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Workaholism is still a useful construct

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... Even with the continued lack of consensus, Porter (1996) defined it as neglect in other areas of life based upon internal motives of behavior maintenance rather than requirements of the job or organization. For the current study, workaholism will be defined as the difference between healthy excessive behaviors and addictions, where healthy behaviors add to life and addictions take away from life (Griffiths, 2005). ...
... There have also been suggestions of workaholism increasing in North America (Schor, 1991). There could be many reasons for the rise in workaholism, including the increasing complexity of professions, constant pressure to be more efficient, and the advancement of technology (Griffiths, 2005). It has also been noted that the changing nature of careers in recent years further accentuates the need to understand workaholism (Arthur & Rousseau, 1996). ...
... Even with the contrary views of workaholism, the need to better understand workaholism is evident. The real difference between healthy excessive behaviors and addictions is that healthy behaviors add to life, whereas addictions take away from it (Griffiths, 2005). Korn, Pratt, and Lambrou (1987) believe that positive workaholic behavior patterns may be acquired through training. ...
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A workaholic, the word combination of work and alcoholic, has generally had a negative connotation in the research community. Many researchers believe that the workaholic's behavior is not healthy to the individual nor to the organization. This current study was designed to explore the possibility of a relationship between psychological climate and work addiction risk. Participants (N = 175) responded to a survey to further understand not only the overall relationship between psychological climate and work addiction risk but also the relationship between each subscales (e.g., Challenge, Recognition). A correlation analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between the overall means of psychological climate and work addiction risk. No significant relationship was found between work addiction risk and the psychological climate subscales: Supportive Management, Role Clarity and Recognition. The analysis also revealed that there were significant relationships between work addiction risk and the psychological climate subscales: Challenge, Contribution and Self-Expression. The implications of these results and the potential reasons for it are discussed.
... The Bergen Work Addiction Scale (Andreassen et al. 2012) was created to measure seven core elements of addiction (Brown 1993;Griffiths 2005). more specifically (1) salience, (2) mood modification, (3) tolerance, (4) withdrawal, (5) conflict, (6) relapse, and (7) health and other problems. ...
... Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on the BWAS items for comparing the fit of alternative models. Six alternative models were tested: (i) a 14-item 1 factor model, in which all items which loaded on one common factor; (ii) a 14-item 7 factor first-ordered model, in which first-ordered structure included all items which loaded on seven factors deriving from Brown's (1993) and Griffiths (2005) components; (iii) a 14-item 7 factor second-ordered model which is different from the previous one regarding a higher-ordered latent variable that derives from the seven latent variables representing the seven dimensions of addiction; (iv) a 14-item 7 factor nested model in which each of the 14 items loads on two factors simultaneously: one general latent variable representing work addiction as a whole (this latent variable is connected to all of the 14 items), and another specific latent variable that also represents one of the seven components (this latent variable is respectively connected to two items); (v) a 7-item Norwegian version which includes the seven items chosen by Andreassen et al. (2012). and (vi) a 7-item Hungarian version which includes the best fitting items of each elements. ...
... The results of the present study suggest that two factor structures are appropriate regarding the BWAS. The short version has a first-order one-factor structure including seven items, and represent the seven elements of addiction (Brown 1993;Griffiths 2005). The second version has a nested seven-factor structure including 14 items in which each element of addiction belongs to a nested factor. ...
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Work addiction (‘workaholism’) has become an increasingly studied topic in the behavioral addictions literature and had led to the development of a number of instruments to assess it. One such instrument is the Bergen Work Addiction Scale (BWAS - Andreassen et al. 2012 Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 53, 265-272). However, the BWAS has never been investigated in Eastern-European countries. The goal of the present study was to examine the factor structure, the reliability and cut-off scores of the BWAS in a comprehensive Hungarian sample. This study is a direct extension of the original validation of BWAS by providing results on the basis of representative data and the development of appropriate cut-off scores. The study utilized an online questionnaire with a Hungarian representative sample including 500 respondents (F = 251; Mage = 35.05 years) who completed the BWAS. A series of confirmatory factor analyses were carried out leading to a short, 7-item first-order factor structure and a longer 14-item seven-factor nested structure. Despite the good validity of the longer version, its reliability was not as high as it could have been. One-fifth (20.6 %) of the Hungarians who used the internet at least weekly were categorized as work addicts using the BWAS. It is recommended that researchers use the original seven items from the Norwegian scale in order to facilitate and stimulate cross-national research on addiction to work.
... The first perspectives is a continuation of the approach adopted by Oates. These conceptualizations concentrate mainly on symptoms of compulsion and obsession; however, they do not include all the characteristics of addiction that are described in the literature (see Griffiths, 2005aGriffiths, , 2005bGriffiths, , 2005c. According to Robinson (1989Robinson ( , 1998, workaholism involves the following qualities: self-imposed demands, compulsive overworking, inability to regulate work habits, an overindulgence in work to the exclusion of major life activities, and neglect of relations with family and friends. ...
... This view is represented by, among others, Scott, Moore, and Miceli (1997), who differentiate between a compulsive-addicted workaholic, a perfectionist workaholic, and an achievement-oriented workaholic. The definitions of a compulsive-addicted workaholic and a perfectionist workaholic include a number of characteristics that are also attributed to addictions and obsessive-compulsive disorders (Griffiths, 2005a(Griffiths, , 2005b(Griffiths, , 2005c, particularly with respect to attempting to 'cut down' or stop the addictive behaviour completely. In contrast, while achievement-oriented workaholics also value work over other activities and give up activities that are related to personal or family life, they differ from compulsiveaddicted and perfectionist workaholics in that they appear to be able to retain some control over their behaviour. ...
... Undoubtedly, it is necessary to be able to identify workaholism on the basis of behavioural indicators that represent other qualities related to time, such as work-life imbalance (Bonebright et al., 2000;Cherrington, 1980;Ng et al., 2007). The salience of one life domain/activity is an important indication of functional dependence (Griffiths, 2005a(Griffiths, , 2005b(Griffiths, , 2005c. The indicator Work-life imbalancedoing refers to the aforementioned imbalance between work and other life domains. ...
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The aim of the study presented was to verify empirically a conception of workaholism as a multidimensional syndrome. The study also investigated the notion of ‘functional’ and ‘dysfunctional’ types of workaholic, on the basis of the participants’ cognitive evaluations of their quality of life. The research group comprised Polish managers who had graduated with, or were studying to attain, a Master’s degree in Business Administration. The 137 participants completed a set of questionnaires that were based on five different research tools. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the theory that workaholism has a three-dimensional structure that includes behavioural, cognitive, and affective dimensions. Using cluster analysis, three types of worker were identified, two of which represented types of workaholic with different scores for the dimensions of workaholism and for aspects of quality of life. The research demonstrated that workaholism is a three-dimensional construct. It enabled the integration of different perspectives and also confirmed that dysfunctional and functional types of workaholic exist. Furthermore, this paper provides practical insights about workaholism for practitioners of human resources that can be used in the selection and evaluation of employees.
... Other scholars claim that the rates of work addiction are high among professionals (e.g., lawyers, medics, and scientists) (Doerfler & Kammer, 1986;Killinger, 1992). Such individuals may work very long hours, expend high effort in their job, delegate rarely, and may not necessarily be more productive (Griffiths, 2005a). Furthermore, the available measures are not clinically validated and considering the ad hoc cut-off scores and the different screening instruments and samples used in the studies, scholars have to be cautious concerning any epidemiological data in the field (and also holds true for most behavioral addictions). ...
... Furthermore, the available measures are not clinically validated and considering the ad hoc cut-off scores and the different screening instruments and samples used in the studies, scholars have to be cautious concerning any epidemiological data in the field (and also holds true for most behavioral addictions). It also appears that those who are genuinely addicted to work appear to have a compulsive drive to gain approval and success but can result in impaired judgment, poor health, burnout, and breakdowns (Griffiths, 2005a) as opposed to what might be described as "enthusiastic workaholism" where few problems are associated with the behavior. This paper comprises a narrative review and focuses on 10 myths about work addiction that have permeated the psychological literature (see Table 1 for brief overview). ...
... First, there has been a relatively long period of a person-centered approach to research, based on diverse theoretical frameworks, and exploring the phenomenology of the work addiction, and identifying its etiology and course (Oates, 1971;Robinson, 2014; for a review, see . Second, assessment instruments have been developed and evaluated in terms of their psychometric properties (e.g., ; for a review, see Andreassen, 2014;Clark, Michel, Zhdanova, Pui, & Baltes, 2016;Griffiths & Karanika-Murray, 2012;Quinones & Griffiths, 2015;Sussman, 2012) leading to scales (Andreassen et al., 2012;Orosz et al., 2016) based on common addiction components (Griffiths, 2005a(Griffiths, , 2005b. However, there is still much to be done in this field because almost all studies are based on self-report questionnaires, and clinical validation of the concepts is generally lacking (Sussman, 2012). ...
Article
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Background and aims Research into work addiction has steadily grown over the past decade. However, the literature is far from unified and there has been much debate on many different issues. Aim and methods This paper comprises a narrative review and focuses on 10 myths about work addiction that have permeated the psychological literature and beyond. The 10 myths examined are (a) work addiction is a new behavioral addiction, (b) work addiction is similar to other behavioral addictions, (c) there are only psychosocial consequences of work addiction, (d) work addiction and workaholism are the same thing, (e) work addiction exclusively occurs as a consequence of individual personality factors, (f) work addiction only occurs in adulthood, (g) some types of work addiction are positive, (h) work addiction is a transient behavioral pattern related to situational factors, (i) work addiction is a function of the time spent engaging in work, and (j) work addiction is an example of overpathogizing everyday behavior and it will never be classed as a mental disorder in the DSM. Results Using the empirical literature to date, it is demonstrated that there is evidence to counter each of the 10 myths. Conclusion It appears that the field is far from unified and that there are different theoretical constructs underpinning different strands of research.
... Workaholism refers to the widely acknowledged phenomenon occurring when an individual becomes overly involved in work life, has difficulty disengaging from work, and continually thinks about work. As a result, other significant life aspects tend to suffer, such as relationships (Griffiths, 2005). However, workaholism is not associated with financial strain, much in the same way excessive online poker play may be linked to increased financial reward. ...
... Workaholism is typically conceptualized from a trait theory perspective. This viewpoint maintains that workaholic behaviour develops and progresses from stable PROBLEM GAMBLING AND WORKAHOLISM IN POKER PLAYERS personality traits, as well as internal and external stressors, and is maintained by reinforcement (Burke, Matthiesen, & Pallesen, 2006;Griffiths, 2005). In addition, the personality variable of neuroticism may predispose individuals to workaholic behaviour by increasing the likelihood of experiencing negative emotional states, such as anxiety, anger, guilt and depressed mood (Burke et al., 2006;Myrseth, Pallesen, Molde, Johnsen, & Lorvik, 2009). ...
... As a downside of work engagement, work addiction has been described as an extreme and unhealthy form of work involvement (Porter, 1996) that is associated with, for instance, psychiatric difficulties and poorer work performance (Falco et al., 2013). From an organizational perspective (e.g., Schaufeli et al., 2009), work addiction is typically defined as an uncontrollable and compulsive need for excessive work; from a clinical perspective (Griffiths, 2005), work addiction is best understood as a constellation of components of behavioral addictions. However, recent theoretical works (Andreassen et al., 2018) acknowledge that both perspectives refer to the same underlying phenomenon. ...
... Work Addiction (Sample 2). The seven-item Hungarian version (Orosz et al., 2016) of the Bergen Work Addiction Scale (BWAS-H, Andreassen, Griffiths, Hetland, & Pallesen, 2012) was administered to measure work addiction based on the components model of addiction (Griffiths, 2005), including salience, tolerance, withdrawal, mood modification, tolerance, and relapse (e.g., "How often during the last year have you deprioritized hobbies, leisure activities, and exercise because of your work?"). Cronbach's alpha for this scale was satisfactory (α = .78). ...
Article
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Even though work engagement is a popular construct in organizational psychology, the question remains whether it is experienced as a global construct, or as its three components (vigor, dedication, absorption). The present study thus contributes to the ongoing scientific debate about the dimensionality of work engagement systematically compared one-factor, first-order, higher-order, and bifactor confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) representations of work engagement measured by the short version of Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9). We also documented the validity evidence of the most optimal representation based on its test-criterion relationship with basic psychological need fulfillment at work, turnover intentions, work addiction, and work satisfaction. Based on responses provided by two distinct samples of employees (N1 = 242, N2 = 505), our results supported the superiority of the bifactor-CFA representation including a global factor of work engagement and three co-existing specific factors of vigor, dedication, and absorption. This representation replicated well across the two samples through tests of measurement invariance. Finally, while global work engagement was substantially related to all correlates, the specific factors also demonstrated meaningful associations over and above the global levels of work engagement.
... However, the aforementioned scales focus on different aspects of excessive working behavior and many of the items lack genuine addiction criteria. Therefore, Andreassen et al. (2012) developed the Bergen Work Addiction Scale (BWAS) using the criteria in the components model of addiction (Griffiths, 2005a(Griffiths, , 2005b. The items in the components model of addiction have been also used to define other behavioral addictions such as gambling disorder and gaming disorder as well as being used as the basis of other scales to assess behavioral addictions (Andreassen et al., 2012). ...
... At younger ages, individuals with no familial duties can feel a sense of accomplishment. However, the same working behavior of an older individual is likely to be criticized by family members or significant others (Griffiths, 2005b). Similarly, the findings indicated a negative correlation between work addiction and age. ...
Article
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The aim of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the Bergen Work Addiction Scale (BWAS-T). The study sample comprised 448 participants (279 females and 169 males) who completed a survey including the BWAS-T, Workaholism Battery (WorkBAT), Dutch Work Addiction Scale (DUWAS), and Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS). The Turkish version of BWAS had good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = .76). As expected, score on the BWAS-T was positively correlated with scores on the Drive subscale of the WorkBAT and Working Excessively and Working Compulsively subscales of the DUWAS. No relationship was found between the BWAS-T and Work Enjoyment subscale of the WorkBAT. Regarding concurrent validity, scores on the BWAS-T were strongly correlated with those on the DASS and its subscales. The factor structure of the BWAS-T was also tested using confirmatory factor analysis which found support for the original unidimensional factor structure. Results demonstrated that the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the BWAS were robust. Limitations and recommendations for further studies are discussed.
... Workaholism refers to the widely acknowledged phenomenon occurring when an individual becomes overly involved in work life, has difficulty disengaging from work, and continually thinks about work. As a result, other significant life aspects tend to suffer, such as relationships (Griffiths, 2005). However, workaholism is not associated with financial strain, much in the same way excessive online poker play may be linked to increased financial reward. ...
... Workaholism is typically conceptualized from a trait theory perspective. This viewpoint maintains that workaholic behaviour develops and progresses from stable PROBLEM GAMBLING AND WORKAHOLISM IN POKER PLAYERS personality traits, as well as internal and external stressors, and is maintained by reinforcement (Burke, Matthiesen, & Pallesen, 2006;Griffiths, 2005). In addition, the personality variable of neuroticism may predispose individuals to workaholic behaviour by increasing the likelihood of experiencing negative emotional states, such as anxiety, anger, guilt and depressed mood (Burke et al., 2006;Myrseth, Pallesen, Molde, Johnsen, & Lorvik, 2009). ...
Article
The skill component of Texas hold'em online poker (THOP) adds a unique element to the assessment of risk for problem gambling (PG). The current study examined whether PG among a high earning subgroup of THOP players was analogous to workaholism. Participants were self-selected online poker players (N = 31), and results revealed that participants played an average of 30.5 hours per week, and had an average annual online poker earning of CAD 29 995. Furthermore, 32% of the sample gambled problematically according to the PGSI. In accordance with previous findings, PG was uniquely predicted by time played and stress. However, PG in this subset of THOP players was associated with an external locus of control. Contrary to expectations, the personality variable of neuroticism was unrelated to PG and workaholism. Furthermore, workaholism was unrelated to any variables in the model, and no significant relationship emerged between workaholism and PG. © 2014, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. All rights reserved.
... According to Griffiths (2005), there are plenty of factors that increase workaholism, including the increasing complexity of professions, constant pressure to be more efficient, and the increased use of technology (Griffiths, 2005). This means employees become workaholics because "they feel driven or compelled to work, not because of external demands or pleasure in work, but because of inner pressures that make them distressed or guilty about not working" (Spence & Robins, 1992). ...
... According to Griffiths (2005), there are plenty of factors that increase workaholism, including the increasing complexity of professions, constant pressure to be more efficient, and the increased use of technology (Griffiths, 2005). This means employees become workaholics because "they feel driven or compelled to work, not because of external demands or pleasure in work, but because of inner pressures that make them distressed or guilty about not working" (Spence & Robins, 1992). ...
... Ο όρος «workaholism» χρησιµοποιήθηκε για πρώτη φορά από τον Oates (1971), ο οποίος την περιέγραψε ως «τον καταναγκασµό ή την ανεξέλεγκτη ανάγκη να δουλεύει κάποιος αδιάκοπα». Ωστόσο ο Griffiths (2005a), υποστήριξε ότι ο όρος εξάρτηση/εθισµός δεν είναι δόκιµος, καθώς σύµφωνα µε το ∆ιαγνωστικό και Στατιστικό Εγχειρίδιο της Αµερικανικής Ψυχιατρικής Εταιρείας (DSM), κανένα άτοµο στην πραγµατικότητα δεν εµφανίζει «εξάρτηση» ή «εθισµό» σε τίποτα, οπότε ο όρος «διαταραχή σχετιζόµενη µε την εργασία» ίσως θα ήταν καλύτερος. Ωστόσο, στην παρούσα µελέτη θα χρησιµοποιείται ο όρος εργασιακός εθισµός ή εθισµός στην εργασία, εναλλακτικά. ...
... Σύµφωνα λοιπόν µε τον Griffiths (2005a), ο εργασιακός εθισµός περιλαµβάνει έξι βασικά στοιχεία: α) την υπεροχή (η δουλειά κατέχει εξέχουσα θέση στη ζωή του ατόµου και επηρεάζει τη σκέψη και τη συµπεριφορά του) β) την τροποποίηση της διάθεσης (αφορά στην υποκειµενική εµπειρία του ατόµου, το οποίο χρησιµοποιεί τη δουλειά ως στρατηγική αντιµετώπισης/διαφυγής από άλλα συναισθήµατα (π.χ. άγχος, ενοχές, κατάθλιψη), γ) την ανεκτικότητα (αφορά τη διαδικασία µε την οποία απαιτείται ολοένα και περισσότερος χρόνος δουλειάς προκειµένου να πετύχει το άτοµο τις προηγούµενες επιδράσεις της τροποποίησης της διάθεσης), δ) τα συµπτώµατα απόσυρσης (περιλαµβάνει δυσάρεστα συναισθήµατα π.χ. ...
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Introduction: Secondary Traumatic Stress (STS) of healthcare professionals (HP) is a negative feeling driven by fear, “suffering” and work related trauma that can be direct (primary) trauma or occurs after the secondary exposure to people who have experienced extremely or traumatically stressful events. Several researchers have supported the relationship between STS, work addiction and emotional labor (EL). EL is the process of regulating both feelings and expressions to achieve organizational expectations, or, planning, and control needed to express organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions. Aim: To investigate the impact of emotional labor and work addiction on healthcare professionals’ STS. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in a convenience sample of 231 HP, working in 3 public and 2 private hospitals. They completed a questionnaire that included: a) demographic/occupational characteristics, b) the Discrete Emotions, Emotional Labor Scale (DEELS), c) the Professional Quality of Life Scale (ProQOL), and d) the Bergen Work Addiction Scale. Data analysis was performed using the statistical package SPSS 24.0 Results: The sample consisted of 231 HP (77.9% nursing personnel and 22.1% physicians). Participants reported median levels of STS and low levels of work addiction. HP expressed more often emotions of happiness (mean=4.29) and less often emotions of fear (mean=1.85). As far as it concerns HP’s emotions that they hide but feel, they expressed more often emotions of frustration (mean=4.02) and less often emotions of happiness (mean=2.60). Emotions that HPs are expected to show but feel different, expressed more often the feeling of satisfaction (mean=2.55) and less often the feeling of fear (mean=2.08). Findings indicate that years of experience and age predict high risk for STS. In addition, STS was positively associated with work addiction (p=0.000) and the frequency (p=0.000) HPs express their feelings. Conclusions: HP’s expression of feelings, differ from what they really felt and was found to be positively associated with increased levels of STS. Findings highlight the importance of HP’s empowerment, psychological support, as well as the need for educational interventions to increase their resilience to STS.
... Many research findings confirm the dysfunctional nature of workaholism (e.g., Griffiths, 2005a;Robinson, 2007). However, for clinicians, it is difficult to acknowledge workaholism as a disorder/addiction because it has not been included in the international classification of disorders, either by the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013; Galecki et al., 2017) or the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (World Health Organization, 2008). ...
... As Porter (1996) argued many years ago, workaholism should be interpreted as an addiction without considering it a positive phenomenon (e.g., Scott, Moore, & Miceli, 1997;Spence & Robbins, 1992). Similarly, the majority of scholars who have been engaged in exploring workaholism agree with the definition of workaholism as a disorder (e.g., Griffiths, 2005aGriffiths, , 2005bHornowska & Paluchowski, 2007;Paluchowski & Hornowska, 2013;Robinson, 2007;Schaufeli, Taris, & van Rhenen, 2008;Sussman & Sussman, 2011;Wojdylo, 2007Wojdylo, , 2010Wojdylo, , 2013Wojdylo, , 2015aWojdylo, , 2015b). However, notably, workaholism has been most often reduced to obsessive-compulsive symptoms (irresistible inner drive; e.g., McMillan, O'Driscoll, & Burke, 2003;Oates, 1971;Porter, 1996;Robinson, 2007;Schaufeli, Taris, &Van Rhenen, 2008;Spence & Robbins, 1992). ...
Article
The theory of work craving highlights three pathological components of work addiction: the behavioral wanting component (an obsessive-compulsive desire for work), the hedonic liking components (the reduction of negative emotions and compensation for low self-worth), and the cognitive learning component (neurotic perfectionism). In this article, I link the theory of work craving with the theory of motivation and the incentive-sensitization theory of addiction and discuss three major issues: (a) obsessive-compulsive symptoms are not sufficient to diagnose workaholism; (b) two hedonic components of work craving, namely, activity-related and purpose-related incentives, should be considered; and (c) incentive-sensitization is an additional mechanism that may be prepotent for addictive working.
... Problematically, these symptoms are likely to manifest in relation to most activities that people find interesting or engaging, without reflecting clinically significant functional impairment or distress for the individual or a burden to public health in populations. Some examples found in recent literature include (but are not limited to) 'study addiction' [12], 'work addiction' [13], 'dancing addiction' [14], 'mobile phone addiction' [15], 'social network site addiction' [16], 'fortune-telling addiction' [17] and 'body image addiction' [18]. A positive addiction diagnosis or classification for these behaviours is particularly likely to be made when responses are captured through survey research using DSM-style polythetic cut-off scoring (e.g. ...
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Following the recent changes to the diagnostic category for addictive disorders in DSM-5, it is urgent to clarify what constitutes behavioural addiction to have a clear direction for future research and classification. However, in the years following the release of DSM-5, an expanding body of research has increasingly classified engagement in a wide range ofcommonbehavioursandleisureactivitiesaspossiblebehaviouraladdiction.Ifthisexpansiondoesnotend,boththerelevanceandthecredibilityofthe fieldofaddictivedisordersmightbequestioned,whichmaypromptadismissiveappraisal of the new DSM-5 subcategory for behavioural addiction. We propose an operational definition of behavioural addiction together with a number of exclusion criteria, to avoid pathologizing common behaviours and provide a common ground for further research. The definition and its exclusion criteria are clarified and justified by illustrating how these address a number of theoretical and methodological shortcomings that result from existing conceptualizations. We invite other researchers to extend our definition under an Open Science Foundation framework
... According to Griffiths' (2005a) components model of addiction, an individual is deemed to suffer from a behavioral addiction when concerning the object of their addiction, they satisfy six criteria. In relation to work, this would be: (a) salience (i.e., work is the single most important activity in their life), (b) mood modification (i.e., work is used to alleviate emotional stress and/or to engender euphoric or arousing states), (c) tolerance (i.e., needing to work longer hours or at greater intensity to derive the same mood-modifying effects), (d) withdrawal (i.e., suffering emotional and/or physical distress when not being able to work), (e) conflict (i.e., interpersonal conflict with family members and other individuals, conflict with non-work activities, such as socializing and exercising, and intrapsychic conflict), and (f) relapse (i.e., reverting to earlier patterns of excessive working following periods of being in control) (Griffiths, 2005b). ...
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Background and aims Workaholism is a form of behavioral addiction that can lead to reduced life and job satisfaction, anxiety, depression, burnout, work–family conflict, and impaired productivity. Given the number of people affected, there is a need for more targeted workaholism treatments. Findings from previous case studies successfully utilizing second-generation mindfulness-based interventions (SG-MBIs) for treating behavioral addiction suggest that SG-MBIs may be suitable for treating workaholism. This study conducted a controlled trial to investigate the effects of an SG-MBI known as meditation awareness training (MAT) on workaholism. Methods Male and female adults suffering from workaholism (n = 73) were allocated to MAT or a waiting-list control group. Assessments were performed at pre-, post-, and 3-month follow-up phases. Results MAT participants demonstrated significant and sustained improvements over control-group participants in workaholism symptomatology, job satisfaction, work engagement, work duration, and psychological distress. Furthermore, compared to the control group, MAT participants demonstrated a significant reduction in hours spent working but without a decline in job performance. Discussion and conclusions MAT may be a suitable intervention for treating workaholism. Further controlled intervention studies investigating the effects of SG-MBIs on workaholism are warranted.
... Working in excess comes from an addiction, where the increased need to work hinders different life functions (McMillan et al., 2001). Consequently, some researchers suggest conceptualizing workaholism as an addiction to work (Griffiths, 2005). Aziz and Zickar (2006) found workaholism to be a multifaceted syndrome. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine if facets of workaholism are associated with a family history of metabolic diseases. Design/methodology/approach Data on workaholism and family history of health issues were collected, through administration of an online survey, from 194 employees. Findings Workaholism significantly related to a family history of metabolic diseases. Research limitations/implications Future researchers should collect objective disease data, examine work-related moderators as well as potential mediators, and implement longitudinal designs with much larger samples. That said, the data reveal a correlation between workaholism and family history of metabolic disease. Practical implications The results provide valuable information to help promote a healthy workforce and to improve employees’ health by reducing workaholic tendencies. They could also help to minimize health-related costs associated with metabolic diseases that could develop in parallel with workaholism, as well as costs in terms of a loss in productivity due absenteeism. Originality/value It is, the authors believe, the first study to investigate the relationship between facets of workaholism and family history of health issues that have often been associated with metabolic diseases.
... In Pakistan there is no such reported study to date so keeping the literature in view current study was conducted in order to establish construct validity of DUWAS on individuals from different professions because workaholism is higher among these different professionals (Griffiths, 2005;Taris, Van Beek, & Schaufeli, 2012). Also gender wise comparison was done in relation to workaholism as literature suggested no differences among working men and women in relation to workaholism (Burke, 1999;Taris et al., 2012). ...
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The aim of the current study was to translate Dutch Workaholism Scale (DUWAS; Schaufeli, Shimazu, & Taris, 2009) in to Urdu language and to establish construct validity of the scale in Pakistani culture. For this purpose study was completed in two phases. In the first phase of the study DUWAS was translated in to Urdu through back translation method following the steps suggested by Sousa and Rojjanasrirat (2011). For the purpose of establishing construct validity of DUWAS, in the second phase of the study data was collected from 317 working men (n = 194) and women (n = 123) of different occupations including doctors, university teachers, lawyers, bankers, and nurses. Data was collected through convenient sampling from KPK (Peshawar, Mardan), Rawalpindi, and Islamabad. Before collecting the data participants were informed about the purpose of the study and were asked to sign a consent form. After data collection it was analyzed by using Amos for the purpose of establishing construct validity of Urdu version of DUWAS. Results showed that the Urdu version of original 10 item DUWAS didn’t show good fit. But after the removal of two items (9 and 10) on the basis of poor squared multiple correlations, model showed good fit. Further reliability analysis through SPSS also showed satisfactory values of Cronbach’s alpha. Additionally no gender differences were found as well as no differences among working men and women from different professions were revealed on workaholism. Overall this study helped us to establish a valid and reliable measure for future studies on workaholism in Pakistan using DUWAS.
... İşkoliklik (workaholism) ifadesi, alkoliklik (alcohlisim) kelimesinden türetilmiştir ve alkoliklik gibi psikopatolojik bir hali ifade etmektedir (Machowitz, 1978). Bundan dolayı, işkoliklik sözcüğünün yerine iş bağımlılığı (work dependency/ work addiction) sözcüğünü tercih edenler bulunsa da işkoliklik sözcüğü halihazırda yaygın bir şekilde kullanılmaktadır (Griffiths, 2005). İşkoliklik, olması gerekenden çok çalışma ve çalışma dışında bir şey görmez olma durumu olarak ifade edilebilir (Temel, 2006). ...
Article
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Bu çalışmanın amacı, Diyarbakır Barosu avukatlarının mesleki tükenmişlik ve işkoliklik düzeylerini tespit ederek, mesleki tükenmişlik ve işkoliklik düzeylerinin arasındaki ilişkiyi belirlemektir. Mesleki tükenmişlik ve işkoliklik düzeylerinin ölçümlerinde, tükenmişlik ölçeği olarak ‘Maslach Tükenmişlik Ölçeği’, işkoliklik ölçeği olarak ise Spence ve Robbins’in (1992) geliştirdiği işkoliklik ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Mesleki tükenmişlik ve işkoliklik seviyesinin tespit edilmesi amacıyla kullanılan her bir ifade için yüzde, frekans, aritmetik ortalama ve standart sapma hesaplanmış ve analiz edilmiştir. Meslek üyelerinin tükenmişlik seviyeleri ile işkoliklik arasındaki ilişkinin saptanması için Pearson korelasyon katsayısı kullanılmıştır. Bu çalışmadan elde edilen sonuçlarda; avukatlık meslek mensuplarının tükenmişlik ve işkoliklik seviyeleri arasında pozitif yönde bir ilişkinin varlığı tespit edilmiştir.
... İşkoliklik (workaholism) ifadesi, alkoliklik (alcohlisim) kelimesinden türetilmiştir ve alkoliklik gibi psikopatolojik bir hali ifade etmektedir (Machowitz, 1978). Bundan dolayı, işkoliklik sözcüğünün yerine iş bağımlılığı (work dependency/ work addiction) sözcüğünü tercih edenler bulunsa da işkoliklik sözcüğü halihazırda yaygın bir şekilde kullanılmaktadır (Griffiths, 2005). İşkoliklik, olması gerekenden çok çalışma ve çalışma dışında bir şey görmez olma durumu olarak ifade edilebilir (Temel, 2006). ...
Conference Paper
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Araştırma sağlık sektöründeki çalışanların algıladıkları örgütsel sessizlik ortamı ve sessizlik davranışlarının iş performansları üzerindeki etkilerinin ortaya çıkarılması amacıyla yapılmıştır. Araştırma kapsamında ortaya konulan modeli test etmek amacıyla demografik değişkenler dışında 50 ifadeden oluşan bir anket kullanılmıştır. Araştırma Diyarbakır ili sağlık sektörü çalışanı 327 personele yönelik olarak yapılmıştır. Araştırma sonunda örgütsel sessizlik, işgören sessizlik davranşışı ve işgören performansı arasında pozitif doğrusal bir ilişki tespit edilmiştir. Örgütsel sessizliğin alt boyutlarından tamamı ile işgören performansı arasında pozitif yönde anlamlı ilişkiler bulunurken işgören sessizlik davranışının alt boyutlarından sadece prososyal sessizlik davranışı ile işgören performansı arasında pozitif yönde anlamlı ilişkiler tespit edilmiştir.
... Excessive working is derived from an addiction, including obsessive-compulsive tendencies, whereby the enhanced necessity to work impedes multiple life functions (McMillan, O'Driscoll, Michael, Marsh, & Brady, 2001). Therefore, researchers increasingly agree on qualifying workaholism as a work addiction (Griffiths, 2005). ...
Article
A new measure of workaholism, the Workaholism Analysis Questionnaire (WAQ), was created and validated in a heterogeneous sample of working professionals. The WAQ demonstrated strong internal reliability, convergent validity, concurrent validity, discriminant validity, and content validity. This is the first study to create a measure of workaholism that was psychometrically tested on a heterogeneous working population. Furthermore, the WAQ is the first measure to define workaholism more broadly and provide a more comprehensive assessment by including items that directly tap into work-life imbalance, a common symptom of workaholism and other addictive disorders.
... Like addiction, workaholism has been defined in a variety of ways since the term was coined by Oates (1971). For example, Griffiths (2005) noted that, over time, psychologists have begun "preferring the term 'work dependency' to 'workaholism' (i.e., work addiction)" (p. 97). ...
Article
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Addiction, from the perspective of Individual Psychology, can be conceptualized as goal-oriented, creative, and chosen behavior. Shifron (1999) indicated that addictions are creative choices to deal with the hardships of life. In this article, workaholism is introduced as an addiction through an Adierian framework. Workaholism is important because it negatively affects not only the individual, but also the family system.
... Both research literature and more popularised accounts are awash with professions of describing ever more behaviours as pathological addictions. Among these we find obesity (García-García et al., 2014), exercise dependence (Allegre, Souville, Therme, & Griffiths, 2006), workaholism (Griffiths, 2005), shyness (Scott, 2006), religiosity (Taylor, 2002), cybersex (Schiebener, Laier, & Brand, 2015), muscle dysmorphia (Foster, Shorter, & Griffiths, 2015) and fortune telling (Grall-Bronnec et al., 2015). Carrots (Kaplan, 1996) and cow dung (Khairkar, Tiple, & Bang, 2009) are now apparently vehicles for substance misuse, whereas substance-free misuse includes fishing, characterised by the Swedish psychologist Anders Tengström (2014) as more addictive than alcohol and described within a general psychological interpretative framework in such terms as "near-bitereinforcement". ...
Article
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Aims The aim of this study is to investigate the medicalising of gambling problems by comparing the political discussions on gambling in the Swedish Parliament in the early 1970s and the early 2010s. Design Against a theoretical background on medicalising processes in general, and medicalisation of gambling problems in particular, we have analysed discussion protocols and parliamentary bills in the Swedish Parliament from the years 1970–1975 and 2012–2013. Results The problem descriptions of the 1970s and 2010s are, in certain respects, strikingly similar, identifying proactive operators such as the gambling companies and highlighting an inadequate legal framework. But where the MPs of the 1970s put some effort into describing the drab society which fed the need for gambling, the elected representatives of the 2010s shortcut to individual dependence. Conclusions EU membership and the development of the Internet have made effective control and regulation impossible in the early 2010s and the political handling of the Swedish gambling problem is therefore a clear example of how market liberalisation can pave the way for individualisation, medicalisation and depoliticisation of social problems.
... That approach can be justified if workaholism is considered an addiction 'that share[s] many similarities to other more traditional addictions' (Griffiths 2011, p. 740), e.g. alcoholism (see also : Griffiths 2005;Killinger 1991;Oates 1971;Robinson 1989). Examples of interventions taken from alcoholism treatments include references to Workaholics Anonymous (Burke 2006;Robinson 1996;van Wijhe, Schaufeli and Peeters 2010), rewarding workaholics for non-work activities (Oates 1971), and identifying what reinforces workaholic behaviour (Chamberlin and Zhang 2009;Robinson and Kelley 1998;Seybold and Salomone 1994). ...
... Spence and Robbins (1992) define this concept as a set of attitudes, classified into three components: work involvement (limits between work and personal life), drive (internal motivation), and enjoyment of work (satisfaction obtained with work). It is described as an internal motivation to become overly involved in work, ignoring other areas of daily life (Porter 1996); vicious behavior (Atroszko et al. 2019) that leads to mood swings, withdrawal symptoms, conflict (Griffiths 2005); behaviors that include: working on breaks and during meals, not being able to delegate work; or yet, according to Ng et al. (2007), it encompasses three dimensions-affective (enjoying the act of working), cognitive (obsessed with work), and behavioral (working more hours than is due). ...
Article
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Workaholism phenomenon affects a quarter of the employed world population. The concept has been used to describe hardworking employees, which is not resulting from external requirements. Considering that organizations with well-developed workplace spirituality have employees more committed to achieving self-development, but also to serve the company, the relationship between workaholism and workplace spirituality is not straightforward, remaining unclear. The principal aim of this research is to analyze the workaholism phenomenon, considering patterns of workaholic and non-workaholic workers and their relationships with dimensions of workplace spirituality. The sample is comprised of a heterogeneous group of 306 Portuguese employees, who were surveyed by the Workaholism Battery, five dimensions of Workplace Spirituality, and a socio-demographic questionnaire. Cluster analysis defined three workaholic profiles (24% of the sample), and five non-workaholic profiles. Workplace spirituality dimensions differed according to worker profile and associations with work involvement, work enjoyment, and compulsive work addiction. Enthusiastic addicts and work enthusiasts showed the highest workplace spirituality, contrasting mainly with Reluctant hard worker, Disenchanted workers, and Unengaged workers, but also with work addicts. Workaholism is a complex and multidimensional phenomenon, whose dimensions are distinctly related to workplace spirituality. Workplace spirituality development can promote a more balanced and healthy relationship with work.
... It breeds leadership factors like loyalty, professional respect, freedom empowered to the employees (Alas et al. 2011;Nusair 2013;Yuan & Woodman 2010 andThompson 2005). Another research reckoned six factors including trust, openness, independence, positive challenges and support for novel and original ideas (Tidd & Bessant, 2009 andGriffiths, 2005) that sometimes result in work life imbalances (Aziz et al. 2013;Aziz & Zickar 2006 andDanna & Griffin 1999). Understanding the process that generated individual innovation is an area of critical importance even today. ...
Article
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In this paper, we have discussed the widely used multiple comparison procedures (MCPs) and compared them on the basis of management data for testing individual or employee innovation and work life imbalance of individuals along with their limitations and advantages. This study, for the first time in Pakistan is a distinctive attempt to look at an individual?s innovative behavior in the universities situated in the three provinces, Punjab, Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa using ANOVA and MCPs. Furthermore, with stratified sampling technique, the total target population was 80 M. Phil and Ph.D. scholars, out of which only 59 questionnaires were returned. Lastly, counter arguments are further discussed in the research.
... Other researchers, including Shifron and Reysen (2011), conceptualized workaholism as a diagnosable addiction that should be listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. In that vein, some view workaholism as addiction oriented or a process that includes "salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, conflict, and relapse" (Griffiths, 2005). Clearly, a more widely accepted and routinely applied definition of workaholism is needed (Aziz & Tronzo, 2011). ...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to explore workaholism tendencies and their relationship to the Big Five personality traits and life satisfaction within a school counselor population. Results indicate that school counselors employed in high school settings experience significantly higher levels of workaholism tendencies than those at the elementary or middle school level, and school counselors with neurotic tendencies are most likely to be workaholics. Data also showed that school counselors with higher levels of workaholism have lower life satisfaction. We discuss implications for school counselor training and practice.
... Darbinė veikla stiprų potraukį dirbti turinčiam asmeniui teikia pasitenkinimą, todėl literatūroje galima rasti aprašytų "laimingų" ar "entuziastingų" darboholikų [16]. Be to, darbas -tai psichologiniu, socialiniu, materialiniu požiūriu svarbi veikla [16]; tai -asmens savigarbos stiprinimo būdas, materialinę gerovę, pripažinimą, autoritetą įgyti padedantis įrankis [17]. Kitaip tariant, darbas asmeniui teikia dar ir papildomų verčių, patenkinančių pragmatinius poreikius, stiprinančių pozityvią asmens savijautą ir nusiteikimą, leidžiančių pajusti atliekamos veiklos prasmingumą, visavertiškumą. ...
Article
Tikslas – išanalizuoti ir susisteminti mokslinėje literatūroje aprašomas psichosocialines darboholizmo pasekmes. Tyrimo medžiaga ir metodai. Mokslinių straipsnių paieška vykdyta trijose internetinėse mokslinių duomenų bazėse. Sisteminei analizei ieškota nuo 2013 m. paskelbtų mokslinių straipsnių. Jų tinkamumas analizei vertintas peržiūrint pavadinimus, santraukas ir visus tekstus. Sisteminei analizei tinkamomis laikytos publikacijos, kuriose pristatomi empiriniai kiekybiniai tyrimai ir pateikiami rezultatai, atskleidžiantys darboholizmo ir jo pasekmių ryšį. Rezultatai ir išvados. Paieškos metu rastos 1 679 publikacijos. Į sisteminę analizę įtraukta 13 straipsnių. Apibendrinus darboholizmo pasekmės gali būti skirstomos į keturias pagrindines grupes: 1) pasekmės asmeniui, 2) jo darbinei veiklai, 3) šeiminiam gyvenimui, 4) organizacijai. Dažniausiai nagrinėjamos darboholizmo pasekmės pačiam darbuotojui arba jo atliekamai darbinei veiklai. Nustatyta, jog darboholizmas didina darbo ir šeimos konflikto, ketinimo palikti darbą, su darbu susijusio streso, profesinio pervargimo tikimybę. Taip pat nustatyta, jog dėl darboholizmo eikvojami asmens psichologiniai ištekliai, mažėja darbuotojo našumas darbe ir pasitenkinimas gyvenimu. Gauti rezultatai ir išskirtų pasekmių pobūdis patvirtina, jog darboholizmas yra neigiamas konstruktas, ir kartu teikia argumentų, leidžiančių pagrįstai abejoti dėl darboholizmo kaip teigiamo reiškinio interpretavimo. Reikšminiai žodžiai: darboholizmas, priklausomybė nuo darbo, psichosocialinės pasekmės.
... The results of the current research suggest that perfectionism, focused self-concept, and erroneous beliefs play a role in the etiology and maintenance of various disordered behaviors. Akin to disordered gambling, it is possible that the same model may help explain other addictive behaviors, such as workaholism (Griffiths, 2005). A recent meta-analysis found a moderate association between perfectionism and workaholism and a small-to-moderate association between a work-focused self-concept and workaholism (Kun, Takacs, Richman, Griffiths, & Demetrovics, 2020). ...
Article
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Background and aims Perfectionism, a focused self-concept, and erroneous beliefs have been implicated in the development and maintenance of various disordered behaviors. However, researchers have yet to examine how these factors combine to explain different disordered behaviors. Herein, we addressed this gap and hypothesized a moderated-mediation model whereby perfectionism fosters the development of disordered behaviors through a focused self-concept. Critically, the effect of a focused self-concept on disordered behaviors is specific to people with erroneous beliefs about their disordered behaviors. The model was tested in the contexts of disordered gambling and disordered eating, particularly dietary restraint. Method In Study 1, participants were community members who gamble ( N = 259). In Study 2, participants were university women ( N = 219). In both studies, participants completed self-report measures of all constructs that are both reliable and valid. Results In Study 1, as expected, there was a positive association between perfectionism and disordered gambling, which was mediated by financially focused self-concept. This mediation was only observed among participants who scored high on illusion of control and belief in luck. Likewise, in Study 2, there was a positive association between perfectionism and dietary restraint, which was mediated by appearance focused self-concept. The mediation effect was only observed among participants who believed that maladaptive dietary restraint behaviors were safe and efficacious. Discussion and Conclusions The findings support the transdiagnostic utility of our model, which may help explain an array of disordered behaviors, including other addictive behaviors as well as behaviors that involve rigid adherence to rules and control.
... Цей термін є синонімічнім до «залученості у роботу», але має інші детермінанти виникнення та патерни поведінки. М. Гріффітс (Griffiths, 2005) наголошує: «основна відмінність між працьовитістю та трудоголізмом полягає в тому, що здорові поведінкові моделі щось привносять у життя, а адикції забирають із життя». Автор зазначає, що працелюби позитивно ставляться до відпочинку і мають широке коло спілкування. ...
Book
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В період змін, трансформацій, мінливості, нестабільності та криз, в яких перебуває сучасна людина, особливо загострюються питання конструювання майбутнього. У такі періоди особистості складно вибудовувати перспективу власного життя, оскільки необхідно володіти новим репертуаром стратегій і ресурсів. Тому не викликає сумніву актуальність колективної монографії «Психологічні ресурси в умовах життєвої та суспільної кризи: соціальний та особистісний виміри», оскільки сьогодні як ніколи гостро постає питання розвитку і пошуку нових психологічних ресурсів особистості, які дозволяють їй ефективно долати життєві і суспільні кризи. Монографія буде корисна для науковців, викладачів психології, практичних психологів, аспірантів і студентів, а також фахівців, які працюють у галузі охорони здоров'я в та соціального захисту населення, а також усім, хто небайдужий до сучасних проблем людини і суспільства. Наукове видання: українською, англійською та російською мовами. Всю моральну, правову та етичну відповідальність за грамотність, правильність фактів і посилань, що подається в колективній монографії, несуть автори.
... İşkolizm, obsesiflik, zihinsel katılık, görevleri devretme güçlüğü ve zaten meşgul olmasına rağmen ek işler arama veya kabul etme gibi karakteristik bir özelliklere sahiptir (Robinson, 1998;Schaufeli vd., 2009;Porter, 2006). Bazı araştırmacılar işkolizmi diğer bağımlılıklarla özdeşleştirip bağımlılar ve işkolikleri mutsuz, obsesif figürler olarak gördüler (Naughton, 1987;Oates, 1971;Porter, 1996).Bazı araştırmacılara göre (Machlowitz,1980;Korn vd., 1987;Scott vd., 1997;Griffiths, 2005) İşkoliklik eğitimli davranış kalıpları ile düzeltilebilir ya da olumsuz etkileri azaltılabilir.Ancak çoğu bilim insanına göre işkoliklik bozulmuş sağlık, iş-yaşam çatışmaları gibi olumsuz sonuçlara neden olabilen istenmeyen tutum ve davranışlardır (Oates, 1971;Schaufeli vd., 2009;Griffiths, 2011;Robinson, 2013). İşkolikler iyi gitmeyen özel hayatları, yönetici baskısı gibi dış faktör nedeniyle aşırı çalışmazlar. ...
Article
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Bu araştırmanın amacı, Robinson’a (1999) ait işkoliklik riski testi (WART) ölçeğinin Türkçeye uyarlamasını sağlamaktır. Ölçeğin Türkçeye çevrilmesinde Brislin’in (1970) aşamaları izlenmiştir. Elde edilen verilerin analizinde SPSS ve AMOS programları kullanılmıştır. Veri toplama aşamasında, 25 maddeden oluşan ölçek, iki çalışma grubuna uygulanmıştır. İlk çalışma grubu 206 akademisyenden oluşurken ikinci grup 281 öğrenciden oluşmaktadır. İlk çalışma grubuna, keşfedici faktör analizi uygulanarak geçerli bir yapı oluşturulmaya çalışılmıştır. İkinci çalışma grubuna uygulanan doğrulayıcı faktör analizi sayesinde keşfedici faktör analizi ile elde edilen yapı geçerliği doğrulanmıştır. Ölçeğin güvenirliği Cronbach’s Alfa katsayısı ile hesaplanmıştır. Hem ölçeğin hem de alt boyutlarının yeterli güvenirlik katsayılarına sahip olduğu bulgulanmıştır. Literatürde oldukça yaygın kullanılan WART ölçeğinin ulusal literatüre kazandırılması amacıyla yapılan geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışmaları sonucunda, 18 madde ve 4 boyuttan oluşan “işkoliklik riski testi” ölçeğinin Türkiye’de işkoliklik riskini test etmek için kullanılabilir bir ölçek olduğu bulgulanmıştır.
... Workaholism: The 7-item Bergen Work Addiction Scale (BWAS) (Andreassen et al., 2012) was applied to measure workaholism levels. It includes seven criteria that are commonly used to define addictive behaviors: (1) salience, (2) mood modification, (3) tolerance, (4) withdrawal, (5) conflict, (6) relapse, and (7) health and other problems (Brown, 1993;Griffiths, 2005). Items were rated on 5-point Likert scales (1 5 never to 5 5 always). ...
Article
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Background and aims: Few studies have tested the underlying mechanisms in the association between workaholism and depression. This study aims to investigate the potential mediation effects of work-life balance stress and chronic fatigue and depression among Chinese male workers in Hong Kong. Methods: A population-based study among male workers in Hong Kong (n = 1,352) was conducted. The self-reported scales of assessing workaholism, work-life balance stress, chronic fatigue and depressive symptoms were included in the questionnaire. Path analysis was conducted to test the proposed mediation model. Results: Workaholism was directly and indirectly associated with depression through work-life balance stress and chronic fatigue, respectively. The association between work-life balance stress and chronic fatigue was statistically significant in the correlation analysis but not in the path analysis. As high as 30.5% of the participants were classified as having probable chronic fatigue, while 8.4% of the participants were classified as having probable depression. Discussion: Workaholism is a stressor that may induce negative consequences on well-being and health among male workers in Hong Kong. Interventions to help workers with time and stress management and fatigue reduction may be beneficial for their mental health. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... Pirmieji darboholizmą tyrinėję mokslininkai (pavyzdžiui, [6,7]) koncentravosi į individualius ir organizacinius šio reiškinio padarinius. Nors literatūroje galima rasti tam tikrų prieštaringų rezultatų [8], tačiau daugelis autorių patvirtino darboholizmo ryšį su įvairiomis neigiamomis pasekmėmis. Nustatyta, jog didindamas profesinio perdegimo [9], širdies ir kraujagyslių ligų [10] bei įvairių kitų sveikatos "Visuomenės sVeik ata" sutrikimų tikimybę [11,12] darboholizmas gali kelti rimtą grėsmę fizinei ir psichologinei asmens būklei. ...
Article
Tikslas – išanalizuoti ir susisteminti darboholizmo vystymuisi reikšmingas mokslinėje literatūroje aprašomas asmenybės savybes. Tyrimo medžiaga ir metodai. Mokslinių straipsnių paieška atlikta penkiose mokslinėse duomenų bazėse internete. Sisteminei analizei buvo ieškoma nuo 2013 m. paskelbtų mokslinių straipsnių. Jų tinkamumas analizei vertintas trimis etapais – paeiliui peržiūrint pavadinimus, santraukas ir visus tekstus. Į sisteminę analizę įtrauktos publikacijos, atitinkančios du pagrindinius kriterijus: pristatomas empirinis kiekybinis tyrimas, straipsnyje vertinama asmenybės savybių reikšmė darboholizmo vystymuisi. Rezultatai ir išvados. Paieškos metu rasti 2 773 straipsniai. Į sisteminę analizę įtrauktos 22 publikacijos. Nustatyta, jog dažniausiai autoriai nagrinėja perfekcionizmo, ekstraversijos, sutariamumo, sąmoningumo, neurotiškumo, atvirumo patirčiai ir darboholizmo ryšį. Perfekcionizmas (ypač orientuotas į save) yra pagrindinė darboholizmo vystymosi tikimybę didinanti asmenybės savybė. Nors daugelis autorių manė, jog Didžiojo penketo asmenybės savybės bus svarbios numatant darboholizmą, tačiau visi jie pateikė prieštaringus tyrimų rezultatus. Taigi joks kitas asmenybės ypatumas nekelia tokios didelės grėsmės tapti darboholiku, kaip itin aukšti sau keliami standartai. Reikšminiai žodžiai: darboholizmas, priklausomybė nuo darbo, veiksniai, asmenybės savybės
... Indeed, it is well-known that money is a powerful motivator for work and so some people may develop an addiction to work because of social and financial rewards (e.g. praise and more money; see Griffiths 2005Griffiths , 2011. This may be especially the case for people who are financially focused because financial success is central to their selfdefinition and thus self-worth. ...
Article
Having a self-concept that is focused on a single life domain has been implicated in various emotional and behavioral disorders, including depression, body image disorders, and obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. Herein, we extended research on having a focused self-concept by testing the idea that a self-concept focused on financial success is a core feature of disordered gambling. We also hypothesized that the degree of financial focus varies as a function of disordered gambling subtypes described in the Pathways Model. Specifically, we expected that emotionally vulnerable and anti-social impulsive disordered gamblers would report greater financial focus relative to behaviorally conditioned disordered gamblers. In Study 1, a community sample of people with gambling problems (n=215) completed measures that assessed disordered gambling subtype, financially focused self-concept, and disordered gambling severity. As hypothesized, financial focus was greater among the emotionally vulnerable and anti-social impulsive subtypes relative to the behaviorally conditioned subtype, regardless of disordered gambling severity. Study 2 (n=479) was a preregistered replication and extension of Study 1. Again, financial focus was greater among emotionally vulnerable and anti-social impulsive subtypes (relative to the behaviorally conditioned subtype), regardless of disordered gambling severity. The pattern of means for financial focus by disordered gambling subtype was distinct from that of gambling-related cognitive distortions. Moreover, as predicted, financial focus was greater among disordered gamblers relative to non-disordered gamblers. The findings provide a novel perspective on the psychopathology underlying disordered gambling, and suggest that a financial focused self-concept may hold explanatory power for the development of other behavioral addictions
... Withdrawal, i.e., "any sense of emotional stress, suffering and emotional turmoil as soon as the work is interrupted"; 5. Conflict, i.e., "the existence of conflicts and problems with family members and individuals who contradict their lifestyle"; 6. Relapse, i.e., "any return to the old patterns of work after a period of adjustment and drop-out"; and 7. Problems, i.e., "that addiction to work affects health, personal relationships and hobbies and thus causes problems" (Andreassen, Griffiths, Hetland, & Pallesen, 2012;Brown, 1993;Griffiths, 2005b). ...
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The present study aimed to test how common workaholism is and which groups are most targeted in the workplace among Jordanian employees. Additionally, the roles of positive and negative perfectionism in workaholism were investigated. The sample consisted of 686 employees. All of them completed the study instruments. The results showed that the mean of workaholism, positive perfectionism, and negative perfectionism were respectively 2.60, 4.04, and 3.53. Additionally, multivariate tests showed that the results of post hoc differences for positive perfectionism were in favor of males, subordinates, those with a bachelor’s degree, those with less than 5 years of experience, and those aged less than 30 years. Furthermore, the differences for negative perfectionism were in favor of those with a bachelor’s degree and subordinates. For workaholism, the differences were in favor of subordinates, public sector employees, married persons, and those with a diploma degree. Finally, the results of hierarchical regression analysis found that positive and negative perfectionism and some demographic variables predicted 129% of the variability in workaholism, and the typical hierarchical regression model included positive and negative perfectionism without other demographic variables.
... Following the component model of addiction [24], workaholism can be defined according to seven general criteria [25]: cognitive and/or behavioural salience (preoccupation with work); mood modification (working in order to escape or avoid dysphoria); reduced tolerance (working increasingly more to achieve the same mental and physiological effect); withdrawal (dysphoria when prohibited from working); conflict (work comes in conflict with one's own and others' needs and lives); relapse (falling back into old patterns after a period of improvement); and health problems (working so much that health, relationships and other aspects of one's own life are negatively affected). Building on this model, Andreassen and colleagues [21] developed the Bergen Work Addiction Scale (BWAS) for the assessment of workaholism. ...
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Workaholics generally allocate an excessive amount of time and energy to their work at the expense of having time for recovery from work. Nevertheless, a complete recovery is an essential prerequisite for well-being. This study examines the moderating role of workaholism in the relationship between daily recovery and daily exhaustion. Data were collected among 95 participants who completed a general questionnaire and a diary booklet for five consecutive working days. Multilevel analysis results confirmed a cross-level interaction effect of workaholism, showing that the negative relationship between recovery and exhaustion at the daily level is weaker for those with a high (versus low) level of workaholism. These insights suggest the promotion of interventions aimed at addressing workaholism among workers, and the design of projects able to stimulate recovery from work, particularly for workaholics.
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Bu çalışmada; spor yapan ve yapmayan üniversite öğrencilerinde internet bağımlılığı ve nomofobi düzeylerine göre incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmaya Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi’nde öğrenim gören toplam 486 gönüllü olarak katılmıştır. Araştırmada Young (1998) tarafından geliştirilen Bayraktar (2001) tarafından Türkçeye uyarlama çalışması yapılan “İnternet Bağımlılık Ölçeği” ve Yıldırım ve Correia (2015) tarafından geliştirilen, Yıldırım, Şumuer, Adnan ve Yıldırım (2015) tarafından Türkçeye uyarlanan, Erdem ve arkadaşları (2017) tarafından 5’li likert tipine güncellenen Nomofobi Ölçeği (NM-Q) kullanılmıştır. Veriler SPSS 22 paket programında analiz edilmiştir. Elde edilen verilerin frekans ve yüzde değerleri hesaplanmıştır. İkili karşılaştırmalar için; Mann-Whitney U testi, üç ve daha fazla karşılaştırmalar için ise Kruskal Wallis testleri kullanılmıştır. Karşılaştırmaların sonucunda ortaya çıkan farklılıkların sebebi post-hoc testi yapılarak açıklanmıştır. Değişkenler arası ilişkiyi incelemek için korelasyon testi uygulanmıştır. Yapılan analizler sonucunda üniversite öğrencilerinin internet bağımlılığı ile nomofobi düzeyleri arasındaki ilişki incelendiğinde, gruplar arasında anlamlı bir ilişki tespit edilmiştir. Üniversite öğrencilerinin cinsiyet, fakülte, sınıf, aylık harcama miktarı, alkol kullanım durumu, spor yapma durumu, spor türü, günlük ortalama uyku süresi, internet kullanım araç türü, internet kullanımını kontrol edici/kısıtlayıcı faktör durumu, akıllı telefon kullanım süresi ve akıllı telefon kullanım amacına göre internet bağımlılık düzeylerinde istatistiksel olarak anlamlı farklılık saptanmıştır (p<0.05). Üniversite öğrencilerinin yaş, konaklama şekli, sigara kullanım durumu, konaklama yerinde internet bağlantısı durumu, internet kullanım süresi, internet kullanım amacı, sosyal medya kullanım durumu, akıllı telefona sahip olma durumu ve aylık internet kullanım paketi durumuna göre internet bağımlılık düzeylerinde istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir farklılık saptanmamıştır (p>0.05). Üniversite öğrencilerinin cinsiyet, yaş, fakülte, sınıf, sigara ve alkol kullanma durumu, spor yapma durumu, spor türü ve akıllı telefon kullanma amacına göre nomofobi düzeylerinde istatistiksel olarak anlamlı farklılık tespit edilmiştir (p<0.05). Üniversite öğrencilerinin konaklama şekli, aylık harcama miktarı, günlük ortalama uyku süresi, internet kullanım araç türü, konaklama yerinde internet bağlantısı durumu, internet kullanım süresi ve amacı, sosyal medya kullanım durumu, internet kullanımı kontrol edici/kısıtlayıcı faktör durumu, akıllı telefona sahip olma durumu, aylık internet kullanım paketi ve akıllı telefon kullanım süresine göre nomofobi düzeylerinde istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir farklılık tespit edilememiştir (p>0.05). Çağımızın büyük sorunu olan bu teknolojik bağımlılıklar gençlerin zamanını esir almaktadır. Üniversite öğrencilerine internet ve akıllı telefon kullanımına yönelik seminerlere katılmaları önerilmektedir.
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This article attempts to point out the main problem in research on workaholism, namely over-use of the term workaholism when describing symptoms or constructs which are not related to work addiction. Workaholism has one, negative pathological/dysfunctional form and can be differentiated from the healthy forms of over-engagement (e.g. work enthusiasm). Based on the analysis of one example of research results, this article explains that the nomenclature of „workaholic“ is not applicable to the case of over-engaged employees with healthy symptoms (e.g. high work involvement and work enjoyment and high or low satisfaction with life situation). The second aim of the article is to argue that the invalid conceptualisation and measurement of workaholism can result in conclusions which do not really regard work addiction.
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Background: Burnout, work engagement and work addiction are all considered components of psychological health in the workplace. Past research indicates that healthcare providers face significant challenges to their psychological wellbeing in the workplace. Objective: This study sought to determine the extent of these components in a sample of Canadian occupational therapists. Methods: An anonymous electronic survey including standardized measures of burnout, work engagement and work addiction. Results: Participants' scores at times differed from previous research on burnout in the occupational therapy profession in that they demonstrated higher depersonalization scores and lower emotional exhaustion scores. Relationships emerged among a number of elements within the various measures, and participants' age and years of experience. Scores indicating a risk of burnout and work addiction clustered at certain times across participants' years of experience, and scores for vigour were low in comparison to an international study of healthcare workers. However, scores in other elements were high (for example, dedication and personal accomplishment), which theorists propose may serve a protective role in mitigating high scores in negative elements. Conclusions: Findings demonstrate a risk for diminished work-related psychological health and point to key areas for further investigation around which targeted interventions could be organized for members of the occupational therapy profession.
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The terms 'workaholic' and 'workaholism' are commonly used in everyday language, yet there is relatively little empirical research on the topic. In this article, the concept of excessive work as a potential addiction is examined along with the problem of defining what lies at the core of being addicted to work. Using criteria adapted from other behavioural addictions, it is argued that excessive work can in some circumstances viewed as a genuine addiction that shares many similarities to other more traditional addictions.
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Workaholism has been defined as a compulsive devotion to work that significantly impairs other areas of an individual’s life (Selinger, 2007). Since this disorder was first conceptualized by Oates (1971), few articles have been published on the nature of workaholism tendencies for workers employed in specific occupations. A Mississippi sample was utilized for this study, for the purpose of exploring workaholism tendencies in a kindergarten through 12th grade (K-12) teacher population. Results indicate that elementary school teachers in particular may exhibit workaholism tendencies. Additionally, beginning teachers, those with more than 10 years of teaching experience, and those who teach in struggling school districts, may be the most likely to struggle with work addiction.
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Addiction to work is defined as a compulsion or an uncontrollable need to work incessantly. Only few measures exist to identify work addiction and the health consequences are sparsely explored. The Bergen Workaholic Scale (BWAS) measures seven core elements of work addiction and has been used in Norway, Hungary, Brazil, Italy, USA and Poland. The aim of this study was to validate the BWAS in a Danish sample and to investigate if high risk of work addiction was associated with stress and reduced quality of life. We conducted an online screening survey with 671 participants aged 16–68 years with the Danish translation of the BWAS. We added the perceived stress scale (PSS) and the quality of life scale EQ‐5D‐5L. Those with high risk of work addiction reported significantly higher mean PSS scores (20.0 points) compared to those with low risk of addiction (12.5 points) and poorer quality of life (61.9) compared to the low risk group (81.3). Furthermore, work addiction was associated with more weekly working hours (44.0 vs. 35.6 hours/week) and having more leadership responsibility. A preliminary estimate of work addiction prevalence was 6.6%. The BWAS demonstrated good reliability (α = 0.83), and factor analyses pointed at a single factor structure. Work addiction seems to be associated with health problems in terms of stress and poorer quality of life. The BWAS is recommended as a reliable and valid tool to identify work addiction in Danish.
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Pfister/Richter (eds.) (2018): Journal of Didactics of Philosophy 2 (1/2018), ISSN 2624-540X, 30 p. Open-Access-Journal: http://www.philosophie.ch/jdph
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The analysis of research findings, presented in previews as concerning “workaholism,” including the results of selected Polish studies, reveals at least three worrisome issues: (a) frequent misappli- cation of the term “workaholism” to phenomenona that are not related to work addiction, (b) expanding the conceptualization of workaholism to include dimensions defining the healthy form of high work involvement (e.g., work engagement), which do not differentiate workaholism as a disorder from the phenomenon of healthy hard work, (c) using inaccurate interpretation of rese- arch results that concern healthy high work involvement as referring to work addiction. The com- mentary on the article contains a discussion of the above-mentioned issues.
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Article attempts to narrow the gap between studies of workaholism and human relations/organizational development, and workaholism and cross-cultural research and family counseling. Counselors are encouraged to be aware of implications of workaholism for clients, including burnout and family disintegration, and screen for it just as they would for alcoholism. Recommendations for future research considerations are presented. (Author/JDM)
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This paper examines the relationship between workaholism, sex, and sex role orientation among professionals. The sample consisted of 86 male and 106 female attorneys, physicians, and psychologists/therapists. Results indicated a significant relationship between sex and sex role stereotyping. Among females, workaholics were grouped exclusively in the sex role categories masculine and androgynous. Implications for counseling include increasing awareness of changing sex role attitudes among professional women and possible role conflict that can occur from integration of work and family.
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Excessive work can be viewed as an addictive behavior, and, as such, it will have a negative impact on the setting in which it occurs, as well as on the individual. This change in perspective is needed to address dysfunctional behavior patterns that interfere with organizational operations. Similarities with other addictions include identity issues, rigid thinking, withdrawal, progressive involvement, and denial. These factors influence decision making and goals of the workaholic. They also interfere with effectiveness by distorting interpersonal relations. Suggestions for further research build on established organizational topics that coincide with characteristics of an addictive pattern.
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