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Abstract

It is not uncommon that researchers face difficulties when performing meaningful cross-study comparisons for research. Research associated with the distance learning realm can be even more difficult to use as there are different environments with a variety of characteristics. We implemented a mixed-method analysis of research articles to find out how they define the learning environment. In addition, we surveyed 43 persons and discovered that there was inconsistent use of terminology for different types of delivery modes. The results reveal that there are different expectations and perceptions of learning environment labels: distance learning, e-Learning, and online learning.

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... The Distance Learning System is a learning system where students are separated from educators and learning through information and communication technology and other media. According to Dede distance learning is the instructional delivery included an instructor who was physically located in a different place from the learner, as well as possibly providing the instruction at disparate times [4]. Distance learning is done through online learning. ...
... Distance learning is done through online learning. Online learning is described by most authors as access to learning experiences via the use of some technology [4]. Basilaia & Kvavaze defined Online learning as experience of transferring knowledge using Video, Audio, Images, text communication software and with the support of internet networks [3]. ...
... The effectiveness of learning can be seen from the activities of students during the learning process, Student responses to learning and mastery of concepts or teaching materials .In addition, the facilities and infrastructure as well as appropriate learning media play a major role in supporting the effectiveness of teaching and learning Gunawan stated Online learning can take advantage of platforms in the form of applications, websites, social networks and learning management systems [3]. Benson and Conrad identify online learning as a more recent version of distance learning which improves access to educational opportunities for learners described as both nontraditional and disenfranchised [4]. Not only the accessibility of online learning but also its connectivity,flexibility, and ability to promote varied interactions in particular not only elude relation to online learnings relationship with distance learning and traditional delivery system [6]. ...
... Consequently, the benefits of internet-mediated learning (IML), both inside and outside of the classroom thresholds, seem to have influenced largely the evolution of scholar's activities, moreover, with underlying spillovers on the corporate environment's training (e.g., problem-based embedded training; mixed-reality; or live-virtual-constructive simulations) (Kirkley et al., 2005;cited in Graham, 2006). Moore et al. (2011) argues that the IML is per se an environment or learning ecosystem which contains variations, as an online learning environment (OLE) or a personal learning environment (PLE). The notion of OLE comprehends a computer-assisted and internet-enhanced ecosystem which may account a multiplicity of attributes. ...
... Frequently utilised for course administration to numerous learners simultaneously, it is also labelled as a collaborative learning environment (CLE) or course management system (CMS), since OLEs comprise a front-end for the learner experimentation and interaction with third users, and back-end supportive tools which build on a learning management system (LMS) for its administration. Thus, it is perceived as a powerful environment for content distribution/administration, joint-operability and cross-user communication, as a virtual learning environment (VLE), impregnated with learning-facilitative technologies acting as intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), in which the role of the instructor and interaction with him/her is may be dissimilar and caustically defined (Moore et al., 2011). ...
... The customisation of their characteristics is clearly beneficial for individual learning, but here it also starts the division between OLEs and PLEs. Firstly, their benefits relate to the attributes of self-pacing, self-direction, and instructor's participation, with instruction-led (synchronous), without direct instruction (asynchronous) or mixed, revealing that the preconceived ideas of the past, as to online being a synonym of sole (and distant) learning, as having become old-fashioned and outdated (Moore et al., 2011). ...
... The United States Distance Learning Association described distance learning as the 'acquisition of knowledge and skills through mediated information and instruction, encompassing all technologies and other forms of learning at a distance' (King et al., 2001). It is a system of learning that uses electronic media, typically over the internet (Sangrà and González-Sanmamed, 2010) which includes distance learning and online education (Moore et al., 2011). ...
... Online learning is a more recent version of distance education (Al-Arimi, 2014b) which improves access to educational opportunities for learners (Oliver, 2000) described as both non-traditional and disenfranchised manner (Moore et al., 2011). Additionally, technological advances have accelerated the development of educational materials for distance learning, offered through the Web (Tselios et al., 2001). ...
... Pembelajaran yang dahulu hanya bisa dilakukan dengan cara konvensional (tatap muka), sekarang sudah dapat dilakukan dengan bantuan media lain, salah satunya dengan cara teknologi pemrograman yang diaplikasikan ke dalam e-learning. E-learning adalah sebuah proses pembelajaran yang berbasis elektronik dengan media yang digunakan adalah internet, jaringan komputer maupun komputer standalone [4]. Contoh penerapan e-learning dalam instansi pendidikan dapat dilihat melalui berbagai universitas yang menyediakan fasilitas e-learning, juga beberapa pendidikan non-formal. ...
... E-learning bisa dinyatakan dengan istilah lain seperti kursus/pembelajaran online, pembelajaran berbasis web, pelatihan berbasis web, objek pembelajaran atau pembelajaran jarak jauh. Semua bentuk e-learning, apakah itu sebagai aplikasi, program, objek, situs web, maupun lainnya, pada akhirnya memberikan kesempatan belajar bagi individu [4]. Kata kunci dari e-learning adalah penggunaan teknologi untuk tujuan pembelajaran, pengetahuan, dan pengembangan keterampilan. ...
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Perkembangan Teknologi Informasi telah mendorong kemajuan di berbagai bidang. Dalam bidang pendidikan, contohnya penggunaan e-learningyang merupakan hasil integrasi teknologi dan pendidikan yang muncul sebagai media untuk pembelajaran yang menggunakan teknologi internet. Kebutuhan e-learning yang tak terbantahkan dalam pendidikan menyebabkan pertumbuhan yang besar dalam hal jumlah materi e-learning yang di-share dan sistem e-learning yang menawarkan berbagai jenis layanan. Ada 2 tipe e-learning, yaitu unstructured e-learning dan structured e-learning. Masing-masing tipe tersebut dibedakan menjadi dua bentuk berdasarkan faktor-faktor evaluasi kesuksesan suatu e-learning. Pesatnya penggunaan e-learning sebagai media pembelajaran, membuat kualitas sistem e-learning menjadi perhatian besar untuk memaksimalkan efektivitas sistem e-learning. Evaluasi kualitas sistem e-learning menjadi sangat penting dilakukan untuk memastikan dan mengetahui tingkat keberhasilan penyampaian materi melalui e-learning kepada para peserta didik, penggunaan e-learning yang efektif, dan dampak positif e-learning untuk peserta didik. Dua metode pembelajaran berbasis e-learning yang dilakukan, yaitu structured learning dengan user interface baik dan unstructured learning dengan user interface baik. Evaluasi dilakukan terhadap penyajian mata kuliah dengan dua metode pembelajaran berdasarkan hasil tes pemahaman materi. Hal ini dilakukan untuk melihat bagaimana pemahaman mahasiswa terhadap materi mata kuliah yang dibedakan atas dua kategori penyajian. Serta melakukan evaluasi kegunaan (usability) produk LMS UNJA. Diperoleh nilai rata-rata test akhir 78,15 untuk metode structured learning dan 69,19 untuk metode unstructured learning. Hasil evaluasi usability produk LMS UNJA, menyatakan secara keseluruhan, produk LMS UNJA secara usability sudah dapat diterima atau sudah layak, sesuai dengan rata-rata nilai usability produk yang diperoleh yaitu, 73,46.
... Distance education (Keegan, 1996), which is used as an umbrella term, refers to efforts that enable individuals who are geographically far away to reach education (Moore et al., 2011). While distance education expresses an activity that includes distance learning skills, distance learning is seen as a skill (Volery & Lord, 2000). ...
... For example, while Nichols (2003) defines e-learning as a type of learning that can be accessed through the use of technological tools such as web-based, web-distributed, or web-compatible, Ellis (2004) states that education offered not only via CD-ROM, internet, or intranet but also via audio, video tape, broadcast, and interactive TV is defined as e-learning. In short, since there is still no consensus on which technologies can be used, it is emphasized that concepts such as online learning, web-based learning, and distance learning can be used as synonyms for each other (Moore et al., 2011). ...
Article
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The aim of this research is to examine the pre-service teachers’ opinions on online assessment during the Covid-19 process. In the study, which was designed with a basic interpretive design, data were collected from 138 teacher candidates with a structured interview form consisting of open-ended questions created by the researchers and analyzed by content analysis. According to the findings of the study, the pre-service teachers stated that they were evaluated by methods such as online exam, homework, online class participation, and online presentation and that each evaluation method had advantages and disadvantages. When the teacher candidates compared face-to-face assessment with online assessment, they focused on the disadvantages of homework and online exams. They indicated that the online assessment method could be in the form of online exam, qualified homework, and participation in the course, depending on the nature of the course. The findings were discussed within the framework of the literature, and suggestions were presented to researchers and practitioners.
... The development of information systems caused the emergence of different approaches from a technological perspective. The terms distance education, online education as well as e-learning emerged in the 1980s [1]. There is confusion in the case of definitions of the mentioned concepts [1]- [3]. ...
... The terms distance education, online education as well as e-learning emerged in the 1980s [1]. There is confusion in the case of definitions of the mentioned concepts [1]- [3]. Based on the definitions provided by Kovács [4], distance learning is a form of education where the teacher and the student are not in the same place. ...
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This study examines the impact of gender and age differences on the performance of students from different Hungarian universities and colleges in online learning during the third wave of COVID-19. The survey responses were assessed using Partial Least Squares estimation technique. The research model attempts to understand the influence of environmental and situational variables (i.e., compatibility, accessibility, perception of online self-efficacy, mobility) on performance and satisfaction with online education. Apart from mobility, other indicators have significant impact on respondents’ performance. However, moderating effect of age and gender almost do not influence the performance of surveyed Hungarian students. The results demonstrate that gender impacts the compatibility → performance pathway. The age of respondents has no effect on relationships between environmental and situational variables and performance.
... Literature on the HULE is explored differently across and within academic and non-academic research [1,6]. Earlier research by Moore et al. [18] implies that a variety of understandings makes it difficult to understand the type of learning that is expected from a HULE. To avoid confusion and help address the main purpose of this research project, this project adopts the term 'hybrid' as a way of describing all digitally-enabled learning environments that blend both physical and digital learning through interconnection and co-dependence synchronously and asynchronously [2,5,6,19]. ...
... Further, limited peer-reviewed research is available, which brings an additional problem since peer-reviewed research has long been acclaimed for being devoted to scientific truth and strictly fair, making it a crucial part of the research process [54]. This lack of peer-reviewed research could largely be a result of researchers being yet to agree with the various terminologies or definitions of hybrid learning, making it hard to perform meaningful research [1,18,55]. A lack of knowledge or guidance has led academic staff and students to frequently experiment or improvise as they operate in an emergency response, increasing stress, fatigue, and other associated health problems [5,14]. ...
Article
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Student social connectedness is indicated to be changing with the increasing digitalisation of universities. This narrative literature review aims to bring new meanings to the hybrid university learning environment (HULE), and to develop a framework for the benefit of student social con-nectedness by using placemaking theories. It searches through the academic literature for evidence of experience with three attributes of social connectedness: socialising, social support, and sense of belonging, in relation to individuals' sense of place, bringing a range of outcomes, such as identity development, which might contribute to improved social connectedness. This is then expanded in the HULE by looking at the physical and online spaces, with a focus on liminal space and co-design. The findings show that an overly rigid structure of the HULE can cause negative student social connectedness, with co-design being proposed as a way of creating a tailored and connected learning experience. However, this is underdeveloped for learning environment needs and could be enhanced by applying placemaking theories to map levels of student social connectedness in the physical location and in the more-than-real 'non-places'. This provides an innovative perspective of the HULE based on student social connectedness, impacting the existing pedagogical approach for university courses.
... At this time, we can find various form of distance learning that use different media of communication, such as learning through hand phone, through television, radio, or via internet connection. Moore et al (2010) defined distance learning as "an instruction between two party's learner and teacher, that is held at different times and/ or places, and uses varying forms of instructional materials. ...
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p class="abstrak">This study aimed at determining the impact of online learning on teacher performance in applying the skills of opening and closing lessons, explaining skill and variation skill. This research was qualitative research in the form of a case study. The subjects in this study were three English teachers at MTsN Padang Panjang. The instruments used to collect data were interviews, questionnaires, and observations of the participants' online learning recordings. Interviews and observations were used to obtain primary data, while questionnaires were used to obtain secondary data. The data obtained were compared with the ideal criteria for applying the three teaching skills above taken from Helmiati's book. This book was used as guidance because it has been used as a reference for many Universities in Micro Teaching course. From the comparison differences were found, from the differences, the impact of online learning on teacher performance in applying the three teaching skills above were concluded. From the results of the study, it was concluded that online learning had impact on teacher performance in applying the three teaching skills. First, not all of the ideal criteria done by the teachers, second teachers did the ideal criteria in limited form because of the limited time available, third the teachers did the criteria in inappropriate time so that the aim of the criteria was not achieved. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dampak dari pembelajaran daring terhadap performa guru dalam mengaplikasikan keterampilan membuka dan menutup pelajaran, keterampilan menjelaskan dan keterampilan mengadakan variasi dalam mengajar. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian kualitatif berbentuk studi kasus. Subjek dalam penelitian ini adalah tiga guru Bahasa Inggris di MtsN Padang Panjang. Instrumen yang digunakan sebagai alat pengumpul data adalah wawancara, kuesioner, dan observasi terhadap rekaman pembelajaran online para partisipan. Wawancara dan observasi digunakan untuk mendapatkan data primer, sedangkan kuesioner digunakan untuk mendapatkan data sekunder. Data-data yang didapat dibandingkan dengan kriteria ideal penerapan tiga keterampilan mengajar di atas yang diambil dari buku Micro Teaching tulisan Helmiati. Buku ini digunakan sebagai rujukan karena telah digunakan oleh banyak perguruan tinggi sebagai rujukan dalam mata kuliah micro teaching. Dari perbandingan, perbedaan-perbedaan ditemukan, dari perbedaan-perbedaan tersebut maka implikasi-implikasi pembelajaran daring terhadap performa guru dalam mengaplikasikan tiga keterampilan mengajar di atas disimpulkan. Dari hasil penelitian disimpulkan bahwa pembelajaran daring memiliki dampak terhadap performa guru dalam mengaplikasikan tiga keterampilan mengajar. Yang pertama, guru tidak melakukan semua komponen-komponen yang semestinya dilakukan atau tidak sesuai dengan kriteria ideal, yang kedua, guru melakukan komponent atau kriteria yang ideal namun melakukannya dalam bentuk terbatas karena keterbatasan waktu, dan yang ketiga, guru melakukan kriteria pada saat yang tidak tepat sehingga maksud dari penerapan kriteria tersebut tidak tercapai. </p
... There have been different terms for Distance Learning since its inception, such as distance learning, online education, e-learning, hybrid learning, virtual schools or terms that have been used to describe the educational processes that have emerged in contrast to traditional inperson, or face-to-face learning (Miminou & Spanaka, 2013). In every definition of Distance Learning, factors that are highlighted are: the physical separation between instructor and learner, the implementation of the educational process at a different time and space, and the various educational materials used (Moore et al., 2011). According to Lionarakis (2001;2006), DL calls for innovative teaching methods, multi-formed educational material, cooperation, and constant interaction between the instructor and learner. ...
... This can be a challenge when striking a balance between precision (i.e., accurate results) and sensitivity (i.e., broader results) so that inclusion criteria are met and search results are also a manageable size (Booth et al., 2016). Furthermore, terminology for online and distance education is known to be used inconsistently (Moore, Dickson-Deane, & Galyen, 2011), which can make it difficult to develop a search phrase that encompasses appropriate literature without generating a large number of irrelevant results. Initial search phrase testing indicated that inclusion of terms related to online or distance qualitative research methods courses produced many citations to articles involving the use of qualitative methods to study online teaching in various contexts or subject areas not always related to the teaching of qualitative methods. ...
Article
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Online education has become well established as an avenue for flexible access to educational opportunities. Those who teach qualitative research methods online may find it difficult to locate research or best practice literature to inform practice. A scoping review was conducted to identify and synthesize the literature about teaching qualitative research methods courses online. Eleven peer-reviewed journal articles were identified through a scoping review of the literature. The TPACK framework, which defines teacher knowledge in terms of technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge, was used as a conceptual framework. Results from this scoping review indicate that online qualitative research methods educators choose course goals, instructional modules, and topics in a manner consistent with instructional design approaches. Pedagogical approaches included orientation strategies, strategic use of instructional media, online discussions, applied research activities, and writing projects. Technology was used for course management, to develop content, for communication, and to enable online teaching strategies in an online environment. The literature informs teaching practice in qualitative research methods education, but more research is needed to develop knowledge in this under explored area.
... Keefektifan dapat diukur dengan melihat hasil belajar atau hasil ulangan tengah semester (UTS). Penelitian ini akan menganalisis Pengertian ini tidak hanya menunjuk pada pengertian tradisional saja yang menganggap bahwa pendidikan jasmani, olahraga, dan kesehatan berasal dari aktivitas fisik, tetapi kita harus mengerti bahwa pendidikan jasmani, olahraga, dan kesehatan sebagai suatu proses pembentukan kualitas pikiran dan juga tubuh.Pembelajaran dalam jaringan/daring merupakan pembelajaran yang menggunakan jaringan internet dengan aksesibilitas, konektivitas, fleksibilitas, dan kemampuan untuk memunculkan berbagai jenis interaksi pembelajaran(Moore et al., 2011). Pembelajaran daring tentunya memerlukan dukungan perangkat-perangkat mobile dengan begitu interaksi bisa di lakukan, pembelajaran daring memungkinkan adanya interaksi melalui web walaupun mereka berada ditempat yang jauh dan berbeda.Pada tataran pelaksanaanya pembelajaran daring memerlukan dukungan perangkatperangkat mobile seperti smarphone atau telepon adroid, laptop, komputer, tablet, dan iphone yang dapat dipergunakan untuk mengakses informasi kapan saja dan dimana saja (Gikas & mencapai suatu konsep pembelajaran yang efektif dan efisien perlu adanya hubungan timbal balik antara siswa dan guru untuk mencapai suatu tujuan secara bersama, selain itu juga harus disesuaikan dengan kondisi lingkungan sekolah, sarana dan prasarana, serta media pembelajaran yang dibutuhkan untuk membantu tercapainya seluruh aspek perkembangan siswa.Namun dengan adanya metode pembelajaran daring yang diterapkan oleh pemerintah sekarang dan dengan terbatasnya media pendukung pembelajaran, keefektifan belajar siswa menjadi kurang efisien, pembelajaran penjas yang terdiri dari teori dan praktek mengalami kesulitan dalam proses pembelajarannya, dikarena siswa mengalami kesulitan dalam melaksakan prkatek penjas karena keterbatasn peralatan yang dibutuhkan.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat efektifitas pembelajaran dalam jaringan terhadap hasil belajar penjas. ...
Article
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahuai tingkat efektivitas pembelajaran dalam jaringan terhadap hasil belajar pendidikan jasmani. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode deskriptif kuantitatif dengan pendekatan survey. Subjek dalam penelitian ini adalah 25 orang siswa kelas X-APK SMK Putra Gununghalu. Teknik pengumpulan data dengan menggunakan angket. Analisis data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah deskriptif persentase. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat diketahui bahwa tingkat efektivitas pembelajaran dalam jaringan terhadap hasil belajar pendidikan jasmani dalam kategori rendah dengan 41%.
... Therefore, any suitable lectures serving as a solution during the Covid-19 pandemic was regarded as online education. According to Dickson-Deane et al., (2011), online learning is conducted using an internet network with accessibility, connectivity, flexibility, and expertise, to create various types of educational interactions. A study by Zhang (2004) showed the use of internet and multimedia technology is able to revolutionize the method of conveying knowledge and is also a possible alternative to conducting learning in traditional classrooms. ...
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Due to outbreak of the Covid 19, the implementation of education and learning has extremely changed. Face to face meetings as a conventional learning is no longer conducted, in contrast, online learning is more often employed. Thus, a solution to this problem is required to respond to this problem. Online learning is an alternative that can overcome this problem. The purpose of this research is to get a reflection of the implementation of online education by using online media to reduce the outbreak of Covid-19 in universities. The research subjects were PGMI students who were interviewed through Zoom Cloud Meeting to collect the data. The data analysis employed was an interactive analysis method Miles & Huberman. The results of the research showed that: (1) the students had already had the basic facilities needed to explore online education; (2) the online education was flexibly being implemented, encouraging learning independently, motivating to learn more actively; and (3) long distance education urges the students to get used to social distancing attitude and minimizes crowds to reduce the outbreak of Covid-19 in institutions tertiary. The lack of supervision of students, lack of internet signals in remote areas, and high quota payments were challenges in online education. The increasing of independent learning, attention, motivation, and the courage to express ideas and problems was another advantage of online education.
... 7 Online learning is described as Internet-based learning and is considered a more recent version of distance learning. 8 Over the last decade, medical schools have been slowly adapting it into pedagogical methods and coronavirus was just the right catalyst for its widespread acceptance. After the announcement of the lockdown, many national and international plastic surgery residency programs and societies took initiative in organizing webinar series for teaching. ...
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Background As the coronavirus disease 2019 virus made its way throughout the world, there was a complete overhaul of our day-to-day personal and professional lives. All aspects of health care were affected including academics. During the pandemic, teaching opportunities for resident training were drastically reduced. Consequently, medical universities in many parts across the globe implemented online learning, in which students are taught remotely and via digital platforms. Given these developments, evaluating the existing mode of teaching via digital platforms as well as incorporation of new models is critical to improve and implement. Methods We reviewed different online learning platforms used to continue regular academic teaching of the plastic surgery residency curriculum. This study compares the four popular Web conferencing platforms used for online learning and evaluated their suitability for providing plastic surgery education. Results In this study with a response rate of 59.9%, we found a 64% agreement rate to online classes being more convenient than normal classroom teaching. Conclusion Zoom was the most user-friendly, with a simple and intuitive interface that was ideal for online instruction. With a better understanding of factors related to online teaching and learning, we will be able to deliver quality education in residency programs in the future.
... Dat leerkracht en leerlingen zich in dezelfde ruimte bevinden maakt onmiddellijke (spontane) verbale en non-verbale interacties met elkaar mogelijk (Crawford-Ferre & Wiest, 2012). Bij afstandsonderwijs verzorgt de leerkracht de instructie op een andere fysieke plaats dan waar de leerlingen zijn en kan zelfs asynchroon plaats vinden als leerlingen de informatie op een ander tijdstip tot zich nemen dan dat de leerkracht het heeft gedeeld (Moore et al., 2011). Bij afstandsonderwijs leren leerlingen vaak thuis met digitale technologie (e.g., video(-bellen), email, en digitale leeromgevingen) (Bruns, 2011). ...
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Samenvatting Zelfregulatie is essentieel voor leren, zeker tijdens afstandsonderwijs. Een onderwijs-vorm waarmee leerlingen en leerkrachten te maken kregen tijdens de Covid-19 pandemie. Leerkrachten zijn belangrijke initiators voor de ontwikkeling van zelfregulatie. Met het hui-dige onderzoek hebben we in kaart gebracht welke praktische en theoretische kennis om-trent zelfregulatie leerkrachten hebben en in welke mate zij de ontwikkeling van zelfregu-latie ondersteunen tijdens contactonderwijs en afstandsonderwijs. Daartoe vulden 122 primair onderwijs leerkrachten een online vragenlijst in. De vragenlijst bestond uit de Nederlandse versie van de Self-Regulated Learning Inventory for Teachers aangevuld met open vragen ter verdieping. Uit de analyses bleek dat leerkrachten enige theoreti-sche kennis van zelfregulatie hebben, maar dat deze niet volledig is. Daarnaast bleken de meeste leerkrachten zowel directe als indirec-te interventies voor het bevorderen van zelfre-gulatie te kennen. Tijdens afstandsonderwijs werd significant minder aandacht besteed aan vaardigheden gerelateerd aan de voorbe-reidende en de evaluatiefase dan tijdens con-tactonderwijs, maar juist meer aan vaardighe-den van belang voor de uitvoerende fase. De antwoorden op de open vragen gaven meer inzicht in de herkomst van deze verschillen. De resultaten geven inzicht in de verschillen in ondersteuning van zelfregulatie tijdens af-standsonderwijs en contactonderwijs en kun-nen aanleiding geven tot het ontwikkelen van professionele ontwikkelingstrajecten voor leerkrachten.
... Online learning is defined as learning that takes place over the internet and includes features such as accessibility, connection, flexibility, and the capacity to create a variety of learning activities (Moore, Dickson-deane, & Galyen, 2010). When children and parents learn online at home, they adjust themselves to be able to prepare conducive online learning settings at home, which includes, of necessity, preparing facilities that support children's participation in online learning at home. ...
Conference Paper
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Determining factors of why elementary school student feel better and happier study at school during pandemic
... Online learning is a part of distance learning and both have the same characteristics, where teachers and students are in different locations and times and use various teaching materials (Corbera et al., 2020;Moore et al., 2011). However, online learning has more specific features, more complex material management, and broader range and flexibility in time and place. ...
Article
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Currently, Arabic language learning is required to be held online. In this situation, the government has forced to announce instructions for implementing online learning since March 2020. However, these instructions have made Arabic teachers experiencing difficulties in implementing online learning. Innovative learning management is highly needed to overcome these problems. Therefore, this study aims to provide an overview of the management of Arabic language learning, especially in planning, implementing, and evaluating, organized by teachers who are members of the Arabic teachers’ forum. This study used a descriptive method by adopting data analysis techniques from Miles and Huberman. The results of this study indicate that in planning, the Arabic teachers made a lesson plan which would be held online. As for implementing the lesson plan, the teachers use synchronous and asynchronous models. They also used a combination of two models, a written test presented using Google form and Quizizz media for evaluation. On the other hand, some teachers also conducted oral tests using voice recordings through WhatsApp. This research suggests that teachers can better manage the planning, implementing, and evaluating online learning in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic following the characteristics and models of online learning.
... Fabriza (2020) mengemukakan dampak negatif dari pembelajaran daring, seperti mahasiswa yang tidak menggunakan waktu belajar online atau tidak memahami materi perkuliahan dengan baik sehingga akademik tidak tercapai secara maksimal. Oleh karena itu, dalam konsep lingkungan belajar yang dilakukan secara online memungkinkan mahasiswa untuk melakukan penyesuaian belajarnya sendiri (Moore et al., 2010). ...
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College adjustment comes from adjustment, which means the adjustment of students to the environment in college. The way students adjust during the first year of college is a prediction of significant life events later in their college career. In college adjustments, there are four dimensions, including academic adjustment, social adjustment, personal emotional adjustment, and goal commitment institutional attachment. This study aims to find an overview of first year college students during the Covid-19 pandemic. This study had 345 freshman college students as participants ranging in age from 18 to 25 who were studying at universities in Jakarta. The measuring instrument used was the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire (SACQ). Based on the results of data processing carried out to describe college adjustment of first year college students during the Covid-19 pandemic using descriptive methods and different demographic data tests, it was found that college adjustments had differences in the gender of men and women, and had no differences in the type of college, age, faculty, and current residence. The results of this study can also be concluded that the dimension of goal commitment to institutional attachment has the highest mean value, followed by social adjustment, academic adjustment, and the lowest is personal emotional adjustment. This study also describes the high level of college adjustment based on its dimensions. College adjustment berasal dari adjustment yang artinya penyesuaian mahasiswa dengan lingkungan perguruan tinggi. Cara mahasiswa menyesuaikan selama tahun pertama kuliah merupakan prediksi peristiwa kehidupan yang signifikan di kemudian hari dalam karir perguruan tinggi. Dalam college adjustment, terdapat empat dimensi, antara lain academic adjustment, social adjustment, personal emotional adjustment, dan goal commitment institutional attachment. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui gambaran umum college adjustment mahasiswa baru di masa pandemi Covid-19. Penelitian ini memiliki 345 partisipan mahasiswa baru dengan rentang usia antara 18 hingga 25 tahun yang berkuliah di perguruan tinggi di daerah Jakarta. Alat ukur yang digunakan adalah Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire (SACQ). Berdasarkan hasil olah data yang dilakukan untuk menggambarkan college adjustment mahasiswa baru di masa pandemi Covid-19 dengan menggunakan metode deskriptif dan uji beda data demografi, didapatkan hasil bahwa college adjustment memiliki perbedaan pada jenis kelamin laki-laki maupun perempuan, serta tidak memiliki perbedaan pada jenis perguruan tinggi yang dipilih, usia, fakultas, dan tempat tinggal saat ini. Hasil penelitian ini juga dapat disimpulkan bahwa dimensi goal commitment institutional attachment memiliki nilai mean yang paling tinggi, disusul dengan social adjustment, academic adjustment, dan yang paling rendah adalah personal emotional adjustment. Penelitian ini juga menggambarkan tingkat tinggi rendahnya college adjustment berdasarkan dimensinya.
... No training currently exists which prepares student teachers to teach online and so there was a need for content which introduces online teaching approaches, pedagogies and digital tools and supported the pivot to online teaching. Singh andThurman (2019, cite Lee, 2017;Moore et al., 2011;Ryan et al.,2016) who state that: "when used interchangeably, online education/e-Learning has been generally defined as the bridging of the space between the teacher and the student through the use of web-based technologies" (p.293). Saba and Shearer (2018) would argue "that [educators] persistence in replicating the face-to-face experience in our online courses keeps us rooted in the industrial/modern era of higher education, and shifts need to occur at institutional and societal levels for us to move to a post-industrial/post-modern era of personalization and adaptability" (cited in Shearer et al, 2020, p.49). ...
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COVID 19 represented a major challenge for many educators, with teachers needing to pivot rapidly to using online learning tools in order to stay connected with their students. This was particularly relevant for teachers in the process of completing their Initial Teacher Education (ITE), whose programmes of study did not include online teaching components. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a module for teaching in online and blended learning environments for 244 post-primary teachers in ITE. This study begins by examining the impact of COVID-19 and the resulting pivot to online learning, this includes an overview of the challenges associated with online teaching. Next, the authors explain the module in detail, outlining the tools, strategies and activities provided for student teachers. This included peer-evaluated online micro-teaching components - which formed a major part of the learning. Data collection involved a questionnaire which gathered student teachers’ perceptions of the module and its approaches, the impact it had on their ability to teach during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the knowledge and skills useful for future practice. Findings suggested that the implementation of the developed module was successful in preparing student teachers to teach online, providing them with the tools and confidence necessary for success. Improvements suggested the development of differentiated pathways for student teachers who are more experienced with online teaching.
... Verawardina, Asnur, Lubis, Hendriyani, Ramadhani, Dewi, and Sriwahyuni (2020, p. 386) define online learning as "learning that uses internet technology that allows teachers and students to carry out learning wherever and whenever outside the classroom". Past research (Benson, 2002;Moore, Dickson-Deane, & Galyen, 2011) identify online learning as a version of distance learning which enhances access to educational opportunities for learners. Since online learning has become a prevalent model for higher education, institutions and instructors continue to investigate the advantages of including both synchronous and asynchronous elements in online learning. ...
Article
Online learning is different from face-to-face contact learning. The former is technology-mediated and often accused of lacking the interaction the learners would have when learning together in contact sessions. However, the richness of online learning is flexibility, which allows learning to take place anytime from anywhere. Online learning through the utilisation of digital learning platforms may provide rich learning experiences. The Covid-19 pandemic prompted most institutions of higher learning to move to online learning due to restrictions on gathering. Some of the institutions were not prepared for this move and this resulted in challenges in implementing online learning effectively. When online learning is not implemented properly, students will be pedagogically distanced from the course instructor and the learning process. Moore’s (1989) transactional distance theory notes the importance of pedagogical distance to ensure effective distance learning. In this discussion, we unpack the transactional distance theory and suggest ways of promoting interactivity in online learning in different ways. Conclusions are drawn from the discussion and recommendations are made. Article visualizations: </p
... Through Online Learning there is an increased understanding of the creation of family planning midwifery care by 20% The results of this study show that students actively remain disciplined in carrying out learning activities online, namely by self-study after online learning and able to understand the lecture materials provided by the lecturers (Malott et al., 2009;Mustafa et al., 2020). The ability to learn independently is characteristic of online learning (Moore et al., 2011;Sit et al., 2005). In online learning, it is necessary to be skilled in learning independently. ...
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The purpose of this study was to analyze the understanding of midwifery students towards midwifery care as a result of online learning at the midwifery academy of Tahirah Al Baeti Bulukumba. This study is a quantitative descriptive study, a form of activity by measuring the level of understanding of students to family planning midwifery care as a result of online learning and probability sampling techniques with a total of 45 respondents. Analysis of data in this study is obtained from research instruments in the form of quantitative data. Quantitative data are obtained from the results of data processing case tests and surveys. The results of the study of Student Understanding Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic on the creation of Family Planning Midwifery Care, namely an increase in understanding of the creation of family planning midwifery care by 20%, shows that students actively remain disciplined in carrying out learning activities through online, namely by self-study after online learning and able to understand the lecture materials provided by lecturers.
... Pembelajaran daring merupakan pembelajaran yang menerapkan teknologi digital, dilaksanakan secara online menggunakan jaringan internet. Pembelajaran dilakukan secara face-to-face yang terkoneksi melalui jaringan internet, membuat pembelajar menjadi fleksibel sehingga tercipta berbagai interaksi dalam pembelajaran (Moore et al., 2011). Dalam pelaksanaan pembelajaran daring diperlukan seperangkat alat yang mendukung, seperti smartphone, tablet, komputer dan sejenisnya. ...
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Online learning is a solution that considered appropriate in COVID-19 pandemic situation, yet it doesn’t guarantee the student success in learning. Physical distancing practice in face-to-face interactions is a hindrance for student and teacher in learning activities. This research was aimed to measure online learning effectivity in Christian Religious Education subject in COVID-19 pandemic period. The study used quantitative approach with classroom action method. The result shows that through online learning and improvement in every cycle by the teacher in learning design impact on student improvement of Christian Religious Education better. Online learning needs to be applied in interesting and innovative way. Delivering the material with pictures and videos to the student is able to increase student’s participation actively by questions and answers which have an impact to better Christian Religious Education learning result.Abstrak: Pembelajaran daring menjadi salah satu solusi yang dianggap tepat di masa pandemi Covid-19, meskipun tidak menjadi jaminan keberhasilan siswa dalam pembelajaran. Penerapan physical distanding dalam interaksi secara tatap muka (face-to-face) menjadi hambatan bagi siswa dan guru dalam kegiatan pembelajaran. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengukur efektivitas pembelajaran daring pada mata pelajaran Pendidikan Agama Kristen di masa pandemik Covid-19. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif dengan metode tindakan kelas. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa melalui pembelajaran daring dan setiap siklus dilakukan perbaikan oleh guru dalam mendisain pembelajar berdampak pada peningkatan hasil belajar Pendidikan Agama Kristen siswa menjadi lebih baik. Penerapan pembelajaran daring perlu dilaksanakan secara menarik dan inovatif. Melalui pemberian materi yang disertai dengan gambar dan video kepada siswa mampu meningkatkan partisipasi siswa secara aktif melalui pertanyaan dan jawaban dari siswa yang berdampak pada pencapaian hasil belajar PAK menjadi lebih baik.
... Salah satu bentuk pembelajaran alternatif yang dapat dilaksanakan selama masa darurat COVID-19 adalah pembelajaran secara online/ daring (Haliza, 2021). Pembelajaran online merupakan pembelajaran yang menggunakan jaringan internet dengan aksesibilitas, konektivitas, fleksibilitas, dan kemampuan untuk memunculkan berbagai jenis interaksi pembelajaran (Moore, Dickson-deane, & Galyen, 2010). Salah satu media pembelajaran yang dapat dilakukan adalah dengan memanfaatkan media Google Classroom dan Google Meet (Kumar & Nanda, 2019). ...
Article
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Bidang pendidikan merupakan salah satu bidang yang terkena dampak pandemi COVID-19. Sistem pembelajaran online pun menjadi satu-satunya pilihan di daerah terdampak COVID-19. Salah satu aplikasi media pembelajaran yang digunakan di masa pandemi ini adalah Google Meet dan Google Classroom. Namun, belum semua sekolah menengah di Sumba Timur menggunakan media pembelajaran online tersebut karena keterbatasan pemahaman teknologi para tenaga pendidik. Oleh karena itu, pelatihan pemanfaatan aplikasi media pembelajaran online seperti Google Meet dan Google Classroom akan membantu para guru untuk dapat melaksanakan pembelajaran yang efektif dan efisien. Metode yang digunakan dalam kegiatan ini adalah metode tutorial dan praktik langsung. Kegiatan PKM ini dilaksanakan di SMPN 2 Kanatang. Adapun hasil dari pelaksanaan kegiatan ini adalah seluruh peserta pelatihan yang berjumlah 16 orang guru di SMP Negeri 2 Kanatang merasa puas dan dapat memahami materi pelatihan dengan baik yang dapat mereka aplikasikan dalam kegiatan pembelajaran di sekolah.
... Salah satu sekolah yang menerapkan sistem pembelajaran daring adalah SMA Negeri 1 Malang. Pembelajaran daring merupakan pembelajaran dengan menggunakan konektivitas dan aksesibilitas, serta fleksibilitas jaringan internet dengan kemampuan menciptakan berbagai jenis interaksi pembelajaran (Moore, Dickson-Deane, & Galyen, 2011). Seluruh pembelajaran yang dilaksanakan secara daring di SMA Negeri 1 Malang ditunjang dengan media antara lain seperti Google Meeting dan Google Classroom, termasuk dalam pelaksanaan pembelajaran Bahasa Mandarin. ...
Article
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Chinese language learning which was originally carried out offline has been shifted to an online system due to the Covid-19 pandemic. This situation makes the teachers unable to freely control the students. The activeness of students to get involved and participate is also reduced due to the limited interaction in the online learning process. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the mentimeter learning media on student learning outcomes and to describe the use of mentimeters in online learning of the Chinese across-interests program. This study uses a quantitative approach and also a qualitative descriptive approach. The sources of data used are second grade students of the across-interests program at Senior High School 1 of Malang as many as 22 students. The data obtained in this study were in the form of average scores of pretest and posttest results and the documentation in the form of screenshots from presentations and quizzes. The data analysis was carried out by hypothesis testing using the paired sample t-test. The results showed that the mentimeter media was effectively used in learning Chinese and on average students were able to run the mentimeter and were able to play the quizzes that had been provided for online learning in second grade students of the across-interests program at 1st Senior High School of Malang. Keywords: mentimeter; online learning; Chinese language Abstrak: Pembelajaran bahasa Mandarin yang semula dilaksanakan secara luring dialihkan menjadi sistem daring akibat pandemi Covid-19. Hal tersebut membuat guru tidak bisa leluasa dalam mengontrol peserta didik. Keaktifan peserta didik untuk ikut terlibat dan berpartisipasi pun menjadi berkurang karena terbatasnya interaksi dalam pembelajaran daring. Tujuan dilakukannya penelitian ini untuk mengetahui keefektifan media pembelajaran mentimeter terhadap hasil belajar peserta didik dan mendeskripsikan penggunaan mentimeter pada pembelajaran daring lintas minat bahasa Mandarin. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif dan juga pendekatan deskriptif kualitatif. Sumber data yang digunakan adalah peserta didik kelas XI lintas minat SMA Negeri 1 Malang sebanyak 22 peserta didik. Perolehan data dalam penelitian ini berupa rata-rata skor hasil tes pretest dan posttest serta dokumentasi yang berupa hasil tangkapan layar dari presentasi dan kuis mentimeter. Analisis data dilakukan dengan uji hipotesis menggunakan uji paired sample t-test. Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan bahwa media mentimeter efektif digunakan dalam pembelajaran bahasa Mandarin dan rata-rata peserta didik dapat menjalankan mentimeter serta mampu memainkan kuis yang telah disediakan pada pembelajaran daring di kelas XI Lintas Minat SMA Negeri 1 Malang. Kata kunci: mentimeter; pembelajaran daring; bahasa Mandarin
... The effectiveness of online learning is expected to be equivalent to learning through a face-to-face delivery model.The effectiveness can be measured by observing students' interest in learning activities (Nguyen, 2015). The effectiveness of learning can be seen from the achievement of learning goals, (Anderson et al., 2001), the role of teacher (Yinger, 1987), the role of learner (Moore et al., 2011) and the role of instructional material (Richards et al., 1990). ...
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This research is motivated by the change of the learning system from face-to-face (offline system) to online system caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Yet, the purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of teaching English using WhatsApp during the COVID-19 pandemic, both for teaching receptive skills and productive skills using WhatsApp. This research used a descriptive quantitative method. The population in this study was all 7th-grade students at SMPN 2 Tanjung Raya. The sample in this study was all 7th-grade students of SMPN 2 Tanjung Raya as many as 50 students. The data collection technique used total sampling. The data were collected using the questionnaire. This study found that in general, on teaching English receptive skills and productive skills through distance were categorized as effective with a percentage of 79.9%. It means, for receptive skills in listening with an average of 80.6% and reading with an average of 82.4%. And teaching English productive skills with an average of 80.1% speaking and 76.6% writing. It is concluded that the use of the WhatsApp application as an English learning medium by English teachers during the Covid-19 pandemic was effective in teaching four English skills.
... This could include practices such as mandated onsite days, although this likely offers a disadvantage those who are required to transition to onsite on some days without social and physical systems (e.g., childcare and parking permits) in place. Higher education have been studying students transitioning between modalities for a while [86][87][88][89][90], and could be drawn on in the context of working from home. Indeed, these staff may also find it difficult to reintegrate with the social bonds developed by permanently onsite staff also [91]. ...
Article
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The practice of telework, remote work, and working from home has grown significantly across the pandemic era (2020+). These practices offer new ways of working but come with a lack of clarity as to the role it plays in supporting the wellbeing of staff. (1) Background: The purpose of this study is to examine the current literature on wellbeing outcomes and effects of telework; (2) Methods: This study adopts a systematic literature review from 2000–2022 using the PRISMA approach and thematic analysis guided by the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (Wellbeing, Decent Work, Gender Equality, and Inclusive Production); (3) Results: It was evident that there is a lack of clarity on the actual effects of telework on employee wellbeing, but it appeared that it had a generally positive effect on the short-term wellbeing of staff, and created more flexible and proactive work design opportunities; (4) Conclusions: There is a need for more targeted research into work designs that support wellbeing and productivity of staff, and consider the environmental sustainability changes from reduced office and onsite work and increased working from home.
... Тому виникла потреба перебудувати навчальний процес, в тому числі й з питань викладання хірургії, для досягнення позитивного ефекту у підготовці лікаря, особливо під час карантинного періоду COVID-19 та військового стану з використанням системи Moodle [5]. ...
... Online learning by using the internet network to make it easier to interact remotely, flexible and have broad access [7]. Online learning during a pandemic has strengths, challenges and barriers for both teachers and students [8]- [10]. ...
Conference Paper
Biology learning during the Covid-19 pandemic was undoubtedly run online. This causes changes in student learning activities. This study aimed to determine the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic biology learning activities. This study was a quantitative descriptive through a survey of biology education student's at 4 universities (55 students). The survey was conducted by giving a questionnaire to 55 students.. The questionnaire consisted of 50 statement items that included indicators of learning activities for learning before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey results show the average percentage of all indicators of biology learning activities before the pandemic was 79.06%, while during the pandemic it was 70.97%. Student's activities such as group discussions, collaborative work in problem solving, be on time for learning, focus during learning and presentations with online learning during a pandemic have decreased compared to learning activities before the pandemic. The results of this study indicate that student learning activities in learning biology have changed during the Covid-19 pandemic. Online biology learning needs to be well developed so that it has a good impact on learning activities.
... The expansion in the scope of DE was made possible with the emergence of new technologies in education (Moore, Dickson-Deane, & Galyen, 2011). Infact, a plethora of literature indicates DE's dependence on technological developments (or the media) (Blin & Munro, 2008;Kovanovic et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, curriculum planners are giving more weightage to online learning. However, it would be incomplete to re-imagine curricula without considering the factors impacting learning. In this context, the ‘Great Media Debate’ (GMD), initiated between Richard Clark and Robert Kozma in the 1990s, discusses the factors influencing learning. While Clark focuses on instructional methods, Kozma posits that both methods and media impact learning. Our study re-visits the GMD in the present context of online learning and extends it, making it more heuristic by adding a specific contextual social factor, i.e., Availability and Accessibility of the Internet (A2I) at the individual/ household level to the debate. We build our proposition based on the 11,489 learners’ responses collected as a part of the Pan-IIT study in India and focus on the case study of one specific institution, IIT Jammu. The analysis using chi-square tests, Fisher’s exact tests, and descriptive statistics finds strong evidence for A2I to impact online learning, thereby broadening the GMD. A2I also influences the media by shaping the learners’ preferences for the media used in traditional classrooms. Finally, it brings out the rural-urban divide due to unequal internet distribution, raising the possibility of a more exclusionary curriculum for the learners. We conclude that there is a need for the contextual social factor, i.e., A2I, among others, to be strongly acknowledged in the GMD, enabling it to take a more comprehensive form and consequently, holding the potential to enrich the curricular reimagination.
... Online learning is one of the main alternatives for teachers to convey subject matter (Astini, 2020). On the other hand, as a way to minimize direct physical contact, reduce crowds and increase the use of digital technology (Milman, 2015). According to Moore et. al (2011), Online learning is learning that uses the internet network with accessibility, connectivity, flexibility, and the ability to bring up various types of learning interactions. Not only that, during online learning, the school utilizes information technology, changes the lesson schedule, provides direction regarding online learning, and c ...
Article
This article aims to describe the learning discipline of high school students during the COVID-19 pandemic. This article uses the literature review method, the literature used is related to articles that are relevant to the topic of learning disciplines, online learning and obstacles during learning. The results of the study show that student learning discipline during the COVID-19 pandemic is very important to apply because it can help students to focus on learning and complete assignments during online learning. Learning discipline is influenced by external and internal factors, as well as the need for good cooperation between students, teachers, parents, and the school so that the online learning process runs conducive.
... Öğretmenlerin söz konusu değişim sürecinde kazanması gereken önemli yeterliliklerden biri de teknolojik yeterliklerdir. Öğretmenlerin teknolojik yeterliliklerini kullanabilecekleri süreçlerden biri öğrenen ve öğretici arasındaki etkileşimin ve alışverişin sağlandığı "uzaktan eğitim" sürecidir (Moore, Dickson-Deane & Galyen, 2011). Uzaktan Eğitim süreçlerinin verimli hale gelebilmesi için öğretmenlerin derslerde teknolojiyi etkili olarak kullanılabilmesi, teknolojik ve pedagojik yaklaşımları bütünleştirmesi gerekmektedir. ...
Article
Günümüzde öğretmenlerin bilişim teknolojilerini kullanarak, kendi alanlarındaki gelişmeleri yakından takip etmesi ve çağdaş yaklaşımlar ışığında teknoloji ve öğretim yöntemlerini anlamlı bir şekilde bütünleştirerek eğitim öğretim süreçlerine yansıtabilmesi önem arz etmektedir. Bu araştırmada öğretmenlerin temel teknolojik yeterliliklerini tespit etmek amacıyla geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçme aracı geliştirmek amaçlanmıştır. Araştırma kapsamında öğretmen görüşlerine başvurularak alanyazındaki benzer araştırmalardan da yararlanarak üç ortak ana boyut belirlenmiş ve 42 maddelik bir taslak madde havuzu oluşturulmuştur. Araştırma verisi iki farklı gruptan toplanmıştır. Çalışmaya birinci aşamasına 281, ikinci aşamasına ise 297 olmak üzere toplam 578 öğretmen katılmıştır. Verilerin çözümlenmesinde madde analizi, açımlayıcı faktör analizi, birinci ve ikinci düzey doğrulayıcı faktör analizi yapılmış ve güvenirlik katsayıları hesaplanmıştır. Madde analizi ve AFA sonucunda üç alt boyuttan oluşan toplam 28 maddeli bir ölçek elde edilmiştir. DFA sonucunda elde edilen bulgular ölçeğin kabul edilebilir bir uyuma sahip olduğunu göstermiştir. Ölçeğin güvenirliği için .96 olarak hesaplanan Cronbach Alfa iç tutarlık katsayısı ölçeğin oldukça güvenilir olduğunu ortaya koymuştur. Bu bulgulara göre, Öğretmenlerin Teknoloji Kullanımında Temel Yeterlilikler Ölçeği’nin öğretmenlerin teknoloji kullanımında temel yeterliliklerini ölçmek amacıyla kullanılabilecek geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçme aracı olduğu ifade edilebilir.
... During the COVID-19 pandemic, several countries, including the United Arab Emirates, implemented distance learning to prevent the coronavirus from spreading. Distance learning is a type of educational learning process that allows the instructor and students to be in different physical locations (Moore et al., 2011). It can replace the conventional learning process in case of unexpected situations such as pandemics, and wars. ...
Article
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Distance learning has been adopted as an alternative learning strategy to the face-to-face teaching methodology. It has been largely implemented by many governments worldwide due to the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic and the implication in enforcing lockdown and social distancing. In emergency situations distance learning is referred to as Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT). Due to this dynamic, sudden shift, and scaling demand in distance learning, many challenges have been accentuated. These include technological adoption, student commitments, parent involvement, and teacher extra burden management, changes in the organization methodology, in addition to government development of new guidelines and regulations to assess, manage, and control the outcomes of distance learning. The objective of this paper is to analyze the alternatives of distance learning and discuss how these alternatives reflect on student academic performance and retention in distance learning education. We first, examine how different stakeholders make use of distance learning to achieve the learning objectives. Then, we evaluate various alternatives and criteria that influence distance learning, we study the correlation between them and extract the best alternatives. The model we propose is a multi-criteria decision-making model that assigns various scores of weights to alternatives, then the best-scored alternative is passed through a recommendation model. Finally, our system proposes customized recommendations to students, and teachers which will lead to enhancing student academic performance. We believe that this study will serve the education system and provides valuable insights and understanding of the use of distance learning and its effectiveness.
... Online learning has continued to grow over the years. However, even long before COVID-19, many argued that there was not one type of online learning (Lowenthal, Wilson, & Parrish, 2009;Moore, Dickson-Deane, & Galyen, 2011). Rather, online learning has manifested itself in different ways based not only on its use of technology but also other situational factors (e.g., for credit vs. not for credit; synchronous vs. asynchronous; self-paced vs. group paced). ...
Chapter
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The history of distance education in many ways is a history about the evolution of synchronous and asynchronous communication technologies. Distance education, and online learning in particular, has primarily relied on asynchronous communication technologies over the years. However, COVID-19 has sparked a new interest in using synchronous tools for interaction and collaboration in open, distance, and digital education. Given this it is incumbent upon educators and researchers alike to be familiar not only with the current iteration of synchronous communication technologies but also with how they have developed and evolved over time, the affordances and constraints of synchronous communication, interaction, and collaboration, some of the different types, and the overall implications for future research and practice.
Article
The research investigated the influences of international students’ perceived online learning environments, self-efficacy, and online interaction on their online learning achievement, as measured by these students’ self-reported development of generic skills, research capacities, and Chinese proficiency and global abilities. Data were generated by a nationwide survey involving 1,010 international students across disciplines at 41 universities in China. The SEM analysis showed that among all factors directly and positively supporting international students’ learning achievement, the two online environmental factors, i.e. accessibility to online learning resources and opportunities for knowledge acquisition, presented the strongest effects. The mediation analysis showed that through interaction, environmental interactivity had significant and positive indirect influences on learning achievement; and through self-efficacy, knowledge acquisition had significant and positive indirect influences on learning achievement. The SEM analysis also revealed a significant negative influence of environmental flexibility on international students’ generic skill development. Possible explanations for the results were proposed. Implications of the results were discussed to support the sustainable development of online international education.
Article
Introduction: Research has consistently demonstrated that the COVID-19 pandemic, and resulting sudden shift to online learning (OL), had detrimental impacts on the motivation and mental health of university students. To date however this research has been cross-sectional and quantitative. Method: This study employed a mixed-methods design to examine the experiences of students at a large national Australian University both at the outset of the pandemic in 2020 (n = 824) and again 6 months later (n = 254) at the conclusion of their academic year. Results: Key findings from this study highlighted that despite quantitative findings suggesting poorer attitudes toward learning during the pandemic, qualitatively students perceived both positives and negatives to studying online. The qualitative results further highlighted that this experience was not the same for all and suggests the need to reconsider the standard approaches to offering support for students. Conclusion: Students reported poor mental health in both time points, but outlined avenues which improved not only their mental health but also their motivation for studying such as increased peer engagement and self-care activities. Students reported that OL negatively impacted on both their engagement with studies and their mental health, highlighting the need for universities to prioritize supporting their students' mental health as much as their development of academic skills.
Article
Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk: (1) mengembangkan produk portal e-learning menggunakan LMS Moodle dengan vicon di SMK Muhammadiyah 1 Bambanglipuro, (2) mengetahui kelayakan portal e-learning yang dikembangkan di SMK Muhammadiyah 1 Bambanglipuro, (3) mengetahui hasil belajar peserta didik dalam pembelajaran menggunakan portal e-learning di SMK Muhammadiyah 1 Bambanglipuro, dan (4) mengetahui motivasi belajar peserta didik dalam pembelajaran menggunakan portal e-learning di SMK Muhammadiyah 1 Bambanglipuro. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian pengembangan yang diadaptasi dari model pengembangan dan desain multimedia yang dikembangkan oleh Alessi & Trollip. Subyek penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas X kompetensi keahlian Rekayasa Perangkat Lunak, teknik pengambilan sampel dilakukan secara acak. Ujicoba produk pengembangan meliputi tes alfa, tes beta, dan implementasi uji lapangan. Hasil penelitian menghasilkan: (1) produk portal e-learning yang dikembangkan di SMK Muhammadiyah 1 Bambanglipuro menggunakan LMS Moodle terintegrasi dengan BigBlueButton, sehingga memungkinkan pengguna untuk melakukan video conference, (2) kelayakan portal e-learning menggunakan LMS Moodle dengan vicon di SMK Muhammadiyah 1 Bambanglipuro, validasi alfa didapatkan skor rerata 4,05 dengan kategori baik. Uji beta didapatkan skor rerata 3,87 dengan kategori baik. Validasi ahli materi didapatkan skor rerata 3,53 dengan kategori baik. (3) Hasil belajar peserta didik dalam pembelajaran menggunakan portal e-learning, kelas kontrol dan kelas eksperimen sama, hasil uji t bernilai 0,212. (4) Motivasi peserta didik dalam pembelajaran menggunakan portal e-learning, kelas kontrol dan kelas eksperimen sama, hasil uji t 0,143.
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V prispevku se usmerjamo na pomen znanja in poučevanja tujega jezika (angleščine), in sicer pri študentih, univerzitetnih profesorjih in podpornih službah, ki so vpete v sektor terciarnega izobraževanja. Pregledno je predstavljen položaj poučevanja jezikov skozi čas, osredinjamo se na novodobne koncepte usvajanja jezika – tu mislimo na učenje na daljavo (e-učenje) in mobilno ali m-učenje – ter predstavljamo orodje za e-učenje angleškega jezika LanGuide in v okviru slednjega resurse s področja korespondence in analizo potreb. Ta je bila izvedena v okviru sodelovanja med slovensko in romunsko univerzo.
Article
The aim of this study is to determine the misconceptions of Chemistry Mathematics course participants during online learning in Chemistry Education Study Program, University of Bengkulu in the 2020/2021 academic year. This research starts with an online learning process for 4 meeting using Zoom meeting application and Google Classroom using synchronous and asynchronous methods. The method used to detect misconceptions is to provide a Three tier multiple choice diagnostic test consisting of multiple choice question, clear reasons in the form of an essay, and the level of confidence in answering and giving reasons. The tool used in this research is attest tool in the form of a diagnostic test and non-test tool in the form of an interview. Data collection techniques were conducted through test sheets in the form of a Google Forms application and short interviews about diagnostic tests in the form of videos. Data analysis was conducted on response options, reasons, and confidence in responding. The results showed that online learning had an impact on the misconceptions about Chemistry Mathematics course participants with a range of 0-50% where the highest misconception identification results were found in the application of inverse trigonometric functions by 50%,while 0% misconceptions were obtained in the basic concepts of algebraic functions and conversion of rational equations into a partial fractions.
Article
In Indonesia, there are 20% of adolescents aged 13-15 years who smoke. The results of a survey conducted by Global Youth Tobacco in 2009 revealed that three out of ten children aged 13-15 years in Indonesia (30.4%) already smoked, and (19.4%) started smoking at the age of 10 years. Based on data from the 2017 Daya Utama High School counseling vulnerability map, it is known that of the 216 male students in Class X – XII, 35 of them have smoking cases in the school environment, and have academic achievements that are less than the KKM, for this reason, it is necessary to think about efforts to improve the cognitive function of students so that academic achievement can be improved. One of these efforts is exercising. The purpose of this study is to provide preventive and coaching efforts to adolescents to avoid smoking and increase physical/sports activity. The technique of assessing students' cognitive abilities uses the Backward Forward Digit Span method, which is to assess short-term memory for 3 days with methods test and posttest. Research results Based on the results of the T test on smokers and non-smokers for 3 measurements, pre-test and post-test, the statistical test results obtained a Pvalue = 0.000, meaning that at 5% alpha it can be concluded that there is a significant difference between pre- and post-test cognitions. on smoking students and non-smoking students in the first, second and third day measurements. From the results of this study, it is recommended that the smoking ban continue to be enforced and pursued because the impact of smoking is not only physically damaging to the body but also reduces cognitive abilities, which will also affect learning achievement.
Article
Covid-19 salgını sonucu gerçekleşen zorunlu uzaktan eğitim öğrencilerin aktif olarak katılamıyor olması, velilerin derse olan müdahaleleri, öğrencilerin ders esnasındaki rahat davranışları, erişimde yaşanan sorunlar, motivasyon eksikliği ve yüz yüze olmamadan kaynaklı yaşanan sınıf yönetimi sorunları gibi olumsuz sonuçları da beraberinde getirmiştir. Bu olumsuzluklar dikkate alındığında çalışmanın temel amacı uzaktan eğitim sürecinde matematik öğretmenlerinin tükenmişlik düzeylerini belirlemektir. Daha özelde matematik öğretmenlerinin tükenmişlik düzeylerinin cinsiyet, yaş, çalıştığı kurum, meslekteki kıdem, meslekten aldıkları manevi doyum, yönetim desteği ve meslektaşlarının onay ve desteği değişkenlerine göre değişip değişmediği incelenecektir. Çalışmada tarama modeli kullanılacaktır. Çalışma için gerekli olan veriler Maslach Tükenmişlik Ölçeği ile uygun örnekleme yöntemine göre ulaşılan matematik öğretmenlerinden çevrimiçi ortamdaki anket ile toplanacaktır. Bu çalışmada uzaktan eğitim sürecinde matematik öğretmenlerinin yüksek düzeyde duygusal tükenme, düşük düzeyde duyarsızlaşma ve düşük düzeyde kişisel başarı yaşadıkları görülmektedir. Çalışmadan elde edilecek bulgulara göre uzaktan eğitim sürecini daha verimli geçirebilmek adına matematik öğretmenlerine ve öğretmen adaylarına önerilerde bulunulacaktır.
Book
En este libro el lector encuentra los principales resultados de una investigación seria sobre el tema que incluye un análisis amplio de la educación a distancia, la permanencia estudiantil y los factores personales, académicos, institucionales y curriculares asociados a la permanencia en la educación a distancia. Con este trabajo se busca contribuir a la comprensión del proceso de la permanencia estudiantil y aportar información que sirva de insumo tanto para otras investigaciones como para mejores estrategias de permanencia.
Chapter
During the pandemic of COVID-19, the education sector has been heavily hit, forcing the educational institutions to close. Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, Malaysia’s education system placed heavy emphasis on online learning to substitute direct conventional instruction. The aim of the research is to determine student acceptability of e-learning implementation following COVID-19 in a Pondok school in Kelantan. This study intended to ascertain the implications of students’ characteristics and technology acceptance models on their future behavioural intentions to use e-learning continuously. This quantitative research included 100 students from a Pondok school in Kelantan. Self-administered questionnaires were used to gather data and Partial least square structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was used in the data analysis. Outcomes from this study showed that students’ characteristics are positively affected by students’ motivation, students’ mindset and computer competency. Perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness positively affect technology adoption. On the other hand, economic deprivation negatively affects technology adoption. Furthermore, students’ characteristics and technology adoption positively affect the behavioural intent to continuously engage in e-learning in the future.
Chapter
The issue of poor ethics and integrity among students as well as in the working communities is an alarming issue that needs to be addressed. The value of ethics can be built and instill during the school days especially during the tertiary level because entering the workforce will be their next milestone. Nevertheless, the issue of online academic cheating has been rampant in most universities, mostly due to the advancement of technologies and there are various creative methods to cheating these days and these students have improvised from the usual traditional cheating methods. Traditional classroom learning also has transcend to online learning these days due to COVID-19 pandemic that swept across the world since end of year 2019 till today. This chapter will discuss the concept of online learning, definitions of academic cheating, reasons for online cheating by students, various online cheating methods as well as the ways to mitigate the problems of online academic cheating among students in the twenty-first century.
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The revolutionary challenges posed to education by the COVID-19 pandemic have brought attention to educational technology, especially online learning. As a result, many online learning platforms and digital tools have sprung up. After campus closure, many higher education institutions adopted Zoom Video Conference to replace traditional offline classes and make full use of the functions of the Learning Management Systems (LMSs) to improve students' learning effect. However, the impact of the pandemic on higher education is long-lasting. Even after college campuses reopened for the Fall 2021 semester, online synchronized courses still abound. Students still need to use these online learning tools, whether in hybrid or Hy-Flex modes. This study analyzed the impact of online learning tools on students' learning interactivity and engagement by understanding their evaluation of the online learning experience and effectiveness after campus reopening. Through the analysis of previous studies and reports, this study puts forward two hypotheses: 1) Moodle learning management system provides effective learning participation and interaction for students' online learning; 2) Zoom provides effective learning participation and interaction for students' online learning. Twenty-six students at Adelphi University were recruited to participate in the in-depth interviews about their online learning experiences. Through the analysis and interpretation of the interviews, the research results demonstrate the rationality of the hypothesis and obtain new findings of the marginalization experience of international students when they participate in Zoom courses.
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Mobil cihazların kullanım oranlarının arttığı günümüz dünyasında, bu cihazları birer öğrenme nesnesi haline dönüştürebilmek eğitim araştırmalarının önemli konularından biri olmuştur. Bunun yanı sıra öğrenenlerin mobil öğrenmeye yönelik tutumlarını ortaya çıkarmak da mobil öğrenme ortamları için öğrenme nesneleri tasarlarken geliştiricilere yol göstermede önemli bir rol oynamaktadır. Bu perspektifle hazırlanmış olan çalışma, bankacılık sektöründeki çalışanların mobil öğrenmeye yönelik tutumları ve hazırbulunuşluklarının çeşitli değişkenlere göre incelenmesiyle gerçekleşmiştir. Araştırmada ilişkisel tarama modeli kullanılmıştır. Çalışmaya özel bir bankanın uygun örneklem yoluyla ulaşılan 229 çalışanı katılmıştır. Veri toplamak amacı ile, Demir ve Akpınar’ın geliştirdiği “Mobil Öğrenmeye Yönelik Tutum” ve Gökçearslan ve diğerlerinin Türkçe’ye uyarladığı “Mobil Öğrenmeye Yönelik Hazırbulunuşluk” ölçekleri kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda, bankacılık çalışanlarının tutumlarının yüksek seviyede olduğu; cinsiyet, günlük internet kullanım süreleri, mobil öğrenme ortamlarında bir ders veya eğitim alma durumlarına göre farklılaşmadığı; yaş ve bankacılık tecrübelerine göre ise farklılaştığı tespit edilmiştir. Mobil öğrenme hazırbulunuşluklarının ise orta seviyede olduğu ve çalışma kapsamında belirlenen bağımsız değişkenlerden hiçbirine bağlı olarak farklılaşmadığı ortaya çıkmıştır. Ayrıca bankacılık çalışanlarının mobil öğrenmeye yönelik tutumları ile hazırbulunuşlukları arasında anlamlı bir ilişki olmadığı tespit edilmiştir. — In today's world, where the usage rates of mobile devices are increasing, turning these devices into learning objects has become one of the important issues in educational settings. In addition, revealing the learner's attitudes towards mobile learning plays an important role in guiding developers while designing learning objects for mobile learning environments. The study, designed in line with this perspective, examined the attitudes and readiness of employees in the banking sector towards mobile learning according to various variables. A correlational survey model was used in the research. Two hundred twenty-nine employees of a private bank, reached through convenient sampling, participated in the study. As for the data collection, the “Attitude towards Mobile Learning” scale, developed by Demir and Akpınar, and the “Readiness towards Mobile Learning” scale, adapted into Turkish by Gökçearslan and others, were used. As a result of the research, it was found that the attitudes of banking employees were at a high level; it did not differ according to gender, daily internet usage time, or taking a course/training in mobile learning environments; it has been determined that there were differences according to age and banking experience. Furthermore, it has been revealed that mobile learning readiness is moderate and does not differ depending on any variable. Finally, it has been determined that there is no significant relationship between banking employees' attitudes toward mobile learning and their readiness.
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This study aimed to develop the web-based e-learning model for the Arabic language material in the Islamic Middle School 25 Jakarta. This research used the R&D method in the term of the Dick and Carrie model. The result of this study is reflected from the materials expert's approval of the e-learning model for the Arabic course based on the web is 80%. This result indicates a very good evaluation of the test on the students. The result of the media expert's approval of the e-learning model for the Arabic language course based on the web is 95%. This result indicates a very good evaluation of the test on the student. E-learning is considered a new method of learning that focuses strongly on information centers and has become an important part of the field of academic universities added to the situation of our country that is currently exposed to the COVID-19 viruses, the role of Internet-based learning as support for the learning process becomes very important.
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Introduction. Crisis distance learning was an emergency response of higher education systems to the COVID-19 pandemic, and its elements still remain active in world universities. Literature review demonstrates that improvement of quality of offered courses does not demonstrate a stable correlation with improvement of students’ feedback. Aim. This study aims to explore the influence of background factors on students’ per­ception of this format of education and identify and analyse the factors that predetermine the polarisation of students’ satisfaction levels as extremely high or extremely low. Methodology and research methods. The research frame combined qualitative and quan­titative methods and included a series of semi-structured interviews with volunteers from the student which then served as a basis for an in-depth questionnaire with the sample of 115 respondents in the general population sample of 558 students. The Likert scale and qualitative content-analysis were employed to assess the level of satisfaction with the period under study and to build the tree of concepts perceived as its advantages and disadvantages. To identify the major factors that influenced the student perception, the multiple-choice questions that ad­dressed the students’ background conditions were weighed in comparison with the satisfaction level response in the general sample with the application of one-way analysis of variance (the Kruskal-Wallis criterion). Results. The results show that there is polarisation in the student body. While the majority adapted to crisis distance education, there are two distinct minorities who consider it successful or unbearable. The background factors that influence the student perception sig­nificantly are the year of their programme, their commute patterns, their living conditions, and their employment status. Scientific novelty. Overall perception of crisis distance learning by bachelor students re­flects the struggles that the students face outside the classroom and distinct groups of students have their reactions determined by these factors to a degree where improvement of teaching methods cannot assist. The distribution of satisfaction levels in the sample proves that crisis distance learning highlights economic inequality. Practical significance. Administering higher education in this pandemic and the follow­ing pandemics to come should include a complex of measures aimed at compensating the back­ground factors that predetermine students’ low satisfaction levels in crisis distance education.
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Heuristic evaluation is a methodology for investigating the usability of software originally developed by Nielsen (1993, 2000). Nielsen's protocol was modified and refined for an evaluation of an e-learning program by participants in a doctoral seminar held at The University of Georgia in 2001. The modifications primarily involved expanding Nielsen's original ten heuristics (developed for software in general) to fifteen heuristics (designed to be more closely focused on e-learning programs). The set of fifteen e-learning heuristics as well as the protocol that guided the evaluation process are presented. The application of this protocol to a commercial e-learning program is described along with the changes that resulted from the evaluation.
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AECT has recently (yet again!) redefined our field, reverting back to the use of the term educational technology. We believe this recent change is problematic for a number of reasons, but primarily because of the weak rationale offered for the change. This change affects how external audiences view our profession and is likely to confuse practitioners in corporate and higher education settings in particular. We offer a review of job postings, program titles, and listserv discussions to support our case. The labels we use to define ourselves are critically important - and we hope to see a stronger case made for changes for our foundational definitions in the future.
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Despite the fact that e-Learning exists for a relatively long time, it is still in its infancy. Current e-Learning systems on the market are limited to technical gadgets and organizational aspects of teaching, instead of supporting the learning. As a result the learner has become deindividualized and demoted to a noncritical homogenous user. One way out of this drawback is the creation of individual e-Learning materials. For this purpose a flexible multidimensional data model and the generation of individual content are the solution. It is necessary to enable the interaction between the learners and the content in e-Learning systems in the same manner.
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Abstract There is, in most academic and scientific fields, a common yet distinct vocabulary. This precise vocabulary makes it possible for researchers and practitioners within that domain to communicate clearly and succinctly with each other. At this time, there is a lack of such a precise vocabulary in the domain of distance learning and distance education. This paper hopes to start the movement toward a common vocabulary by offering precise definitions of distance learning and distance education, and their interrelationship. This is accomplished by first proposing a single definition of learning and then breaking down the concept of learning into three subcategories: instruction, exploration and serendipity. Each of these, in turn, is defined and the concepts of distance learning and distance education are derived and categorized.
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The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that asynchronous online learning can create a rich cognitive presence capable of supporting effective, higher-order learning. It begins by exploring the properties of asynchronous online learning and their link with the dimensions of higher-order learning. The dimensions of higher-order learning emerge from the concepts of reflective inquiry, self-direction and metacognition. Moreover, it is argued that the dimensions of higher-order learning, reflection and collaboration, are, in fact, congruent with the asynchronous and connectivity properties of online learning. Finally, the issues and principles of effective asynchronous online learning are explored.
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The Internet is a major technological advancement reshaping not only our society but also that of universities worldwide. In light of this, universities have to capitalise on the Internet for teaching, and one progressive development of this is the use of online delivery methods. This paper draws upon the results of a survey conducted amongst students enrolled in one online management course at an Australian university. Three critical success factors in online delivery are identified: technology, the instructor and the previous use of the technology from a student's perspective. We also argue that the lecturer will continue to play a central role in online education, albeit his or her role will become one of a learning catalyst and knowledge navigator.
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The evolutionary changes in educational technology and pedagogy leading to revolutionary transformation of higher education is discussed. The current education is in the process of evolving from face-to-face courses using objectivist, and teacher-centered pedagogy to online and hybrid courses using digital technologies to support constructivist, student-centered pedagogy, offered by a few hundred 'mega-universities' that operate on a global scale. Online learning is a new social process that is beginning to act as a complete substitute for both distance learning and the traditional face-to-face class. Geographic monopolies and barriers that have sustained thousands of different colleges and universities in the US and around the world will weaken after the availability of most courses in digital formats. The universities need to embrace the concept of blended courses and provide the infrastructure to allow faculty to make this transition as rapidly and as effectively as possible.
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This case study explores the learning experiences of three international students who were enrolled in an online master’s program offered by a large university in Canada. The aim of the study was to understand the international students’ experiences with, and perspectives on, the online learning environment. Findings indicate that previous education and especially language proficiency strongly impacted the learning of these students in this environment. Non-native English speakers required considerably more time to process readings and postings and to make postings themselves. Their lack of familiarity with the details of North American culture and colloquial language made it difficult to follow much of the course discussion. They also tended to avoid socializing in the course, which left them at the periphery of course activities. Based on these findings, the authors make the following recommendations for designers and instructors of online courses: 1) Raise the English language proficiency requirement for graduate admissions into online programs because the text-based communication in a CMC space requires interpreting messages without non-verbal cues; 2) Ensure that online distance education course designers are aware of the needs and expectations of international students; and 3) Combine the design principles from both traditional and constructivism theories.
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This paper presents a proven and reusable methodology (MiLE) for performing a cost-effective usability evaluation of an e-learning web application. MiLE is a scenario-driven inspection technique which is based on the concepts of user profile, user goal, scenario, and usability attribute. Mitigating the drawbacks and merging the respective benefits of state-of-the-art methods for usability evaluation, MiLE is intended to be a helpful tool for project managers, instructional designers, and evaluators to carry out a learner-centered validation which can anticipate and analytically justify the usability breakdowns, thus providing organized indications for a focused redesign. Examples of the results that can be obtained using MiLE are showed through a real case study evaluation of a large e-learning corporate platform.
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This mixed methods study explored the dynamics of interaction within a self-paced online learning environment. It used rich media and a mix of traditional and emerging asynchronous computer-mediated communication tools to determine what forms of interaction learners in a self-paced online course value most and what impact they perceive interaction to have on their overall learning experience. This study demonstrated that depending on the specific circumstance, not all forms of interaction may be either equally valued by learners or effective. Participants differentiated among the various learning interactions available and indicated that informal interactions were as important as formal interactions in determining the quality of the online learning experience. Participants also reported the activity of blogging as being equally valued and in some ways superior to instructor-directed asynchronous discussion via the discussion board in a learning management system.
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This study adopted a qualitative case-study approach to examine the attitudes, experiences, and perceptions of undergraduate students who were enrolled in an online, collaborative learning course at a Ghanaian private university. Data sources included surveys, student and instructor journal entries, email records, individual interviews, and Web-server logs. The study found that the students did not respond favorably to online constructivist teaching approaches such as asynchronous discussions and ill-structured project-based learning activities, and perceived collaborative online learning within their context as a complex, more demanding and time-consuming experience.
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This study used a grounded theory case study to identify the theoretical areas that account for the nature and success of Royal Roads University's (RRU) learning community model. This instructional model enables RRU's mission to serve adult learners who want to further their careers through education while living and working across British Columbia, Canada, and the globe. These interrelated theoretical areas are: a strong learning community consisting of cohorts that alternate residencies and distance learning; an emphasis on dialogue focused on real-world problems; the role of the instructor as simultaneously content expert and facilitator of dialogue; and the changing perspectives of learners. This model is highly dialogic and the learning community is characterized by caring and by support for difference. Dialogue is an affordance of distance education. For dialogue to be successful its characteristics must be featured in the learning model and be modeled by the instructor and by the community. The model at RRU continues to evolve and contribute to knowledge about how to create learning communities at any institution which uses online learning technologies. Résumé Cette recherche utilise une étude de cas selon la théorie à base empirique pour identifier les domaines théoriques qui expliquent la nature et le succès du modèle de communauté d'apprentissage de la Royal Roads University (RRU). Ces domaines théoriques interreliés sont : une communauté d'apprentissage forte composée de cohortes qui alternent entre résidence et apprentissage à distance, une emphase sur le travail d'équipe et la collaboration centrée sur des problèmes réels, le rôle du formateur à la fois expert en contenu et facilitateur de dialogue, et les perspectives changeantes des apprenants. Ce modèle est hautement dialogique et la communauté d'apprentissage est caractérisée par la bienveillance et le soutien de la différence. Pour que le dialogue soit couronné de succès, ces caractéristiques doivent apparaître dans le modèle d'apprentissage et reprises par le formateur et la communauté. Le modèle de la RRU continue à évoluer et contribue aux connaissances sur la façon de créer des communautés d'apprentissage utilisant abondamment les technologies d'apprentissage en ligne.
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Creating a rich online learning environment is a challenge and requires thoughtful User Experience Planning (UEP) for the effective presentation of the course interface. The user experience of an online course from a human-computer interaction point-of-view is not a naturally occurring process; it must be planned for. Instructors can apply the UEP process with measurable usability attributes and adaptable heuristics to evaluate the user experience in an online course. As a tool, UEP could be used to locate specific usability problems related to navigation, error recovery, locating information, and the selection of hyperlinks. An adaptable usability heuristic checklist for online courses will be presented. The checklist includes 13 heuristic categories, including: visibility, functionality, aesthetics, feedback and help, error prevention, memorability, course management, interactivity, flexibility, consistency, efficiency, reducing redundancy, and accessibility
Down with boring e-learning! Interview with e-learning guru Dr Learning circuits. Retrieved from Principles of instructional design
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Ellis, R. (2004). Down with boring e-learning! Interview with e-learning guru Dr. Michael W. Allen. Learning circuits. Retrieved from. http://www.astd.org/ LC/2004/0704_allen.htm Gagné, R. M., Wager, W. W., Golas, K. C., & Keller, J. M. (2005). Principles of instructional design (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Learning object review instrument (LORI) manual
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Internet based e-learning, pedagogy and support systems
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Rekkedal, T., Qvist-Eriksen, S., Keegan, D., Súilleabháin, G.Ó., Coughlan, R., Fritsch, H., et al. (2003). Internet based e-learning, pedagogy and support systems. Norway: NKI Distance Education.
Is e-Learning the solution for individual learning? Mile: Systematic usability evaluation for e-Learning web applications
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