Article

Formation of slab waveguides in eulytine type BGO and CaF2 crystals by mplantation of MeV nitrogen ions

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... More recently, in the framework of two successive Hungarian research projects (with international co-operation) we have fabricated planar optical waveguides in various optical materials, such as sillenite and eulytine type bismuth germanate (BGO), CaF 2 , rare-earth ion-doped and undoped LiNbO 3 and Er: TeO 2-W 2 O 3 glass, using various lightand medium-mass ions of 1-5 MeV energy. The waveguides proved to be functional at the telecom C band (1550 nm) [37]. We adapted the method of multi-energy ion beam implantation for the use of higher energy medium mass ions, to allow for an improved control of the depth profile of refractive index in the planar waveguides, and hence increasing confinement of the guided wave. ...
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Two methods were proposed and implemented for the fabrication of channel waveguides in an Er-doped Tellurite glass. In the first method, channel waveguides were fabricated by implanting 1.5 MeV and 3.5 MeV energy N+ ions through a special silicon mask to the glass sample at various fluences. Those waveguides implanted at a fluence of 1.0 × 1016 ions/cm2 operated up to 980 nm, and showed green upconversion of the Erbium ions. In the second method, channel waveguides were directly written in the Er3+: TeO2W2O3 glass using an 11 MeV C4+ ion microbeam with fluences in the range of 1 · 1014–5 · 1016 ions/cm2. The waveguides worked in single mode regime up to the 1540 nm telecom wavelength. Propagation losses were reduced from the 14 dB/cm of the as-irradiated waveguides by stepwise thermal annealing to 1.5 dB/cm at λ = 1400 nm.
... Besides the above-mentioned previous art and based on our experience in fabrication/characterisation of planar waveguides in optical materials [24][25][26][27], in this paper we demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating channel waveguides in rare earth tungsten-tellurite glass directly by heavy ions microbeam implantation. We have assessed their main guided propagation and structural characteristics also as a function of a thermal annealing process. ...
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Channel waveguides were directly written in Er: TeO2W2O3 glass using 11 MeV C4+ ion microbeam with fluences in the range of 1·1014–5·1016 ion/cm2. The channel waveguides supported a single guided mode at λ = 1540 nm. Propagation losses of the as-irradiated channel waveguides were around 14 dB/cm. A 30-min thermal annealing at 150 °C in air reduced propagation losses at λ = 1400 nm to 1.5 dB/cm. This method produced channel waveguides with confinement and propagation losses comparable to or better than other current methods, such as MeV energy focused proton or helium ion beam writing. Keywords: Integrated optics, Rare earth doped materials, Channel waveguides, Optical design and fabrication, Microstructure fabrication
... For instance, it can be used in applications as diverse as doping silicon wafers [11], introducing metallic nanoclusters in a dielectric matrix [12] or fabricating optical waveguides [13][14][15][16]. A few experiments have been performed so far on the eulytine structure of BGO by using light ions such as He [17] or N [18,19] and high fluences. A clear rise in refractive index has been obtained leading to good quality waveguides. ...
... So far, optical waveguides have been realized in BGO crystals by using the ion implantation/irradiation [27][28][29][30] and femtosecond laser micromachining. [31][32][33] Dark-modes of the BGO planar waveguides were investigated at the wavelengths of 488, 632.8, and 1.55 μm. ...
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We report on the fabrication of channel waveguides in bismuth germanate (BGO) crystal using focused ion-beam writing. 1 and 2 MeV He+ ions with different fluences are utilized to directly write waveguides in BGO crystal. The guiding properties of the BGO waveguides are explored at the wavelengths of 632.8 nm, 1.31 μm and 1.55 μm, showing that the channel waveguides support light guidance from visible to telecommunication bands along both transverse-electric and transverse-magnetic polarizations. © 2015 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
... The features of BGO crystal, such as non-hygroscopic, high electro-optic coefficient and easy preparation, make it an ideal crystal for nuclear physics, space physics, high-energy physics, medicine, industry and other fields. In early works, BGO waveguides were fabricated by ion implantation/irradiation262728. Femtosecond laser micromachining was also utilized in BGO crystal to fabricate Type II dual-line and depressed cladding waveguides [23]. ...
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We report on the fabrication of three-dimensional waveguide beam splitters in a dielectric Bi<sub>4</sub>Ge<sub>3</sub>O<sub>12</sub> (BGO) crystal by direct femtosecond laser writing. In the laser written tracks of BGO crystal, positive refractive index is induced, resulting in so-called Type I configuration waveguiding cores. The "multiscan" technique is utilized to shape cores with designed cross-sectional geometry in order to achieve guidance at mid-infrared wavelength of 4 μm. The fundamental mode guidance along both TE and TM polarizations has been obtained in the waveguide structures. With this feature, we implement beam splitters from 2D to 3D geometries, and realize 1 × 2, 1 × 3, and 1 × 4 power splitting at 4μm.
... As a result, some features of the bulk materials might be varied or even enhanced in waveguide regions. By using ion beam techniques, waveguides could be produced in a number of materials [6][7][8][9][10]. Normal light ion (He or H) implantation was successfully applied to fabricate LiTaO 3 waveguides [11,12] of ''optical barrier'' type due to the nuclear collisions of incident ions with lattice atoms at the end of ion range. ...
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We report on MgAl2O4 planar waveguides produced using different energies and fluences of C-ion implantation at room temperature. Based on the prism coupling method and end-face coupling measurements, light could propagate in the C-ion-implanted samples. The Raman spectra results indicate that the MgAl2O4 crystal lattice was damaged during the multi-energy C implantation process, whereas the absorption spectra were hardly affected by the C-ion implantation in the visible and infrared bands.
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A high-gain optical waveguide amplifier has been realized in a channel waveguide platform of Nd:YAG ceramic produced by swift carbon ion irradiation with metal masking. The waveguide is single mode at wavelength of 810 and 1064 nm, and with the enhanced fluorescence intensity at around 1064 nm due to the Nd<sup>3+</sup> ion emissions. In conjunction with the low propagation loss of the waveguide, about 26.3 dB/cm of the small signal gain at 1064 nm is achieved with an 18 ns pulse laser as the seeder under the 810-nm laser excitation. This work suggests the carbon ion irradiated Nd:YAG waveguides could serve as efficient integrated amplifiers for the signal amplification.
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The optical waveguides in Bi<sub>4</sub>Ge<sub>3</sub>O<sub>12</sub> (BGO) crystals in both depressed-cladding and dual-line configurations have been produced using femtosecond-laser micromachining. The guiding properties and thermal stabilities of the BGO waveguides have been investigated for both geometries, showing different performance of the fabricated structures. Both depressed-cladding and dual-line waveguides support guidance along both TE and TM polarizations. Thermal annealing treatments up to 600°C reduce the propagation loss of dual-line waveguides to as low as 0.5 dB/cm, while the cladding waveguide is only stable under thermal treatment not higher than 260°C, reaching a propagation loss of 2.1 dB/cm.
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Much attention is currently being paid to the materials and processes that allow one to directly write or to imprint waveguiding structures and/or diffractive elements for optical integrated circuits by exposure from a source of photons, electrons or ions. Here a brief overview of the results achieved in our laboratories is presented, concerning the fabrication and characterization of optical guiding structures based on different materials and exposure techniques. These approaches include: electron and ion beam writing of waveguides in (poly)-crystalline lithium fluoride, uv-laser printing of waveguides and gratings in photorefractive glass thin films, and fs-laser writing in tellurite glasses. Properties and perspectives of these approaches are also discussed.
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The fabrication of multimode channel waveguides in Er3+ -doped tungsten-tellurite glass is demonstrated, for the first time, using an high energy ion beam irradiation technique. Nitrogen ions with dose of 1.0 x 1016 ions/cm2 and 1.5 MeV energy were used for this aim. The waveguiding effect was investigated using the end-fire coupling technique. The propagation depth so measured shown to be wider than that simulated using SRIM. A possible explanation may be attributed to the additional ionization processes occurred under the unmasked region during the irradiation. A precise measurement of the refractive index change is still under investigation.
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This book is the first to give a detailed description of the factors and processes that govern the optical properties of ion implanted materials, as well as an overview of the variety of devices that can be produced in this way. Beginning with an overview of the basic physics and practical methods involved in ion implantation, the topics of optical absorption and luminescence are then discussed. A chapter on waveguide analysis then provides the background for a description of particular optical devices, such as waveguide lasers, mirrors, and novel nonlinear materials. The book concludes with a survey of the exciting range of potential applications.
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SRIM is a software package concerning the stopping and range of ions in matter. Since its introduction in 1985, major upgrades are made about every five years. For SRIM-2003, the following major improvements were made: (1) About 2200 new experimental stopping powers were added to the database, increasing it to over 25,000 stopping values. (2) Improved corrections were made for the stopping of ions in compounds. (3) New heavy ion stopping calculations have led to significant improvements on SRIM stopping accuracy. (4) A self-contained SRIM module has been included to allow SRIM stopping and range values to be controlled and read by other software applications. A full catalog of stopping power plots has been published at www.SRIM.org. Over 500 plots show the accuracy of the stopping and ranges produced by SRIM along with 25,000 experimental data points. References to the citations which reported the experimental data are included.
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Various techniques for fabricating optical waveguides for laser-oriented applications are being studied. A technique utilizing radiation-induced changes of refractive index in optical materials is presented; the particular waveguide considered is a fused-silica slab that has been irradiated with protons to produce a channel with a refractive index slightly higher than the unirradiated silica. This high-index channel serves as the waveguide core and the surrounding unirradiated region as the cladding.Formulas for determining the size and shape of the high-index channel and the amount of index change have been developed. The primary waveguide parameters, core size, and refractive-index difference, may be adjusted by controlling proton energy and dosage, respectively. The technique is useful for formation of waveguides with core widths of 1 to 50 µ and index differences of 0.01 to 0.0001; it is particularly suitable for forming complex arrays of waveguides and waveguide components.Preliminary experimental work has used 1.5-MeV protons and dosages of 1014to 1017 protons/cm2. Light propagation has been observed in waveguides formed by this technique.
645 M Street Suite 102 Lincoln, NE 68508 USA, http:// www.jawoollam.com. 84 I. Bányász et al. / Nuclear Instruments and Methods in
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Woollam Co. Inc., 645 M Street Suite 102 Lincoln, NE 68508 USA, http:// www.jawoollam.com. 84 I. Bányász et al. / Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 286 (2012) 80–84
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