Determination of effort required to insert a rescue tube into various grain types
J&M Roberts LLC, Syracuse, Indiana, USA.Journal of agricultural safety and health 10/2012; 18(4):293-308. DOI: 10.13031/2013.42331
This study was conducted to quantify the forces required to insert the individual panels of a grain rescue tube into four grains of varying moisture contents. The study was conducted to address issues raised by emergency rescue personnel involved with extrication of victims entrapped in grain using a fabricated or commercially available grain containment system. These rescue aids are used to separate or protect the victim from the grain mass, enabling safe rescue. Conclusions drawn from the study included documentation that as the moisture content of the grain increases, the amount of resistance against tube insertion increases substantially. It was found that although the moisture content may be similar across several types of grain, the amount of work required to insert a rescue tube into the grain can vary. It was also concluded that the cohesiveness, angle of internal friction, and static coefficient of friction of the grain on the tube surface, which vary with moisture content and type of grain, were primary factors affecting the amount of effort needed to insert the tube. This article recommends that a consensus standard be developed covering the design and testing of grain rescue tube containment systems.
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ABSTRACT: The forces required to extricate a test mannequin from a grain mass when buried at different depths with and without a grain restraint system were determined. When there was no grain restraint system in place, the vertical force required to pull the mannequin from the grain when it was buried waist deep and to the underarms was 1259 and 1766 N (283 and 397 lb(f)), respectively. It increased to 1584 N (356 lb(f)) (+26%) and 2153 N (484 lb(f)) (+22%), respectively, with the restraint in place due to the changes in grain properties brought about by the insertion of the rescue tube. It was concluded that the use of a grain restraint during extrication of a victim does not reduce the forces required and that forcefully pulling an entrapped victim, especially with mechanical assistance, with or without a grain restraint system could result in severe injuries and possible death due to the forces exerted on the victim. The authors recommend that these findings be incorporated into current grain extrication training for emergency first responders.
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