Body composition changes and cardiometabolic benefits of a balanced Italian Mediterranean Diet in obese patients with metabolic syndrome

Department of Internal Medicine, Nephrology and Hypertension Unit, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", 00133, Rome, Italy.
Acta Diabetologica (Impact Factor: 2.4). 11/2012; 50(3). DOI: 10.1007/s00592-012-0445-7
Source: PubMed


Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic alteration associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease and overall mortality than the single alterations alone. The Italian Mediterranean Diet (IMD) can exert a positive effect on cardiovascular risk and related morbidity and mortality. The aim was to evaluate the benefits of dietary intervention based on a typical IMD on body composition, cardiometabolic changes and reduction in cardiovascular disease in patients with MS. Eighty White Italian subjects with MS were prescribed a balanced hypocaloric IMD. We investigated dietary habits and impact of the diet on health status, blood biochemical markers, anthropometric measurements and body composition during a 6-month follow-up period. Body composition, fat mass and distribution were assessed by Dual X-ray absorptiometry. Adherence to the IMD led to a decrease in body weight (102.59 ± 16.82 to 92.39 ± 15.94 kg, p < 0.001), body mass index (BMI) (38.57 ± 6.94 to 35.10 ± 6.76, <0.001) and waist circumference (112.23 ± 12.55 vs 92.42 ± 18.17 cm, p < 0.001). A significant loss of total body fat especially in waist region was observed. The MS was resolved in 52 % of the patients. Significant improvements in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and fasting glucose occurred. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was reduced from 128.74 ± 33.18 to 108.76 ± 38.61 mg/dl (p < 0.001), triglycerides from 169.81 ± 80.80 to 131.02 ± 63.88 mg/dl (p < 0.001). The present results suggest that a dietary intervention based on a typical IMD effectively promotes weight loss and reduces the growing burden of cardiovascular risk factors that typifies patients with MS.

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Available from: Antonino De Lorenzo, Apr 02, 2014
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    • "Diets rich in saturated fatty acids (SAFA) have been linked to endothelial dysfunction, which contributes to macrovascular alterations. On the other hand, the Mediterranean diet, which is mainly characterized by abundant vegetables, fruits, complex carbohydrates, large amounts of olive oil as the main dietary fat, low fat dairy and animal products which guarantees the low consumption of saturated fats, has been recognized for its positive effects on cardiovascular health [6,7] and its protective effect against the development of obesity and diabetes [8-10]. In the Mediterranean region, total daily lipid intake may contribute with the 40% of total energy intake in Greece, or 30% in Italy, hence, olive oil plays a central role in this diet [11]. "
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