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Worldwide consumers are becoming more interested in the relation between food and health. In order to harmonize regulation on foods throughout the EU, the Regulation EC1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims came into force, as a first specific set of EU legal rules dealing with nutrition and health claims. A Union List of EU-wide approved claims is now being developed that creates a level playing-field on which food operators can innovate, backed by legal certainty to ultimately bring benefits to the consumer. This paper assesses the new Regulation and its impact on the functional food innovation process, functional foods being conventional food products with added substances to promote health. Food innovation is perceived as a collective effort of a variety of actors within the context of a network of institutions, whose activities and interactions initiate, import and diffuse new innovations. Both desk research and semi-structured interviews with actors in the Dutch functional food value chain have been performed to explore the impact of the new Regulation. It seems that the new regulatory regime may not only be restrictive but also selective for future functional food innovative activities.
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... So is the preparation to fulfil the regulatory requirements for health claim and commercialization. These systemic failures demand several partnership schemes to support the development of functional food industry (Moors, 2012). ...
... Furthermore, future advances on this area needs understanding from and eventually are potential for the development of academia, society, and industry (Moors, 2012). The success of functional foods market not only depend on an effective scientific research, but should be adequate with consumers (Gok and Ulu, 2018;Guiné et al., 2020). ...
... Developing academia-industry linkage might be an alternative. The innovation process of functional foods demands interplay of various actors, including public-private partnership (Moors, 2012). The successful innovation of functional foods requires creative management that encompasses entrepreneurial (Mark-Herbert, 2004) and strategic planning perspectives through collaboration and partnership (Khan et al., 2013;Mark-Herbert, 2004). ...
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The development of functional foods requires extensive research and development (R&D) activities for product development, technology development and commercialization. However, it becomes rather a complex issue in developing countries, including Indonesia. This study briefly discusses the status of functional foods R&D in Indonesia by understanding the opportunities and challenges. Employing scientometrics with bibliometric data from Scopus Database from the early retrievable date to October 29, 2018, the study finds out that R&D on functional foods in Indonesia indicates a substantially increasing trend in the last decade. The research activities are mostly conducted by public research institutes (PRIs) and universities in the area of identification of bioactive compounds and their effects on health. They explore the abundant potentially indigenous biodiversity from Indonesia, both land and marine resources. Nonetheless, the R&D activities are still lacking of network and integration between the subject areas. Underdeveloped infrastructure, limited human resources and financial support, costly preparation for the clinical test to satisfy health claims regulation and the gap between academic research and industry have been key issues in Indonesian functional foods R&D. By using innovation system perspectives, this study suggests that public R&D on functional foods demands active collaboration between PRIs, universities and industry as well as the supportive regulation system from policymakers to enhance the development of functional foods in the future.
... Currently, several regulations relevant to the food field apply to this category. However, a dedicated regulation establishing functional food as a separate category is urgently needed (Gur et al., 2018) to guide and control the innovation in the functional food field by setting rules and standards (Moors, 2012). These are essential to reduce the fear of working in a grey area and increasing the investments in functional food R&D (Kaur & Das, 2011). ...
... Besides consumers, also the other actors taking part to functional food development should be directly or indirectly involved in all the required steps. Yet, merging all these different viewpoints probably represents the hardest task for manufacturers dealing with functional food development (Moors, 2012). Still, an integrated outcome is essential to successfully deliver a new functional food on the market. ...
... All these activities should fit in a regulatory framework, including functional food definition, delineated by the legislator, which outlines and implements policies to influence the innovation process and guarantee the operability of the functional food market (Moors, 2012). To lay down definitions and rules for health claims, the legislator collects technical information from food technologists, clinicians, and nutritionists. ...
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Although the interest towards functional food has dramatically increased, several factors jeopardize their effective development. A univocally recognized definition and a dedicated regulation for this emerging food category is lacking, and a gap exists between the technological and the nutritional viewpoints. Involved actors speak different languages, thus impinging the progression towards an integrated approach for functional food development. A holistic approach to rationalize functional food development was here proposed, i.e., the “Functional Food Development Cycle”. First regulation and definitions were reviewed. The technological approaches for functional food design were then described, followed by the efficacy evaluation ones. Merging the technological and the evaluation viewpoints, by identifying the best compromise between quality and functionality, is pivotal to develop effective functional foods. Finally, delivering functional food on the market requires dedicated communication strategies. These in turn can provide information about consumer needs, thus representing an input for regulatory bodies to drive the development of functional food, feeding it within an iterative and virtuous holistic cycle.
... The USA, through its US FDA, has established regulations on the approval of new claims and novel foods that are friendlier to food processing industries (Malla et al., 2013), which further encourages growth, expansion and innovation of the industry in the USA. However, the US FDA currently uses three legislation documents for claiming and labelling of food and drug supplements, including fortified foods (Moors, 2012). On the other hand, EU strict regulations for the registration and approval of functional foods widens the market in order to globally trade the same product. ...
... On the other hand, EU strict regulations for the registration and approval of functional foods widens the market in order to globally trade the same product. Moreover, new EU regulations on functional foods for market approval are more complicated than those in the USA (Moors, 2012). ...
Article
Grapes are rich sources of polyphenols and widely used in food fortification due to their health promoting properties. Previous studies have provided systematic strategies on foods fortified with grape polyphenols; however, until now, very little is known about grape polyphenol market, fortification, and their health food regulations. It is therefore necessary to make a comprehensive overview on grape extract polyphenols and their fortification in functional foods. Hence, we reviewed the grape polyphenol market, fortification, health food market scenario, and functional food regulations. The global grape polyphenol market is expected to rise 946.90 million USD by 2023 with its own trademark as polyphenol fortified functional foods. This is ultimately due to acceptability, extensive use, marketing of polyphenol fortified functional foods, and their favorable food regulations. The future perspective on grape polyphenols research should be focused on extraction of polyphenols from grape waste and their fortification in functional foods.
... In fact, according to estimations, the costs associated with the process of scientific substantiation of health claims range from EUR 4.5 to EUR 7.7 million, which does not include scientific data support or human intervention trials; the entire process may take months or even years [75]. Considering that around 99% of European companies in the field of food and beverages are small-and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) [23] with limited financial resources, sizeable investment in R&D might not be feasible, thus limiting the applications for health claims [76]. Instead of conducting research on novel product ingredients, food business operators might opt to reformulate their products using well-known ingredients that have already obtained health claim approval [77]. ...
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Since the implementation of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims (NHCR) made on food, only 261 health claims have been authorised, suggesting that the regulation creates challenges for the food industry. This study looks at the prevalence of nutrition and health claims labelled on food on the Irish market. Specifically, we compared their prevalence in 2009 with those present on the marketplace in 2022. Food labels of defined food categories were examined in three nationwide supermarkets in Ireland, and data of claims made on these labels were collected. A series of statistical analyses was conducted to compare the results from 2021 with those of 2009. In 2021, around half of the examined products (52.8%) displayed at least one nutrition claim, showing no significant difference with the data collected in 2009 (53.5%). Individual categories, however, did exhibit changes between the two time points. The prevalence of health claims on food has decreased from 21.6% in 2009 to 10.5% in 2021. There will always be a time lag between when a regulation is enacted and what its true impact can be measured. This study provides these data for the impact of time on EU Regulation 1924/2006 on the Irish market.
... Growing consumer interest in health foods has been driven by greater understanding about the effects of diet on health as well as the motivation to improve well-being and longevity (Milner 1999, Moors 2012, Malla et al. 2013, Hobbs et al. 2014a). Policymakers also have placed greater emphasis on promoting the adoption of healthy diets as a preventative care strategy in an effort to help alleviate the rising economic burdens of chronic illness (Veeman 2002, Aschemann-Witzel 2011. ...
Article
the risk of many chronic illnesses. To encourage greater consumption of healthy foods, some government agencies have begun issuing specific health claims on particular foods and/or ingredients. This study examines the impacts of a specific health claim on the risk of coronary heart disease on the demand for fats and meats in the United States. Results indicate the health claim decreased demand for foods higher in saturated fats and increased demand for foods lower in saturated fats by relatively small but statistically significant amounts. Keywords: health benefits, functional foods, dietary choices, consumer demand
... All health claims that can be used within the European Union and have passed the strictly prescribed approval procedure are entered in the Register of approved health claims available on the official website of the European Commission (Regulation (EU) No 432/2012). Health claims offer companies that produce functional food the opportunity to differentiate their products in markets, adding value to their products, thus strengthening the competitive position of their products (Moors, 2012, Hieke et al., 2015, De Roos et al., 2019. Based on literature data on the bioactive components and nutrients found in significant quantities, to pepper seed products, such flour and oil, could be applied approved health claims listed in Table 3. ...
Article
Vegetable by-products are a source of many useful bioactive compounds, dietary fiber, fatty acids and proteins that have a great potential in the development of new food products and the promotion of the circular economy and sustainability.Considering processed pepper by-products as an example, the aim of this paper is to provide an overview of EU food legislation that should be taken into account before placing such products on the market, as well as of the voluntary labeling of functional, nutritional and sustainability benefits important for consumers.
... suggesting or implying that the food has such characteristics (EC, 2006). The regulation requires the information on the food label to be based on scientific evidence, to prevent consumers from being misled by unclear or incorrect information and false claims (Hoad, 2011;Moors, 2012). The use of a health claim is allowed or refused by the European Commission, after consulting the expert opinion of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) on the submitted claim (de Boer, Vos, & Bast, 2014;EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies, 2021). ...
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Although governments have implemented regulations to inform consumers on important product properties and protect consumers from deceptive information, empirical research on how consumers perceive, interpret and experience food packages have shown frequently that consumers may be misled by how information is presented and packages are designed. While communication in some domains is strictly regulated (health), claims in other domains are largely free (nature) and do not require substantiation. Subtleties in wording, image use and image style may affect the impressions consumers form. To support consumer decision making, legislators should not only provide rules and regulations that are formally correct, but also consider the effects a message and the way it is communicated (e.g., content, typeface, size, use of images, stylistic features) may have on buyers. While it may be unclear how best to support desirable behaviours, companies that take social responsibility can build on our work to develop their strategy.
Chapter
This chapter is focused on the role of polyphenols and other antioxidants from by-products to be used in new fortified foods or supplements adding value and potential functionality to the recovered compounds. The residues can be a potential for the food industry with new options of available products for consumers. The goal of this part of the book is to highlight the possibility of extracting bioactive compounds from waste fruit and vegetable origin and the possibility of their exploitation for new products in cosmetics, foodstuffs, nutraceutical or dietary supplements with nutritional value-added and also increasing the economical profits, improving the sustainability of the agri-food systems, and generating novel high-value products. Techniques of recovering, fortifying, and optimization of some beverages and supplements as well as polyphenols interactions and applications will be discussed by the explanation of studies such in vitro, clinical and in vivo. Finally, through this chapter, some insights on the regulations and health claims associated with these ingredients are also included.
Chapter
This chapter is focused on the role of polyphenols and other antioxidants from by-products to be used in new fortified foods or supplements adding value and potential functionality to the recovered compounds. The residues can be a potential for the food industry with new options of available products for consumers. The goal of this part of the book is to highlight the possibility of extracting bioactive compounds from waste fruit and vegetable origin and the possibility of their exploitation for new products in cosmetic, foodstuffs, nutraceutical or dietary supplements with nutritional value-added and also increasing the economical profits, improving the sustainability of the agri-food systems, and generating novel high-value products. Techniques of recovering, fortifying, and optimization of some beverages and supplements as wells as polyphenols interactions and applications will be discussed by the explanation of studies such in vitro, clinical and in vivo. Finally, through this chapter, some insights on the regulations and health claims associated with these ingredients are also included
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Masyarakat mulai menyadari akan pentingnya fungsi makanan, bukan hanya sebagai kebutuhan nutrisi melainkan juga sebagai alat penunjang kesehatan maupun sebagai obat. Makanan yang memiliki fungsi tambahan ini dikenal sebagai makanan fungsional. Sifat fungsional ini dapat merupakan karakter alami dari makanan, merupakan karakter yang ditambahkan, atau ditingkatkan. Pangan fungsional sendiri merupakan istilah yang masih baru, sehingga belum ada peraturan yang jelas mengenai batasan-batasan definisi dari pangan fungsional, serta masih rendahnya pengawasan terhadap klaim-klaim kesehatan yang dimiliki oleh pangan fungsional. Klaim fungsional dari bahan pangan juga sering dieksploitasi oleh produsen untuk meningkatkan ketakutan di masyarakat tanpa didukung oleh bukti-bukti ilmiah. Melihat banyaknya informasi yang tidak bertanggungjawab ini, pihak GKI Pakuwon bekerjasama dengan Program Studi Teknologi Pangan UPH untuk memberikan penyuluhan mengenai teknik dan cara pengolahan makanan yang aman serta pengenalan terhadap bahan pangan fungsional, dengan fokus di masa pandemi COVID-19 ini kepada jemaat yang tertarik dan terutama dalam usaha makanan yang selama ini sudah dijalankan. Pembekalan melalui webinar peranan pangan fungsional dalam kehidupan kita sehari-hari ini diharapkan dapat menambah wawasan dan pengetahuan untuk membentengi diri, keluarga dan jemaat dari COVID-19. Penyuluhan ini bertujuan untuk menambah wawasan dan menghubungkan masyarakat awam dengan kemajuan penelitian di bidang sains dan teknologi.
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The aim of this study was to examine what reasons consumers give for either choosing or not choosing functional foods. Laddering interviews were used to find out how consumers described their reasons for choosing functional food alternatives in different product categories and how these descriptions are linked with values. Yoghurt, spread, juice, carbonated soft drinks, sweets and ice cream were used as example product categories. In total, five central means-end chains, describing the product attributes, consequences and values behind respondents’ food choices, were found, which referred to healthiness, taste and pleasure, security and familiarity, convenience and price. They were found to be independent from each other and had different connotations depending on the product category. The results indicate that respondents did not see functional foods as one homogenous group over different product categories. Instead, consumers seemed to perceive functional products as a member of the general product category such as yoghurt or spread and only secondarily as a functional food.
Article
1. The Functional Food Science in Europe (FUFOSE) project was introduced, evaluated and accepted by the EU DG XII FAIR Programme as a Concerted Action. Its aim was to develop and establish a science-based approach for the emerging concepts in functional food development. Over the last three years of this EU Concerted Action co-ordinated by ILSI Europe, scientific data have been evaluated and new concepts have been elaborated. This Consensus Document is the culmination of the EU Concerted Action and its key points and recommendations are summarized here. It is by no means the end of the process, but, rather, an important starting point and the stimulus for functional food development. 2. Considerable progress has been made in scientific knowledge leading to the identification of functional food components which might eventually lead to an improved state of health and well-being and/or reduction of risk of disease. Consumers are becoming more aware of this development as they seek a better-quality, as well as a longer, life. The food industry has an opportunity to provide products that are not only safe and tasty, but also functional. The originality of the approach in this EU Concerted Action is that it is function-based, rather than product-based. The latter approach would have to be influenced by local considerations of different cultural as well as dietary traditions, whereas the function-based approach starts from the biologically based science that is universal. Furthermore, and most importantly, the function-based approach in this EU Concerted Action has allowed the development of ideas that suggest a unique way in which to link this scientific basis of functional foods with the communication about their possible benefits to consumers. 3. This EU Concerted Action has adopted the following working definition, rather than a firm definition, for functional foods: A food can be regarded as 'functional' if it is satisfactorily demonstrated to affect beneficially one or more target functions in the body, beyond adequate nutritional effects in a way that is relevant to either an improved state of health and well-being and/or reduction of risk of disease. 4. Functional foods must remain foods and they must demonstrate their effects in amounts that can normally be expected to be consumed in the diet. They are not pills or capsules, but part of a normal food pattern. A functional food can be a natural food, a food to which a component has been added, or a food from which a component has been removed by technological or biotechnological means. It can also be a food where the nature of one or more components has been modified, or a food in which the bioavailability of one or more components has been modified; or any combination of these possibilities. A functional food might be functional for all members of a population or for particular groups of the population, which might be defined, for example, by age or by genetic constitution. 5. The development of functional foods must rely on basic scientific knowledge of target functions in the body that are relevant to an improved state of health and well-being and/or the reduction of risk of diseases, the identification of validated markers for these target functions and the evaluation of sound scientific data from human studies for their possible modulation by foods and food components. This EU Concerted Action has proposed that markers can be classified according to whether they are markers of exposure to the functional food component whether they are markers that relate to target function or biological response or whether they are intermediate markers of the actual disease endpoint or health outcome. 6. Consumers must be made aware of the scientific benefits of functional foods and this requires clear and informative communication through messages (claims) on products and in accompanying materials. This EU Concerted Action has identified two types of claims that are vital to functional food development and has provided a scientific basis for them to help those who have to formulate and regulate the claims. Claims for 'Enhanced Function Claims' (Type A) should require that evidence for the effects of the functional food is based on establishment and acceptance of validated markers of Improved Target Function or Biological Response, while claims for the Reduced Risk Of A Disease (Type B) should require that evidence is based on the establishment and acceptance of Markers of Intermediate Endpoints of Disease. These markers must be shown to be significantly and consistently modulated by the functional food or the functional food component for either type of claim to be made. This EU Concerted Action has therefore proposed a scheme whereby the scientific basis of functional food development can be linked to the communication of their benefits to the public. If the principles of such a scheme can be universally adopted then this should ultimately improve communication to consumers and minimize their confusion. 7. Functional foods must be safe according to all standards of assessing food risk and new approaches to safety might need to be established. This EU Concerted Action proposes that the development of validated markers as described above should, if possible, be used and integrated in the safety assessment with particular attention being paid to long-term consequences and interactions between components. 8. The development of functional foods, with their accompanying claims, will proceed hand in hand with progress in food regulation, which is the means to guarantee the validity of the claims as well as the safety of the food. Science in itself cannot be regulated and functional food science provides only the scientific basis for these regulations. 9. The Individual Theme Group papers, which are the science base for this Concerted Action, represent the critical assessment of the literature by European experts.
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Nutrition and health claims are used by the food and beverage industry to inform consumers about the beneficial health attributes of food products. With an increased awareness of the role of diet and health, consumers should not be misled with respect to nutritional or health attributes associated with a food. The primary role of food legislation is to protect consumers. The nutrition and health claims regulation, which came into force in January 2007, is the first piece of harmonised EU legislation to lay down specific rules governing the use of nutrition and health claims made on food. It lays down stringent rules on scientific substantiation which must be of the highest standard and requires a dossier of scientific evidence for new health claims. Whether generic or product specific, a claimed functional effect must be underpinned by scientifically valid evidence demonstrating the effect of a food or its constituents on health under typical conditions of use. To date some 1000 health claims have been assessed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), the majority of which were not considered to be scientifically substantiated. Several probiotic, antioxidant and glycaemic response claims were among these. This paper provides an overview of the EU nutrition & health claims regulation, requirements for scientific substantiation, progress on implementation of the regulation, nutrient profiling as well as implementation uncertainties. Many aspects of the implementation of this regulation, which are up-to-date at the time of writing, are still in development.
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Food safety is a complex policy domain: it involves a variety of stakeholders, touches upon a variety of issues and disciplines, and has an important international dimension. While countries are free to set their own standards, their policy autonomy in the process of regulating food safety is restricted by a number of factors. The EU and each member state are confronted with two aspects of compliance: the power of alignment with Codex standards, and the drive towards convergence with standards developed by trading partners. The importance attributed to the WTO and its reference organization, the Codex Alimentarius Commission, sheds light on the institutional constraints inherent in the international framework governing food safety while revealing the indirect power of alignment with international standards. Equally important, on the other hand, are the standards adhered to or required by key trade partners. This is often a stronger factor pointing towards convergence in the mid to long term. These constraints are inherent components of the present-day European regulatory framework governing food safety.