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Palatability of different concentrations of a liquid nutritional supplement in healthy cats and dogs of different ages and breeds

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Palatability of different concentrations of a liquid nutritional supplement in healthy cats and dogs of different ages and breeds

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Hypo-and anorexia are the most commonly presented complaints for many diseases in veterinary medicine, leading to malnutrition, immunosuppression, compromised wound healing and altered drug metabolism. Stimulating appetite and palatability are therefore important factors in managing anorectic pets. The palatability of a liquid nutritional supplement for cats (LNScat) and dogs (LNSdog), which can be added to the diet as appetite stimulant, was evaluated in healthy pets. In total, 60 cats and 60 dogs of different ages and breeds were included in the study. Acceptance tests were performed using LNS with a concentration of 100% (LNS100) and preferences of water and three different concentrations of LNS (LNS50, LNS70, LNS100) were tested using a traditional two-pan preference test. Acceptance tests with LNS100 showed that cats and dogs generally accepted LNS very well. In dogs, a weak positive correlation existed between acceptance and age, whereas in cats no correlation with age was observed. Furthermore, preference tests showed a clear preference for LNS, regardless of dilution (LNS50, LNS70 and LNS100), when compared to water. In cats, LNS100 was generally better accepted than LNS50 and LNS70. Dogs preferred LNS70 and LNS100 to LNS50. The present study demonstrated that LNS is highly palatable for healthy dogs and cats. If future research confirms that LNS is also highly palatable for ill and hospitalised patients and stimulates appetite in a hospital setting, a practical tool to improve moisture and nutrient intake in patients with hypo-or anorexia will become available.
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... Likewise, substances with different flavour may affect the palatability (Thombre, 2004;Aldrich and Koppel, 2015). In studies on food or pharmacological formulations in dogs, the palatability is mainly based on consumption and non-consumption tests, and within the consumption tests in acceptance or preference tests (Thombre, 2004;Payne-Johnson et al., 2007;Verbrugghe et al., 2012;Aldrich and Koppel, 2015). However, it has not been reported how different substances can affect palatability during saliva sampling in dogs. ...
... Considering that with the proportions used (5 %) was obtained less volume than that used with citric acid, it would be interesting to be able to test the use of sodium chloride and sucrose at greater percentages. Moreover, it is also important to consider that many factors depending from dog (such as sex, age, animal's oral health), from pet owner and environment (temperature, noise, and other elements in the testing room) could influence the test (Delaney, 2006;Verbrugghe et al., 2012). Although future work is necessary to reinforce these findings, evaluating the palatability of the form described in this paper could open new ways of evaluating different substances not only for obtaining saliva, but also for testing substances individually or in conjunction with other in the food industry and in pharmacological formulations. ...
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... Many studies have been carried out to determine the food preferences of pets (Beynen et al., 2002;Torres et al., 2003;Araújo and Milgram, 2004;Verbrugghe et al., 2007Verbrugghe et al., , 2012Salaun et al., 2017). However, test protocols (number of animals, test duration, and feeding time and frequency) vary greatly among studies. ...
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