Inattention, Hyperactivity, and Emergent Literacy: Different Facets of Inattention Relate Uniquely to Preschoolers' Reading-Related Skills
Although extant studies indicate that there is a strong association between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and reading ability in elementary school children, knowledge regarding the relation between inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behaviors and emergent literacy in preschool children is less established. This study examined the unique and overlapping relations between measures that assess inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity and emergent literacy skills in preschool children. Participants included 204 preschool children (M age = 56 months, 50.9% female, 79.8% European American). Behavioral rating scales were completed by teachers, and the Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and the Test of Preschool Early Literacy were completed by the preschoolers. Across measures, inattention was a unique correlate of emergent literacy skills, whereas hyperactivity/impulsivity was not. Both rating scales and the CPT indices of inattention were uniquely associated with emergent literacy skills. These results suggest that these measures are assessing different manifestations of inattention that are both unique correlates of early reading skills.
Available from: Peng Peng
- "Attention is also a critical predictor of academic success (e.g., Barkley, 2006; Miller et al., 2014; Saez, Folsom, Al Otaiba, & Schatschneider, 2012). This finding holds for children (Sims & Lonigan, 2013) and adults (Samuelsson, Lundberg, & Herkner, 2004) as well as typically developing (Steele, Karmiloff-Smith, Cornish, & Scerif, 2012) and clinical populations (Barkley, 2006). Thus, one may expect that training attention could not only strengthen the attention network itself but might also transfer to gains on untrained tasks such as cognitive skills and academic outcomes. "
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ABSTRACT: The main goals of this selective meta-analysis on the populations of ADHD, learning difficulties and typically developing individuals were (a) to determine whether attention skills can be improved by attention training programs, (b) to examine whether attention training effects transfer to other outcomes (i.e., academic and cognitive skill), and (c) to identify moderators of the attention training effects on attention. A meta-analysis of 15 studies with 113 effect sizes found a significant, medium-sized training effect on attention, Hedges g = .25, 95% CI [.02, .47] and the effects of attention training significantly transferred to non-trained tasks (academic and cognitive skills), Hedges g = .24, 95% CI [.01, .47]. Moderation analyses indicated that attention training is more effective for improving attention when the training is adaptive and is more effective for younger individuals and for individuals with ADHD. Also, attention training seems more effective for improving attention when it targets the orienting attention network. The implications of these findings with respect to attention training are discussed.
Keywords: attention training, alerting, orienting, executive attention, age, ADHD
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare ratings of mother-child relationship quality from diverse assessment perspectives. The quality of the mother-child relationship was rated in a sample of 34 mothers with substance-use difficulties and their children using the Emotional Availability Scales (EAS; Z. Biringen,), based on videotaped observation of a 20-min, free-play session. These ratings were compared to clinician ratings on the Parent-Infant Ratings Global Assessment Scale (PIR-GAS; ZERO TO THREE, 2005) and maternal ratings on the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF; R.R. Abidin,). Ratings on the Emotional Attachment and Emotional Availability (EA2) Clinical Screener (EA2 Clinical Screener) and adult dimensions of the EAS (particularly maternal sensitivity), but not child dimensions, were associated with clinician ratings on the PIR-GAS. In contrast, child dimensions of the EAS, but not adult dimensions, were associated with maternal ratings on the Child scales of the PSI-SF (particularly parent-child difficult interactions). While clinician ratings seem to be more sensitive to maternal contributions to the relationship, maternal ratings seem to emphasize child behaviors. Results highlight the importance of multimethod assessment in fully capturing the transactional nature of the mother-child relationship in high-risk samples. The validity of the EA2 Clinical Screener as an index of the quality of mother-child relationship in a high-risk, substance-exposed sample is also supported.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which teacher ratings of behavioral attention predicted responsiveness to word reading instruction in first grade and third-grade reading comprehension performance. Participants were 110 first grade students identified as at-risk for reading difficulties who received 20 weeks of intensive reading intervention in combination with classroom reading instruction. Path analysis indicated that teacher ratings of student attention significantly predicted students' word reading growth in first grade even when they were competed against other relevant predictors (phonological awareness, nonword reading, sight word efficiency, vocabulary, listening comprehension, hyperactivity, nonverbal reasoning, and short term memory). Also, student attention demonstrated a significant indirect effect on third grade reading comprehension via word reading, but not via listening comprehension. Results suggest that student attention (indexed by teacher ratings) is an important predictor of at-risk readers' responsiveness to reading instruction in first grade and that first-grade reading growth mediates the relationship between students' attention and their future level of reading comprehension. The importance of considering ways to manage and improve behavioral attention when implementing reading instruction is discussed.
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