinutrients which bind mineral and reduce their
availability.
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... Presence of anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) can hinder the nutrient bioavailability in cereals and legumes (Nadeem et al. 2010). Pallauf et al. (1998) ...
Thesis
This investigation included characterisation of diverse sources for rust resistance, identification of genomic regions underpinning rust resistance and fine mapping of an adult plant leaf rust resistance gene in wheat. Genome-wide association mapping in a HarvestPlus panel was also undertaken to identify genomic regions conferring rust resistance and mineral concentration. Markers linked to the adult plant leaf rust resistance gene Lr49 were identified using the 90K SNP (single nucleotide polymorphisms) array genotyping of the VL404/WL711 RIL population and alignment of flow-sorted chromosome sequences of chromosome 4B of parents VL404 and WL711. The Lr49-linked markers sunKASP_21, sunKASP_24, sunKASP_26 and KASP_8082 were tested on a large VL404/Avocet ‘S’ F2 population for fine mapping of the region. A RIL population of VL404/Avocet ‘S’ was evaluated against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. triticii (Pst) pathotypes in the greenhouse and monogenic segregation for seedling stripe response was observed and the underlying locus was named YrVL. Molecular mapping using the 40K Illumina XT SNP array placed YrVL on the long arm of chromosome 2B. Comparative analysis with known ASR genes on chromosome 2BL indicated that YrVL is likely to be a new locus. A stripe rust resistant Tunisian landrace Aus26670 was crossed with the susceptible parent Avocet ‘S’ (AvS) to develop the Aus26670/AvS RIL population. Seedling tests on this population indicated the presence of a single seedling stripe rust resistance gene and this locus was named YrAW12. Targeted genotyping-by-sequencing (tGBS) assay mapped YrAW12 in the 754.9-763.9 Mb region of chromosome 2BL. Composite interval mapping of adult plant stripe rust response variation suggested the involvement of four Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for stripe rust resistance in chromosomes 1BL, 5AL, 5BL and 6DS. Two QTL, QYr.sun-5AL (654.5Mb) and QYr.sun-6DS (1.4Mb), appear to be new. A HarvestPlus panel comprising synthetic hexaploid wheat, T. spelta L., emmer wheat and progenies derived from landraces was evaluated for resistance to rust diseases and accumulation of 10 minerals in the grains. This panel was genotyped using the 90K Infinium SNP array and 13 markers linked with rust resistance genes. Genome-wide association mapping identified six new QTL for rust resistance in addition to 27 known genes/QTL. Forty-one known and 76 new QTL were identified for mineral content. Accessions carrying alien translocations (1B:1R and 2NS) displayed higher accumulation of some minerals.
Chapter
Current trends in population growth suggest that global food production is unlikely to meet future demands under projected climate change scenarios unless the pace of plant improvement is accelerated. Plant production is facing many challenges due to changing environmental conditions and the growing demand for new plant-derived materials. These challenges come at a time when plant science is making significant progress in understanding the basic processes of plant growth and development. Major abiotic stresses like drought, heat, cold and salinity often cause a range of morphological, physiological, biochemical , and molecular changes affecting plant growth, development, and productivity; so sustainable food production poses a serious challenge to much of the world, particularly in emerging countries. This underscores the urgent need to find better ways to translate new advances in plant science into concrete successes in agricultural production. In order to overcome the negative effects of abiotic stress and to maintain food security in the face of these challenges, new, improved, and resilient plant varieties, contemporary breeding techniques, and a deep understanding of the mechanisms for offsetting harmful climate change are undoubtedly necessary. In this context, Improvement of Plant Production in the Era of Climate Change is a guide to the most advanced techniques that help in understanding plant response to abiotic stress, leading to new horizons and the strategy for the current translation studies application to overall solution to create a powerful production and crop improvement in such an adverse environment. FEATURES • Provides a state-of-the-art description of the physiological, biochemical, and molecular-level understanding of abiotic stress in plants. • Courses taught in universities from basics to advanced level in field of plant physiology, molecular genetics, and bioinformatics will use this book. • Focuses on climatic extremes and their management for plant protection and production, which is great threat to future generation and food security. • Understanding of new techniques pointed out in this book will open the possibility of genetic engineering in crop plants with the concomitant improved stress tolerance. • Addressing factors that are threatening future food production and providing potential solutions to these factors. • Written by a diverse group of internationally famed scholars, this book adds new horizons in the field of abiotic stress tolerance.
Chapter
Legumes are grown in more than 120 countries across all the continents. 90% of the global production of legume are produced in small group of countries such as India, Turkey, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Iran, Mexico, Myanmar, Ethiopia, Australia, Spain, Canada, Syria, Morocco and Egypt. Legume are vegetarian sources of proteins and are an integral part of daily diet in several forms universally. Legume crops are great worth crops and play a dynamic role in crop diversification and economic sustainability of legume farming systems in dry areas. Most of the legume crops are grown under rainfed agroecosystem with poor level of input use which has resulted in low production. In this chapter we focus on (i) ecology and adaptation of legumes crop (ii)physiological responses of grain legumes to stress environments (ii) agronomic approaches to stress management.
Article
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Millet grain was steeped before germinated and fermented (0 to 8 days). Increasing germination and fermentation time led to increased production of amylase and corresponded to increased content soluble sugars (reducing and total sugars) from days 1-4 for germination and days 1-2 for fermentation . Since germination provokes increasing the content in protein from days 1-3, contrary fermentation decreases the content in this one during the processing. The study of inter-relationship of crude enzyme extract of millet seed to technological traitment of cereals revealed that cooking, germination, roasting and fermentation affected differently the digestibility of a flour and consequently flour from germinated millet could be added to different flour to initiate starch degradation and thereby reduce viscosity.
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Wheat is the staple food for the people of Pakistan. Its various varieties/lines vary in their characteristics, which ultimately affect the quality of the end product. The physical, chemical, rheological and flour characteristics of the wheat varieties/lines explored various technological aspects of studies. On the basis of the information got out of this study, it was found that wheat variety LU-26 was ranked best by a panel of judges for the production of an improved quality textured naan.
Article
Soybeans of varieties 'Shivalik' and 'Punjab No. 1' were soaked in water for 6 h, followed by germination for 36 and 48 h at 35°C. After requisite germination, the germinated samples were divided into two lots. One lot was dried at low temperature (30°C) and other at higher temperature (70°C) in tray driers. The germinated and dried samples were dehulled and milled to flour fineness. The fat content of soybeans decreased with increase in germination time. Free fatty acid content also decreased with increase in germination time. Oleic acid level first decreased with 36 h germination and thereafter, an increase was noticed after 48 h of germination. Similar results were recorded for linolenic acid. Oleic and linoleic acid contents were higher in germinated soybeans dried at low temperatures. Between tested varieties, fat, oleic acid and linoleic contents were higher in variety 'Shivalik'.
Phytic acid is present in many plant systems, constituting about 1 to 5% by weight of many cereals and legumes. Concern about its presence in food arises from evidence that it decreases the bioavailability of many essential minerals by interacting with multivalent cations and/or proteins to form complexes that may be insoluble or otherwise unavailable under physiologic conditions. The precise structure of phytic acid and its salts is still a matter of controversy and lack of a good method of analysis is also a problem. It forms fairly stable chelates with almost all multivalent cations which are insoluble about pH 6 to 7, although pH, type, and concentration of cation have a tremendous influence on their solubility characteristics. In addition, at low pH and low cation concentration, phytate-protein complexes are formed due to direct electrostatic interaction, while at pH > 6 to 7, a ternary phytic acid-mineral-protein complex is formed which dissociates at high Na+ concentrations. These complexes appear to be responsible for the decreased bioavailability of the complexed minerals and are also more resistant to proteolytic digestion at low pH. Development of methods for producing low-phytate food products must take into account the nature and extent of the interactions between phytic acid and other food components. Simple mechanical treatment, such as milling, is useful for those seeds in which phytic acid tends to be localized in specific regions. Enzyme treatment, either directly with phytase or indirectly through the action of microorganisms, such as yeast during breadmaking, is quite effective, provided pH and other environmental conditions are favorable. It is also possible to produce low-phytate products by taking advantage of some specific interactions. For example, adjustment of pH and/or ionic strength so as to dissociate phytate-protein complexes and then using centrifugation or ultrafiltration (UF) has been shown to be useful. Phytic acid can also influence certain functional properties such as pH-solubility profiles of the proteins and the cookability of the seeds.
Chapter
FOR several decades, concerns have been raised about the role of phytic acidin reducing mineral bioavailability. Because dietary phytic acid is a ubiquitous plant constituent present in nuts, cereals, legumes, and oilseeds, current trends in food choices merit a reexamination of this issue. Recommendations for increasing consumption of cereals and grains as the foundation of the food guide pyramid by the U.S. Dietary Guidelines Committee has prompted one such trend. A second trend is that soy-containing foods are becoming increasingly popular in the United States due to intensified research on their health benefits. Increased consumption of snack foods with plant seeds including poppy seeds, sesame seeds, and pumpkin seeds, and granola mixes of nuts and dried foods that contain appreciable amounts of phytate is a third trend. An emerging trend is the interest of manufacturers and consumers in functional foods. Addition of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid or fructooligosaccharides to foods could have tremendous effects on mineral bioavailability that temper the effect of dietary phytate. Genetically modified crops with reduced phytate as discussed in another chapter in this book and still others with higher levels of micronutrients or absorption enhancers as reviewed by Frossard et al. [1] could substantially alter the current food supply.
Article
Phytic acid is present in many plant systems, constituting about 1 to 5% by weight of many cereals and legumes. Concern about its presence in food arises from evidence that it decreases the bioavailability of many essential minerals by interacting with multivalent cations and/or proteins to form complexes that may be insoluble or otherwise unavailable under physiologic conditions. The precise structure of phytic acid and its salts is still a matter of controversy and lack of a good method of analysis is also a problem. It forms fairly stable chelates with almost all multivalent cations which are insoluble above pH 6 to 7, although pH, type, and concentration of cation have a tremendous influence on their solubility characteristics. In addition, at low pH and low cation concentration, phytate‐protein complexes are formed due to direct electrostatic interaction, while at pH >6 to 7, a ternary phytic acid‐mineral‐protein complex is formed which dissociates at high Na concentrations. These complexes appear to be responsible for the decreased bioavailability of the complexed minerals and are also more resistant to proteolytic digestion at low pH. Development of methods for producing low‐phytate food products must take into account the nature and extent of the interactions between phytic acid and other food components. Simple mechanical treatment, such as milling, is useful for those seeds in which phytic acid tends to be localized in specific regions. Enzyme treatment, either directly with phytase or indirectly through the action of microorganisms, such as yeast during bread‐making, is quite effective, provided pH and other environmental conditions are favorable. It is also possible to produce low‐phytate products by taking advantage of some specific interactions. For example, adjustment of pH and/or ionic strength so as to dissociate phytate‐protein complexes and then using centrifugation or ultrafiltration (UF) has been shown to be useful. Phytic acid can also influence certain functional properties, such as pH‐solubility profiles of the proteins and the cookability of the seeds.
Article
The effects of three different levels of baker’s yeast, barley malt flour and a microbial phytase supplement have on fermentation loss, colour, pH, total and HCl-extractable ash (HEA) and HCl-extractable phosphorus (HEP) ratio of Turkish tarhana were investigated. Fermentation loss, expressed as dry matter loss, was used for estimation of tarhana processing yield, including the fermentation, drying and grinding processes, and found on average to be 12.96%. Fermentation loss provided a proportional increase in the total ash and phosphorus content of the samples and pH decreased by adding microbial phytase. HEA and HEP content as a measurement for mineral bioavailability increased from 68.32% (dough) to 82.07% (tarhana), and from 60.45% to 83.63%, respectively, during the production process. Additions of yeast, barley malt and phytase significantly raised the HEA and HEP content (p 0.01). Among the phytase sources, yeast was the most effective additive on the ash and phosphorus extractability. The combination of 2.5% yeast and 4% malt was the optimum treatment to obtain a low fermentation loss and high HEA and HEP. Increasing HEA and HEP values could mean higher bioavailability of minerals bound by phytic acid.