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Wild edible trees are expected to play a significant role in the crop diversification programs and agroforestry development in Africa. In the present study, the diversity of wild food species and socio-economical factors that support farmers' choice for the species used in these systems were assessed. A number of selected sites in each of the 3 climatic zones of Benin were surveyed. Data were collected through a field exploration and a semi-structured survey among 435 selected households throughout the country, using a questionnaire. The most culturally important species ranked by locals were determined for each climatic zone and the relations between the targeted species in traditional agroforestry systems and the reasons which support peasants' choices were described through a Principal Component Analysis. A total of 43 wild edible trees were found in the traditional agroforestry systems of Benin during the survey. Traditional agroforestry systems in the Guineo-Congolian zone turned out to be the most diversified with 29 species followed by the Sudanian zone with 22 species and Sudano-Guinean zone with 16 species. The most culturally important wild edible trees in traditional agroforestry systems in the Guineo-Congolian zone were different from those identified in Sudanian and Sudano-Guinean zones. Three main reasons that support peasants' ambition to conserve or to grow wild edible trees in their field were: their contribution to food, their use in traditional medicine and ceremonies and the farmers' perception of their availability in natural vegetation.

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... It was also suggested that agroforestry systems are more realistic for the future conservation of spatial biodiversity (Udawatta et al. 2019). Furthermore, in the context of current impacts of climate change, there are new insights and consideration of agroforestry to conserve tree species in agricultural landscapes (Assogbadjo et al. 2012; Aleza et al. 2015). There is equally an increasing recognition of social, cultural, economic, ecological and environmental bene ts of conserving trees in crop lands especially for smallholder farmers (Assogbadjo et al. 2012). ...
... Furthermore, in the context of current impacts of climate change, there are new insights and consideration of agroforestry to conserve tree species in agricultural landscapes (Assogbadjo et al. 2012; Aleza et al. 2015). There is equally an increasing recognition of social, cultural, economic, ecological and environmental bene ts of conserving trees in crop lands especially for smallholder farmers (Assogbadjo et al. 2012). The ancestral practice of sparing some useful trees while clearing lands for agricultural purpose is often referred to as traditional agroforestry systems. ...
... Previous studies mostly focused on the use of diversity of woody species and determining factors for their prioritization (Assogbadjo et al. 2012;Lokonon et al. 2017Lokonon et al. , 2019. Only very few studies have focused on the state of their diversity and structure in these areas. ...
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Increase in human population and activities are having signi cant impacts on the conservation of biodiversity. As traditional farmlands have challenges of coupling crop production and conservation of biodiversity, this study aims at assessing traditional farmlands in regard to their typology and impacts on conservation of tree species. A line transect of 26 km was applied for the identi cation of the farmlands and tree species were inventoried within each farm. A cluster analysis was performed; tree species diversity indices and dendrometric parameters were computed and analysed according to each of farmland groups. Five groups of traditional farmlands were found with the small areas with high number of crop species and tree species with dominated cover and the large areas with small number of crop species and tree species with high crown cover and a high number of tree species. The trees species diversity was high within the largest size farmlands. The tree density (p = 0.249), total height of trees (p = 0.585) and tree crown area (p = 0.813) were not signi cantly different among farmland groups. The stem diameter varied signi cantly among farmland groups and the large size farmland groups have high diameter values. The distributions of the diameter of trees for all the farmland groups showed the shapes that were characterized by the tree populations with higher amount of small size stands for all farmland groups. Large farmlands may be promoted to target tree species conservation in agricultural areas in the localities of Ouémé catchment.
... Ces ressources végétales forestières alimentaires qui donnent des fruits, des graines, des tubercules, des fleurs, des sèves et autres produits comestibles contribuent directement à l'alimentation et à l'économie des ménages ruraux (Avocèvou-Ayisso et al., 2009 ;Gouwakinnou et al., 2011 ;Dan Guimbo et al., 2012 ;Houéssou et al., 2012 ;Gbesso 2014 ;Houètchégnon et al., 2015 ;Makalao et al., 2015 ;Sourou et al., 2016). Elles peuvent donc jouer un rôle important dans les programmes de diversification agricole et de développement de l'agroforesterie en Afrique (Assogbadjo et al., 2012). Cola millenii K. Schum est l'une des ressources phytogénétiques de grandes importances pour les communautés rurales en Afrique de l'Ouest. ...
... Au Bénin, l'espèce est présente dans les districts phytogéographiques côtier, Pobè, Plateau, Vallée de l'Ouémé, Bassila, Zou et Borgou-Sud (Figure 4) (Adomou, 2005 ;Akoègninou et al., 2006 ;Dansi et al., 2010). Elle se trouve dans les zones guinéenne et soudanoguinéenne (Akoègninou et al., 2006 ;Achigan-Dako et al., 2010 ;Assogbadjo et al., 2012). ...
... Plus particulièrement par rapport à C. millenii, les poux du Cacaoyer (Sahlbergella singularis et Distantiella theobromae) ont été identifiées comme des insectes responsables de lésions sur les tiges et follicules et de formation de chancres sur les fruits de C. millenii (Pujol, 1957 Koulibaly et al., 2016). Cependant, elle bénéficie de protection dans certains systèmes agroforestiers traditionnels (Asase et Teteh, 2010;Assogbadjo et al., 2012;Jagoret et al., 2012;Nyadanu et al., 2016). ...
... The research team assessed whether a vender was selling at least one common rice-based food product found in the community. The obtained proportion was then used to estimate the total number "n" of respondents to be interviewed in the study, using the following formula [27]: ...
... The interviews were held in Swahili, the national language of Tanzania, which was well understood by all respondents. Focus group discussions were employed to comprehend the collected information from individual face-to-face interviews, as people normally tend to mention the most important things when asked to freely recall under a given short time [27]. Such discussions consisted of 12-15 participants, purposively selected following criteria such as age (youth, people of reproductive age and old), gender balance, and different actors (farmers/consumers, processors and traders) along the pepeta processing value chain ( Table 3). ...
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Consumption of pepeta, a traditionally processed immature rice product, is common in Tanzania, where it contributes to food security as an early rice food i.e. when there is no other food available at the household while the crops in the field not yet fully ripe. Many production steps are needed to guarantee a consistent, good quality pepeta product, and this hinders its utilization in other rice-growing sub-Saharan regions. This study aims to gain insight into the pepeta processing knowledge and final product, and assess variations in the processing conditions and parameters across the study area. A survey among 257 Tanzanian processors and consumers revealed that the pepeta product is widely known, rated second (73.5% respondents) as rice-based food after wali (cooked white rice, (100%)) and linked to traditions of the communities in the study area. Harvest of immature rice grain, roasting, pounding, cleaning, and packing are the main process steps of pepeta production. Method of rice harvest, rice suitability for pepeta production after optimum harvest, dryness of grains and number of pounding as indicator to terminate roasting and pounding process respectively, and packaging materials used varied significantly across respondents in the study area. Reported criteria considered by respondents for product acceptability did not vary significantly across study area. The criteria include colour (76.5%), general appearance (60.8%), texture (64.7%) and taste (52.9%). Immature rice paddy and pepeta were sold at a higher price than mature rice paddy and white rice, respectively, which implies that options to facilitate pepeta processing through, for instance, standardization of processing conditions and parameters could lead to increased income.
... In the last decade, research questions on ES have been increasingly focused on provisioning services [4,5,[20][21][22][23][24][25]. In order to design effective vegetation management that prevents damage and promotes well-being of local people, it is important to take into account the needs of the latter. ...
... The socioeconomic importance, availability and population dynamics of species define the management of traditional agroforestry systems. According to Assogbadjo et al. [21], species perceived by local communities as threatened are integrated into traditional agroforestry systems. However, the populations admit general degradation of the ecosystems. ...
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Context In Burkina Faso, Sudanian savannas are important ecosystems for conservation of plant diversity. Due to desertification and insecurity, population migration from the North has increased human density and anthropogenic pressure on southern savannas. This study aims to investigate knowledge of local populations on ecosystem services (ES) and perception of their conservation. Method Individual semi-structured interviews about knowledge on ES and ecosystem conservation issues were conducted. Informants were selected according to sociocultural groups and sex in three areas of different land use intensity: the communal area of Dano (CAD), the Total Wildlife Reserve of Bontioli (TWRB) and the Game Ranch of Nazinga (GRN). The use value and vulnerability index of each plant species were determined. A cluster analysis and a principal component analysis were carried out to identify the particular knowledge of different ethnic groups. Results Overall, 163 plant species were cited for fifteen ES. Provisioning services were most frequently cited (100%), regulating services second most frequently (92.47%). Entire plants were exclusively used for ES with non-material benefits (protection against wind, for shading, soil fertility, erosion prevention, tourism and religion). The ten species contributing most to ES provision were Vitellaria paradoxa , Parkia biglobosa , Diospyros mespiliformis , Adansonia digitata , Lannea microcarpa, Faidherbia albida , Khaya senegalensis , Afzelia africana, Ficus sycomorus , Pterocarpus erinaceus. Seven of them were identified as highly vulnerable. Around GRN, migrants and natives shared the same knowledge, while migrants in TWRB used the ES only to a small extent due to restricted contact with the native population. Migrants and natives of GRN had more knowledge on tourism and crafts services while the natives of CAD and TWRB made use of the services that sustain the quality of the agricultural land and meet their primary needs. To reduce further degradation, different communities suggested unanimously raising awareness of the importance of biodiversity and ecosystem conservation. The most quoted motivations to preserve ecosystems were vegetation sustainability and village development. Conclusion This study documented important local knowledge-based information to guide cultivation of local multipurpose species and initiation of communities to practice best management strategies for sustainable conservation of biodiversity.
... In the last decade, research questions on ES have been increasingly focused on the provisioning services [20,21,4,5,22,23,24,25]. In order to design effective vegetation management that prevents damage and promote the wellbeing of local people, it is important to take into account the needs of the latter. ...
... The socio-economic importance, availability and dynamics of species de ne the management of traditional agroforestry systems. According to Assogbadjo et al. [21], the species perceived by local communities as threatened are integrated into traditional agroforestry systems. However, the populations admit the general degradation of the ecosystems and give their perceptions of this phenomenon. ...
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Context: In Burkina Faso, Sudanian savannas are important ecosystems for plant diversity conservation. However, population migration from the north due to desertification and insecurity has increased human density and caused an intensification of anthropogenic pressure on southern savannas. This study aims to investigate local population's knowledge on ecosystem services (ES), and perception on their conservation. Method: Individual semi-structured interviews focused on informants’ knowledge on ES and ecosystem conservation issues were conducted. Informants were selected according to the sociocultural groups and sex in three land use intensity levels: the communal area of Dano (CAD), the Total Wildlife Reserve of Bontioli (TWRB) and the Game Ranch of Nazinga (GRN). The use value and vulnerability index of each plant species were determined. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis were conducted to identify the particular knowledge of the different groups. Results: Overall, 163 plant species were cited for fifteen ES. Provisioning services were the most cited (100%) followed by regulating services (92.47%). Entire plants were exclusively used in conservation services (protection against wind, for shading, soil fertility, erosion prevention, tourism and religion). The ten species which contribute most to ES were Vitellaria paradoxa, Parkia biglobosa, Diospyros mespiliformis, Adansonia digitata, Lannea microcarpa, Faidherbia albida, Khaya senegalensis, Afzelia africana, Ficus sycomorus, Pterocarpus erinaceus. Seven of them were identified as highly vulnerable. Migrants and natives around the GRN share the same knowledge, while migrants in the TWRB used the ES only to a small extent due to restricted contact with the native population. Migrants and natives of GRN have more knowledge on crafts services while the native of CAD and TWRB exploit the services that sustain the quality of the agricultural land and insure their primary needs. To reduce further degradation, the different communities suggested unanimously raising awareness on the importance of biodiversity and ecosystem preservation. The most quoted motivations to preserve ecosystems were vegetation sustainability and village development. Conclusion: This study documented important local knowledge-based information to guide domestication of local multipurpose species and the initiation of communities to practice best management strategies for sustainable conservation of biodiversity.
... Socio-cultural preferences (related to ethnicity and/or livelihood strategy) toward plant species have long been studied in the field of wild plant utilization (ethnobotany, ethnomedicine, wild edible fruits and vegetables) (e.g., Assogbadjo et al. 2012;Sop et al. 2012). Determining patterns of plant use with regard to certain provisioning ES (e.g., medicinal resources, wild fruits) can complement ES assessments as they help identify potential alternative livelihood strategies (e.g., honey production) for communities living near protected areas (Cuni-Sanchez et al. 2016). ...
... We hypothesized that Twa would recognize more tree species for provisioning services than farmers' groups, which was not the case. Ethnicity and location proved to have greater effects on preferred tree species than livelihood strategy (see also Assogbadjo et al. 2012;Cuni-Sanchez et al. 2016). As each ethnic group mentioned numerous trees not mentioned by other ethnic groups, we found an extremely low J index between groups (cf. ...
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The forests of the Albertine Rift are known for their high biodiversity and the important ecosystem services they provide to millions of inhabitants. However, their conservation and the maintenance of ecosystem service delivery is a challenge, particularly in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Our research investigates how livelihood strategy and ethnicity affects local perceptions of forest ecosystem services. We collected data through 25 focus-group discussions in villages from distinct ethnic groups, including farmers (Tembo, Shi, and Nyindu) and hunter-gatherers (Twa). Twa identify more food-provisioning services and rank bush meat and honey as the most important. They also show stronger place attachment to the forest than the farmers, who value other ecosystem services, but all rank microclimate regulation as the most important. Our findings help assess ecosystem services trade-offs, highlight the important impacts of restricted access to forests resources for Twa, and point to the need for developing alternative livelihood strategies for these communities.
... These ecosystems services (i) provide nutritional diversity (leaves, fruits, etc.), (ii) offer medicinal uses (leaves, fruits, barks, roots, etc.), (iii) sustain livestock (branches and fruits from trees and shrubs used as fodder for livestock), and (iv) provide energy and (v) income (Sinare and Gordon 2015). Several studies (e.g., Boffa 1999 andAssogbadjo et al. 2012) have documented the usefulness of these agroforestry systems or trees species for local communities, but the level of the vulnerability and resilience of each agroforestry system to climate change are not well understood (De Leeuw et al. 2014). Considering the specificity of each geographical region, what are the resilient agroforestry and cropping systems that farmers can promote to successfully cope with the negative effects of climate change? ...
... The main crops in the agroforestry systems were Zea mays, Vigna unguiculata, Manihot esculenta, and Arachis hypogaea. The tree species across the agroforestry systems are trees with diverse edible products of high economic and nutritional importance for the rural communities (Sinare and Gordon 2015;Boffa 1999 andAssogbadjo et al. 2012). We simultaneously characterized different agroforestry systems in Ouémé catchment. ...
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Climate change threatens ecosystems, including traditional agroforestry parklands. Assessing the level of vulnerability and resilience of any ecosystem to climate change is important for designing sustainable adaptation strategies and measures. We assessed farmers’ perceptions of the vulnerability of agroforestry systems to climate change in Benin. The objectives of the study were to (i) assess the effect of changes in climatic conditions on agroforestry systems, (ii) assess the endogenous indicators of vulnerability of agroforestry systems to climate change, and (iii) analyze agroforestry and cropping systems’ resilience to climate change. We hypothesized that some agroforestry systems are more resilient to climate change than others. A total of 233 household heads were surveyed, and seven agroforestry systems were assessed. Data collected included components, indicators of vulnerability, and the level of resilience of agroforestry systems. We characterized the agroforestry systems using a proportion of each woody trees species and density of tree. We differentiated the agroforestry systems with regard to vulnerability indicators using canonical factorial discriminant analysis with heplots for pairs of discriminant variables. The resilience of agroforestry and cropping systems was evaluated on a scale of 0 to 3 (0—not resilient to 3—most resilient). The number of components damaged in the system was the main indicator of the vulnerability of Anacardium occidentale and Citrus sinensis parks to climate change effects. Local people perceived age and density of Vitellaria paradoxa parks and mixed parks (Vitellaria paradoxa–Parkia biglobosa) as factors determining the vulnerability of these agroforestry systems to the effects of climate change. All agroforestry systems were perceived to be resilient to climate change but in different degrees. Manihot esculenta was reported as the most resilient crop to climate damage. For the first time, we found out specific endogenous indicators of the vulnerability of agroforestry systems to climate change, which are important to identify better adaptation strategies.
... Informants in drier regions reported more uses than informants in the wettest region which is congruent with the EAH prediction at the regional scale following the regional pattern of B. aethiopum across the country: B. aethiopum abundance and distribution is proportional to dryness, increasing northwards (from the wettest to the driest region) [30]. In Benin, previous studies have shown that diversity of wild edible plant species and plant in home gardens declines towards the semi-arid region [60][61][62], suggesting a likely higher intensity of use on a narrow number of species when the climate becomes drier which may in turn results in more knowledge on the resource at least as food use is concerned. At a local scale, the EAH also overall proved true: the higher the local abundance, the higher the knowledge informants have on the species. ...
... Credits to Salako et al. [30] particularly in the sub-humid and semi-arid region. This corroborates Assogbadjo et al. [60] who reported B. aethiopum as a priority wild edible tree species in these two regions. ...
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Background: Eliciting factors affecting distribution of traditional knowledge (TK) and cultural importance of plant resources is central in ethnobiology. Socio-demographic attributes and ecological apparency hypothesis (EAH) have been widely documented as drivers of TK distribution, but their synergistic effect is poorly documented. Here, we focused on Borassus aethiopum, a socio-economic important agroforestry palm in Africa, analyzing relationships between the number of use-reports and cultural importance on one hand, and informant socio-demographic attributes (age category and gender) on the other hand, considering the EAH at multi-scale contexts. Our hypothesis is that effects of socio-demographic attributes on use-reports and cultural importance are shaped by both local (village level) and regional (chorological region level) apparency of study species. We expected so because distribution of knowledge on a resource in a community correlates to the versatility in the resource utilization but also connections among communities within a region. Methods: Nine hundred ninety-two face-to-face individual semi-structured interviews were conducted in six villages of low versus high local abundance of B. aethiopum spanning three chorological regions (humid, sub-humid and semi-arid) also underlying a gradient of increasing distribution and abundance of B. aethiopum. Number of use-reports and score of importance of uses of B. aethiopum were recorded in six use-categories including medicine, food, handcraft, construction, firewood, and ceremonies and rituals. Data were analyzed using Poisson and ordered logistic models. Results: Informants listed 121 uses for B. aethiopum: medicine (66 uses), handcraft (16 uses), food (16 uses), construction (12 uses), firewood (6 uses), and ceremonies and rituals (5 uses); but food use was the most culturally important use (2.45 ± 0.03), followed by construction (0.61 ± 0.03), medicinal (0.57 ± 0.03) and handcraft (0.56 ± 0.03), firewood (0.29 ± 0.02), and ceremonies and rituals (0.03 ± 0.01). Food use was the most important for women who were specialized in hypocotyls and fruits collection for commercialization. Men valued more the species for handcrafting, construction, and medicine. The number of use-reports was significantly dependent on age category and gender, and differences between age categories (young, adult, and old) in particular were dependent upon local and regional apparency. In particular, discrepancies among age categories were higher in areas of low abundance and distribution, which may be linked to different speed in the process of knowledge acquisition. In areas of low abundance, the species past abundance was also found instrumental in understanding current knowledge distribution. Conclusion: Findings suggest that studies aiming at understanding relationship between current TK and cultural importance of a resource on one hand and socio-demographic attributes on the other hand should consider the resource current local and regional apparency but further its local past abundance. The study also confirms that B. aethiopum is a socio-economic important species in Benin.
... Moreover, agroforestry can potentially mitigate climate change, as several practices within the system are found to improve carbon sequestration and therefore reducing GHG emissions [10,14]. Moreover, the system can promote biodiversity through the incorporation of different species of plants/crops which may provide homes for various wildlife [15][16][17]. Apart from its positive impact on the environment, several studies have also highlighted the socio-economic benefits of agroforestry for rural communities [18]. The implementation of a diverse agroecosystem including trees (timbers, fruits) and livestock might provide alternative incomes for the community promoting economic resilience [19]. ...
... The cultivation of different tree species in agroforestry system also improves biodiversity providing a habitat for the wildlife [16]. In addition, trees can also prevent soil erosion and landslides (in the higher slopes) due to the strong rooting system around the soil matrix [7,54]. ...
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Several studies have highlighted the benefit of implementing agroforestry for rural com- munities. From the perspective of socio-economic, agroforestry can potentially improve smallholders’ income, increase food security, promote gender equality and stimulate cultural activities in rural areas. Furthermore, agroforestry can enhance ecosystem service through improved soil structure, increased carbon sequestration and higher water retention. Despite having many advantages, the adoption of agroforestry among rural communities, particularly among smallholder farmers in developing countries remains limited. The absence of agroforestry in public policy causes little recognition of this system to tackle the climate crisis as well as to improve rural livelihood. This may be due to, among others, a less comprehensive evidence on impacts that simultaneously touch upon social, economic as well as environmental aspects of agroforestry on the community. This review gives a special emphasis on the current evidence depicting the characteristics of agroforestry adoption, its benefits and potential drawbacks, as well as challenges for the adoption in some developing countries. The outcomes might help related stakeholders to make appropriate decisions to improve rural livelihood
... Moreover, agroforestry can potentially mitigate climate change, as several practices within the system are found to improve carbon sequestration and therefore reducing GHG emissions [10,14]. Moreover, the system can promote biodiversity through the incorporation of different species of plants/crops which may provide homes for various wildlife [15][16][17]. Apart from its positive impact on the environment, several studies have also highlighted the socio-economic benefits of agroforestry for rural communities [18]. The implementation of a diverse agroecosystem including trees (timbers, fruits) and livestock might provide alternative incomes for the community promoting economic resilience [19]. ...
... The cultivation of different tree species in agroforestry system also improves biodiversity providing a habitat for the wildlife [16]. In addition, trees can also prevent soil erosion and landslides (in the higher slopes) due to the strong rooting system around the soil matrix [7,54]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Several studies have highlighted the benefit of implementing agroforestry for rural communities. From the perspective of socio-economic, agroforestry can potentially improve smallholders’ income, increase food security, promote gender equality and stimulate cultural activities in rural areas. Furthermore, agroforestry can enhance ecosystem service through improved soil structure, increased carbon sequestration and higher water retention. Despite having many advantages, the adoption of agroforestry among rural communities, particularly among smallholder farmers in developing countries remains limited. The absence of agroforestry in public policy causes little recognition of this system to tackle the climate crisis as well as to improve rural livelihood. This may be due to, among others, a less comprehensive evidence on impacts that simultaneously touch upon social, economic as well as environmental aspects of agroforestry on the community. This review gives a special emphasis on the current evidence depicting the characteristics of agroforestry adoption, its benefits and potential drawbacks, as well as challenges for the adoption in some developing countries. The outcomes might help related stakeholders to make appropriate decisions to improve rural livelihood.
... En effet, au Bénin, des travaux antérieurs ont été déjà effectués sur divers aspects des systèmes agroforestiers. Assogbadjo et al. (2012) ont évalué la diversité des espèces alimentaires sauvages et les facteurs socio-économiques influençant le choix de ces espèces par les agriculteurs au Bénin. Les auteurs ont montré que ces espèces sont conservées dans les agrosystèmes par les agriculteurs en raison de leur importance alimentaire et médicinale et que la diversité des espèces alimentaires sauvages présentes dans les systèmes agricoles varie d'une zone climatique à l'autre au Bénin. ...
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La question de sauvegarde des ressources biologiques en l'occurrence celles végétales et la nécessité de satisfaire les besoins en produits vivriers d'une population en pleine croissance a imposé à l'humanité la pratique d'arrangement spatio-temporel des cultures annuelles et des ligneux pérennes. L'objectif de l'étude était de faire la typologie des différents systèmes agroforestiers pratiqués et de caractériser la structure démographique des peuplements ligneux pérennes des différents systèmes agroforestiers de la commune de Djidja. La prospection de terrain dans les différents espaces agricoles de la commune a été d'abord réalisée. Une enquête sur le mode de gestion des systèmes agroforestiers identifiés a été ensuite réalisée auprès de 110 personnes et enfin, des données dendrométriques ont été collectées dans 30 placeaux de 2500 m². Les systèmes agroforestiers ont été catégorisés en six grands groupes. Il s'agit des systèmes traditionnels à palmier à huile (33%) ; des parcs agroforestiers à Parkia biglobosa (33,28%) ; les parcs agroforestiers à Daniellia oliveri (25%) ; les jardins de case (28%) ; les systèmes taungya à Anacardium occidentale (13,72%) et les jachères simples (6,2%). Les indices de diversité de Shannon de ces systèmes agroforestiers varient de 0,48 à 4.04 bits et l'équitabilité de Pielou de 0,21 à 0,89. La densité moyenne varie de 23 à 82 pieds/ha. Le coefficient d'aplatissement de la distribution des individus par classe de diamètre a été en général supérieur à zéro dans l'ensemble des systèmes agroforestiers et témoigne d'une structure en « J renversé » montrant qu'il existait au sein de ces systèmes un grand nombre d'individus de petits diamètres pouvant assurer le renouvellement des grands pieds. Ces résultats contribuent à la mise en place de projet / programme de régénération des espèces indigènes épargnées dans les systèmes agroforestiers. Abstract The challenge of sustainable use of biological resources namely plants and the necessity to satisfy the foods products requirement of a growing population imposed on mankind the practice of spatio-temporal arrangement of annual crops and perennial tree. The main objective of this work is to study the demographic characteristics of the woody stand of this ancestral practice, which deserves to be revalued in peasant practices in the township of Djidja in Benin. To achieve this purpose, the methodology used consists of three steps: the first step was a field exploration; the second was a survey to collect data about the identified systems management and the third was dendrometric data collection in 30 plots of 2500 m². Agroforestry systems were categorized into six major groups. These include traditional oil palm systems (33%); Parkia biglobosa agroforestry parks (33.28%); home gardens (28%); Daniellia oliveri agroforestry parks (25%); Anacardium occidentale taungya systems (13.72%) and fallow (6,2%). The Shannon diversity index of these agroforestry systems vary from 0.48 to 4.04 bits and the Pielou equitability index from 0.21 to 0.89. The average density ranges from 23 to 82 tree / ha. The skeweness coefficient of the diameter size class distribution is in general positive showing a structure "reversed J" indicating that these systems contain abundant regenerations that could replace the largest ones. The results of this work can contribute to the establishment of a regeneration project / program for native species saved in agroforestry systems.
... En Afrique subsaharienne, de nombreuses espèces ligneuses fournissent des produits forestiers non ligneux (PFNL) qui représentent une contribution substantielle à la sécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle et à l'amélioration des conditions de vie des populations locales (Lykke et Padonou, 2019). L'exploitation des PFNL génère des revenus qui concourent à l'amélioration des conditions socio-économiques des ménages ruraux et à la croissance des économies nationales (Assogbadjo et al., 2012 ;Vodouhê et al., 2009). ...
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Saba senegalensis (A. DC.) Pichon est une liane ligneuse de la famille des Apocynaceae. Elle est aussi appelée liane goïne. Les produits forestiers non ligneux obtenus à partir de cette espèce ont une grande importance socio-économique au Burkina Faso. Cependant, les caractéristiques démographiques de l’espèce sont peu connues bien que nécessaires pour mettre en place des programmes de gestion durable. La présente étude a pour objectif d’évaluer les caractéristiques démographiques de S. senegalensis suivant le gradient climatique au Burkina Faso. Un échantillonnage aléatoire orienté a conduit à installer des placeaux de 1 000 m2 pour l’inventaire des populations. Les mesures dendrométriques ont concerné le diamètre de la tige au collet et à 1,30 m du sol pour les individus adultes et les diamètres à 20 cm du sol et au collet, respectivement pour les jeunes plants et les plantules. L’indice de Green, la densité, le diamètre moyen des tiges et la surface terrière ont été calculés et comparés entre les zones climatiques. Les résultats ont montré une distribution agrégative de S. senegalensis révélée par l’indice de Green. La densité, le diamètre moyen et la surface terrière ont varié significativement (p < 0,05) entre les zones climatiques. Les fortes densités des sujets adultes de S. senegalensis se trouvent dans les zone sahélienne et soudanienne. Le modèle linéaire généralisé montre que la température et les précipitations ont une influence sur l’établissement de la régénération de S. senegalensis. La structure démographique a révélé une abondance de juvéniles qui représentent un important potentiel de renouvellement des populations. S. senegalensis montre une certaine résilience de ses populations ; mais, du fait de la péjoration climatique et de la pression anthropique, la conservation de l’espèce dans son habitat naturel reste aléatoire.
... Natural or traditional agroforestry systems created by purposeful retention of indigenous trees on farmers' land can foster a variety of benefits, including the provision of ecosystem services or positive livelihood impacts (Amare et al. 2019;Assogbadjo et al. 2012). By integrating indigenous trees in their production system rural farmers can access additional income sources, directly benefit from nutritious food products, and increase their resilience with regard to market or climatic shocks (Leakey and van Damme 2014;Reed et al. 2017). ...
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The baobab tree (Adansonia digitata L.) is an integral component of many dryland farming systems in subSahara Africa. Such traditional agroforestry systems can foster a variety of benefits; besides positive livelihood implications baobab can particularly address food security objectives due to its highly nutritious fruits. However, many bottlenecks persist inhibiting the broader potential of indigenous trees in farming systems and their increased utilisation and commercialisation. We suggest that traditional farming systems with baobab trees can be advanced by stimulating the emergence of local markets for baobab products while promoting businesses and innovations aimed at meeting the arising market demand. Increasing the perceived value of local agroforestry products in combination with facilitating additional commercialisation pathways will in turn lead to food security and livelihood benefits. Using a multi-stakeholder approach such considerations were put into practice in Kilifi, Kenya, by initiating a community based enterprise development producing high-quality baobab powder and oil. Initial results demonstrate behavioural changes, an improved practical knowhow with regard to baobab management and utilisation, and an increased consumption of baobab, which may already contribute to food security objectives. Baobab is increasingly seen as a valuable resource as opposed to ‘food for the poor’ and a tree possessed by evil spirits. This may lay the groundwork for further value addition activities and enterprise development in the communities. With baobab being a common, yet so far underutilised feature of local farming systems in Kilifi, activities based on its increasing commercialisation can be complementary and easily integrable to prevailing livelihood strategies.
... The survey sheet contained 6 sections such as: Respondents' characteristics, crabs knowledge, sociocultural importance and uses of the crabs species, dynamics and management in the value chain, crabs resource flow monitoring and socio-economic value of crabs' species. The sampling was carried out according to the method of Assogbadjo et al. (2012). It consisted of asking a question to 30 individuals in the study area. ...
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Crabs play an important economic and bio-ecological role in most aquatic ecosystems and occupy an important place in the variety of trophic niches. Callinectes amnicola Rochebrune and Cardisoma armatum Herklots are two edible species widely exploited in Benin. The present work aims to i) evaluate the socioeconomic and cultural importance of those two crab species, ii) analyze the dynamics of the value chain, and iii) monitor the flow of their resources. Surveys were carried out during February 2018 to September 2019 among target groups in Ouémé, Atlantic and Littoral administrative Departments of Benin through structured and semi-structured interview methods as well as free interview. Results indicate that fishermen/catchers (12.76%), wholesalers/collectors (25.53%) and retailers (61.70%) are the actors involved in the crab value chain. Between 40 and 50% of fishery products are exported to markets in Togo and Ghana. Not all of the exoskeletons resulting from post-capture losses and those resulting from treatments for consumption, in particular C. amnicola (74.46%) and C. armatum (76.59%) are used, which poses an environmental management problem. The gains made in the sector vary from 8.000±2.828 Financial Community African Franc (FCAF) (C. amnicola) to 20.000±21.213 FCAF (C. armatum). The study found that crabs (C. armatum and C. amnicola) have remarkable socioeconomic importance in Southern Benin, Africa.
... Agroforestry systems support food security and nutrition directly and indirectly through a number of ways. For one, they provide ecosystem services and positive livelihood impacts [82,84]. By integrating native trees in their production system farmers can generate additional income, directly benefit from nutritious food products, and increase their resilience to market or climatic shocks [85,86]. ...
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The importance of forests to safeguard agricultural production through regulating ecosystem services such as clean water, soil protection, and climate regulation is well documented, yet the contributions of forests and trees to provide food for the nutritional needs of the increasing human population has not been fully realized. Plants, fungi, and animals harvested from forests have long provided multiple benefits-for nutrition, health, income, and cultural purposes. Across the globe, the main element of "forest management" has been industrial wood production. Sourcing food from forests has been not even an afterthought but a subordinate activity that just happens and is largely invisible in official statistics. For many people, forests ensure a secure supply of essential foods and vital nutrients. For others, foraging forests for food offers cultural, recreational, and diversified culinary benefits. Increasingly, these products are perceived by consumers as being more "natural" and healthier than food from agricultural production. Forest-and wild-sourced products increasingly are being used as key ingredients in multiple billion dollar industries due to rising demand for "natural" food production. Consumer trends demonstrate growing interests in forest food gathering that involves biological processes and new forms of culturally embedded interactions with the natural world. Further, intensifying calls to "re-orient" agricultural production provides opportunities to expand the roles of forests in food production; to reset food systems by integrating forests and trees. We use examples of various plants, such as baobab, to explore ways forests and trees provide for food security and nutrition and illustrate elements of a framework to encourage integration of forests and trees. Forests and trees provide innovative opportunities and technological and logistical challenges to expand food systems and transition to a bioeconomy. This shift is essential to meet the expanding demand for secure and nutritious food, while conserving forest biodiversity.
... Iniesta-Arandia et al. (2014), Bidegain et al. (2019)), which is particularly relevant in areas where local populations T Contrary to ES assessments, the use of socio-cultural approaches to wild plant utilisation (ethnobotany, ethnomedicine) is widespread (e.g. Assogbadjo et al. (2012), Sop et al. (2012)) and it is increasingly used in the field of wild animal utilisation (e.g. Batumike et al. (2020). ...
Article
In the tropics, mountain forests provide numerous benefits to surrounding communities. Our participatory research investigates how different ethnic groups including Twa hunter gatherers and farmers of Bantu origin use and value mountain forests in Kibira National Park, Burundi. We carried out an ecosystem service (ES) assessment through 25 focus-group discussions, including Twa (n = 10) and farmers (n = 15). The Twa identify a greater number of forest ES than farmers, and rank wild vegetables as most important forest ES. They also show strong place dependence and identity to the forest, which they call ‘home’. Farmers rank microclimate regulation as most important forest ES, and also show place dependence to the forest. Both groups identified numerous plants for provisioning services, but the Twa identified more food-provisioning plants and medicinal plants for humans. Our findings help understand why the Twa continue to enter this park daily. Our results also help suggest some livelihood strategies for the Twa which consider their strengths rather than their weaknesses. Protected areas are the most important tool we have for species’ and habitats’ conservation, but to ensure their effectiveness -and sustainability- surrounding communities’ needs and cultures should be considered.
... In TAS, trees are spared on farm for their crucial role in farmers' livelihood. They provide food especially at shortage period, medicine, forage, cultural and multiple ecosystem services including pollination and control of erosion and both water and air quality improvement (Assogbadjo et al. 2012;Nair et al. 2010). TAS, in particular traditional agroforestry species (TAFS) are subject to increasing interests from scientists, breeders and policy makers to improve their potential in rural development policies through domestication for crops diversification (Leakey et al. 2012). ...
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Predicted effects of climate change (CC) on plant species distribution have raised concerns on their conservation and domestication. Appropriate stand density may enhance species ability to adapt to CC. Therefore, combining species distribution modeling (SDM) and spatial pattern of density should provide insightful information for setting conservation actions. We combined geostatistical and SDM techniques to assess (1) current tree density spatial pattern and its relationship with bioclimatic zone (humid, sub-humid, and semi-arid), land-use type (protected areas vs. agrosystems), and soil type (eight types), and (2) present-day and future distributions of suitable habitats under low-RCP4.5 and high-RCP8.5 emissions scenarios for Borassus aethiopum, a declining agroforestry palm in Benin. Data were obtained from 2880 one-ha plots. Semivariogram and kriging were used to model spatial patterns of density while Maximum Entropy was used for SDM. Tree density followed an isotropic spatial model with a range of 2.15 km, indicating extremely fragmented density pattern. Tree density was 8-times higher in protected areas (PAs, 68.6 ± 5.09 trees ha⁻¹) than in agrosystems (8.4 ± 0.31 trees ha⁻¹) and greater on ferruginous soils. Though 80% of the country was currently highly suitable with similar trend for PAs and agrosystems, future predictions showed major habitat loss (20–61%), particularly under RCP8.5. While changes were similar between PAs and agrosystems, the decrease in habitat suitability was pronounced in the semi-arid zone where the species is currently widely-distributed with higher abundance. Very weak link was found between present-day abundance and present-day and future distribution. It is concluded that B. aethiopum has a fragmented density pattern and will be sensitive to CC. In-situ and circa-situ conservations or orchards establishment were suggested depending on the projected changes and the bioclimatic zone. The approach used here is exemplary for other agroforestry tree species.
... Wild-edible fruit tree (WEFT) species are fruit trees that grow spontaneously in self-maintaining populations in natural or semi-natural ecosystems, and can exist independently of direct human action (FAO, 1999). They have been identified as a particularly important means that households in rural Africa used to cope with food shortage periods (Assogbadjo et al., 2012). As fruit producing trees, WEFT species are important components in the diet of over one billion people worldwide (Burlingame, 2000). ...
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Wild-edible fruits tree (WEFT) species constitute an important source of nutrients but nowadays, these resources are concentrated in the protected areas. This study aimed to evaluate the diversity and distribution pattern of WEFT species in the Lama Forest Reserve in Benin, to provide basics for designing appropriate conservation strategies. An inventory of WEFT species was carried out in 53 square plots demarcated in the four vegetation types of the reserve. Shannon (H), Pielou (E), Green (GI) indices, and the actual distribution maps of the species were generated. The results revealed 10 WEFT species within the dense forests and young fallow having nine species, while the old fallow had seven species. The diversity indices showed that the reserve had low floristic diversity (H = 2.41 and E = 0.73) in WEFT species. Dialium guineense, Ficus capensis, Mimusops andongensis, and Pancovia bijuga, in the young fallow, Lecaniodiscus cupanioides, and Psidium guajava in the degraded dense forest and L. cupanioides, and P. bijuga in old fallow exhibited an aggregative distribution (GI > 1), suggesting that more effort need to be put on their conservation in these vegetation types. The maps generated in this study can later be used as reference to carry out gap analyses.
... Les interviewés sont sélectionnés suivant un échantillonnage aléatoire. La taille n de l'échantillon dans la commune a été déterminée en utilisant l'approximation normale de la distribution binomiale (Halidou, 2016;Dagnelie, 1998 ;Assogbadjo et al., 2011) centrée sur la proportion des ménages utilisant les PFNL comme ressources. ...
... Socio-cultural preferences toward plant species have been long studied in the field of wild plant utilisation (ethnobotany, ethnomedicine, wild edible fruits and vegetables) (e.g. Assogbadjo et al., 2012;Sop et al., 2012). It has also been shown that communities who establish in a new environment (e.g. ...
... Artworks provided the highest profit per year to local population, followed by shea butter, Balanites oil, and Parkia mustard. These results indicate the financial contribution of benefits from ESs to the communities' household income (Assogbadjo et al., 2012;Boffa, 1999;Sinare & Gordon, 2015). These products are often used for domestic purpose (health care and foods) but are also marketable commodities that generate income for pupils tuitions fees and other local businesses. ...
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Information on how biotic factors influence delivery of ecosystem services (ES) in natural systems is important for holistic landscape management. In this study, we assessed the perceived effects of elephants’ presence on ES supply in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve in West Africa. A total of 112 respondents, including riparian communities and reserve officials, were interviewed. First, we used ranking techniques based on stakeholders’ perceptions to evaluate differences in perceived importance of ES. Second, we assessed the perceived impact of elephants on ES supply from both direction and intensity perspective. Third, we assessed the economic importance of threatened ESs and elephants’ damages related economic losses incurred by households. Twenty-seven ES were enumerated, 13 provisioning ES, 12 cultural ES, and two from the regulating and maintenance ES category. Provisioning ES were perceived as the most important although not significantly different from other categories. PES were also found to be most affected negatively by elephants’ impacts. However, elephants’ presence increased supply of cultural ES. The average cost of the losses due to elephants’ negative impacts ranged from $174.80 to $586.05 per year and per victim household. These results were discussed in relation to management actions necessary to facilitate coexistence between elephant and local populations.
... En Afrique subsaharienne, de nombreuses espèces ligneuses fournissent des produits forestiers non ligneux (PFNL) qui représentent une contribution substantielle à la sécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle et à l'amélioration des conditions de vie des populations locales (Lykke et Padonou, 2019). L'exploitation des PFNL génère des revenus qui concourent à l'amélioration des conditions socio-économiques des ménages ruraux et à la croissance des économies nationales (Assogbadjo et al., 2012 ;Vodouhê et al., 2009). ...
... The high species richness underscores the importance of these species to the rural communities who rely on them to sustain their livelihoods. This finding confirms information from other studies about the critical role of traditional agroforestry practices in supporting biodiversity through in situ conservation of tree species [55,56]. This number of woody species cited by respondents also is indicative of the extent to which local people serve as a repository of knowledge on their local vegetation. ...
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The success of terrestrial carbon sequestration projects for rural development in sub-Saharan Africa lies in the (i) involvement of local populations in the selection of woody species, which represent the biological assets they use to meet their daily needs, and (ii) information about the potential of these species to store carbon. Although the latter is a key prerequisite, there is very little information available. To help fill this gap, the present study was undertaken in four pilot villages (Kou, Dao, Vrassan and Cassou) in Ziro Province, south-central Burkina Faso. The objective was to determine carbon storage potential for top-priority woody species preferred by local smallholders. We used (i) participatory rural appraisal consisting of group discussions and key informant interviews to identify priority species and functions, and (ii) landscape assessment of carbon stocks in the preferred woody species. Results revealed 79 priority tree and shrub species grouped into six functions, of which medicine, food and income emerge as the most important ones for the communities. For these functions, smallholders overwhelmingly listed Vitellaria paradoxa, Parkia biglobosa, Afzelia africana, Adansonia digitata, Detarium microcarpum, and Lannea microcarpa among the most important tree species. Among the preferred woody species in Cassou and Kou, the highest quantity of carbon was stored by V. paradoxa (1180 ±209 kg C ha⁻¹ to 2089±522 kg C ha⁻¹) and the lowest by Grewia bicolor (5±1.2 kg C ha⁻¹). The potential carbon stored by the preferred tree communities was estimated at 587.9 Mg C ha⁻¹ (95% CI: 456.7; 719.1 Mg C ha⁻¹) in Kou and256.8 Mg C ha⁻¹ (95% CI: 67.6; 324.4 Mg C ha⁻¹) in Cassou. The study showed that the species that farmers preferred most stored more carbon than species that were less preferred.
... Food is a core element of many cultures, and the importance of edible NTFP species is reflected in their maintenance and use in cultural traditions (e.g., Bonta et al. 2006, Assogbadjo et al. 2012). Many NTFP species produce resources, fruit, flowers, seeds, nectar, leaves, bark, exudates, wood, consumed by other members of the ecological community and humans. ...
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Nontimber forests products (NTFPs) are the mainstay of rural livelihoods and local economies the world over. As such they are of interest to a wide disciplinary range of researchers and development and government agencies seeking to promote livelihoods, incomes, and ecologically sustainable practices. With the attention on the various human uses of NTFPs, their role and networks in the broader biological communities in which they are located are frequently overlooked. Harvesting of many NTFPs has effects not only at the organism and population scales, but also on co-occurring species, some of which may also be NTFPs. Thus, reduction or loss of one NTFP population or species in a specific area may have cascade effects on other NTFP species, including those used for cultural purposes. We illustrate the little appreciated importance of NTFPs in broader ecological and social systems by assessing and illustrating the importance of NTFP species as ecological or biocultural keystones in providing regulating and supporting ecological services to other species and cultural services to people. We present a number of examples where NTFP species act as keystones in ecological and cultural systems, including food, pollination and dispersal, animal health, nutrients, shelter and protection, and cultural symbolism, most of which have not been considered by NTFP researchers and practitioners. From these examples we distill six propositions regarding NTFPs and discuss the value of recognizing some NTFPs as biocultural keystones to acknowledge and highlight their roles at broader scales.
... This leads to the prevalence of certain specific trees on farmlands in specific ecological zones or traditional areas. Parkland trees have the potential to reduce the pressure on plant resources in nearby protected areas such as sacred groves and forest reserves and thereby contributing to their preservation (Assogbadjo et al., 2012). ...
Article
In order to understand the dynamics of regeneration, growth, population and possible upscale for the benefit of agroforestry parkland trees in the semi-arid areas of Ghana, a study was conducted to determine the population density, diversity, relative dominance, importance value indices (IVI) and use categories of parkland tree species in the Sudan and Guinea Savannah vegetation zones of Ghana, with special reference to F. albida. Tree inventories were conducted on 80 sampled farms covering a total area of 74.2 hectares across 8 communities distributed in 4 districts in the Sudan and Guinea savannah zones. Mean farm size was 0.93 hectares. Fifty-four tree species belonging to 24 families were encountered during the study. A Simpson's diversity index of 2.72 was determined as the overall diversity index of tree species on farmlands. Tree population densities in the sampled communities ranged between 4 (Katiu) and 11 (Kugri) trees per hectare. The predominant uses of parkland trees include food, medicine, shade, fuelwood and wood for construction. Others include fencing, soil improvement, direct income from sale of tree products, erosion control, fodder, tools, deity, packaging and craft. Ranking parkland tree species according to their Importance Value Indices (IVIs) in the various study ecological zones, it was evident that Faidherbia albida is highly ranked in both ecological zones due to its multipurpose functions such as fodder (pods and leaves) provision, shade provision in the dry season, and its contribution to improved growth and yield of crops grown under its canopy. Faidherbia albida populations should be increased on farmlands through programs like the Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration (FMNR) and possible domestication.
... Similar to LS identification, the cultural differences that stem from ethnicity also affected the selection of preferred species. Cultural differences related to ethnicity are known to affect plant use and preferences among local communities (e.g., Assogbadjo et al., 2012;Cuni-Sanchez et al., 2019a, 2019b. Borana men and women cited a larger number of plant species for medicine and fodder than did Gabra men and women. ...
Article
Deserts are often considered a low priority landscape in terms of ecosystem services. However, this evaluation may shift once deserts are also considered in terms of geodiversity and human-landscape interactions. We investigated which landscape services (LS) are provided by the desert landscape to two pastoralist communities (Gabra and Borana) in northern Kenya. We organized ten focus-group discussions (five male and five female) in both communities to identify LS, assess which plant and wild animal species were considered to be most important, and discuss the potential positive and negative impacts of future infrastructure development projects. All groups identified provisioning, regulating, supporting and cultural LS, and distinguished which services were from biological or geological origin. Some differences were observed between groups, but all identified freshwater, pasture, and physical and mental well-being (freedom of movements and peace) as the most important LS. Differences were also observed in the species identified as important: e.g., Borana groups mentioned more plant species for medicine and fodder compared to Gabra groups. Both groups anticipated positive and negative impacts of future development projects but were unaware of the planned railway and oil pipeline infrastructure which will cross their community conservancies. The unique attachment to the desert, shared by Gabra and Borana communities, could serve as common ground to unify efforts to protect their landscapes. Participants’ responses demonstrate that identity, physical and mental well-being, and geological LS should be better integrated into landscape (or ecosystem) service assessments.
... The mature leaves, the bark and the roots have phytotherapeutic properties and are used to heal several diseases (Kilani 2006;Iwekue et al. 2006;Padmalatha et al. 2009). In Benin, V. doniana is one of the ten most important NTFPs species valued by local people and for which sustainable use and conservation strategies are required (Achigan-Dako et al. 2011Assogbadjo et al. 2012;N'Danikou et al. 2011). It is known as a particular agroforestry tree with high socio-economic value (Achigan-Dako et al. 2011;Dadjo et al. 2012;Oumorou et al. 2010). ...
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We assessed impacts of climatic variability, land cover and proximity of river on the ecology and population structure of Vitex doniana Sweet in Benin (West Africa) in order to provide relevant information for its sustainable management and conservation in the context of global change. Numbers of contacts and numbers of adult individuals per contact of the species along transects revealed through negative binomial model that even though the species is present in all climatic zones, it does not show preference to a particular zone, but it is more frequent in mosaics of croplands and fallows (MCF) and in areas at less than 500 m to river. Analyses of floristic composition, suggested that V. doniana occurs globally in different woody plant communities regarding climatic zones, land cover types and distance to the closest river. Significant interaction effects of climatic zone and land cover type were noted on structural parameters (mean diameter and basal area) of V. doniana with the highest values in the Sudanian MCF (46.11±23.83 cm and 3.35±3.07 m 2 ha −1). Moreover, diameter structures revealed globally a predominance of relatively young individuals (dbh ≤ 20 cm) of the species. Although studied environmental factors do not have significant effect on densities of the species (adult and regeneration), the relatively low values recorded may lead to a rapid decline of its populations in future. Sustainable management practices should be thought to favour and preserve the regeneration of the species for it conservation.
... An important prerequisite for sustainable management of agroecosystems is to procure their maintenance as integrated production systems capable of meeting the satisfaction of subsistence needs of local communities while keeping the ecosystems' balance (Vandermeer et al., 1998;J acome, 1993;Perfecto and Vandermeer, 2008). Traditional Agroforestry Systems (TAFS) have called the attention of agroecologists because of their exceptional adaptive capacity to social-environmental changes throughout history and to favor a good balance between production and biodiversity conservation (Toledo and Barrera-Bassols, 2008;Altieri and Toledo, 2011;Moreno-Calles et al., 2016), providing ecosystem benefits (McNeely and Schroth, 2006;Jose, 2009;Assogbadjo et al., 2012) and both agricultural and forest products to the farmers (Moreno-Calles et al., 2013;Vallejo et al., 2019). ...
... An important prerequisite for sustainable management of agroecosystems is to procure their maintenance as integrated production systems capable of meeting the satisfaction of subsistence needs of local communities while keeping the ecosystems' balance (Vandermeer et al., 1998;J acome, 1993;Perfecto and Vandermeer, 2008). Traditional Agroforestry Systems (TAFS) have called the attention of agroecologists because of their exceptional adaptive capacity to social-environmental changes throughout history and to favor a good balance between production and biodiversity conservation (Toledo and Barrera-Bassols, 2008;Altieri and Toledo, 2011;Moreno-Calles et al., 2016), providing ecosystem benefits (McNeely and Schroth, 2006;Jose, 2009;Assogbadjo et al., 2012) and both agricultural and forest products to the farmers (Moreno-Calles et al., 2013;Vallejo et al., 2019). ...
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Traditional agroforestry systems (TAFS) are important areas for conserving biodiversity, ecosystems benefits and biocultural heritage, outstandingly local knowledge, management techniques, and domestication processes. These systems have adapted to environmental, social, technological, and cultural changes throughout history. However, contemporary drastic socio-environmental changes as climate variability, economic inequality, migration, among others, have caused a productive crisis, with several consequences as productive land abandonment, threaten the sustainability of TAFS and vulnerating livelihoods. In such context, the question arises of what kind of adaptations are needed to face these changes, and how access to water and land, should be managed to improve adaptation of TAFS? The study analyzes TAFS in the Tehuacán Valley, a region with high biological and cultural diversity and early signs of agriculture in Mexico, where TAFS have remained active until present. The study analyzes the capacity of TAFS to conserve biodiversity and sustain local livelihoods, despite socio-environmental threats. It is based on a political ecology approach, which proposes that socio-ecological systems degradation is linked to unequal access to land and natural resources. Looking for an integral study of adaptations of TAFS to socio-environmental changes, this study combines qualitative and historical research methodology with quantitative methods evaluating plant diversity and spatial analysis. The study findings show that differentiated access to resources, water, land, and forest, is a key factor that limits adaptation of TAFS, impacting livelihood strategies, changing management patterns, and constraining social capacities for coping with socio-environmental changes. TAFS have significantly higher species richness than forests but lower diversity. The main contribution of the study is the methodological approach looking for an integral analysis of natural resources management and biocultural conservation in agroecosystems, and the identification of the unequal access to resources, as a keystone to understand and act for improving adaptive strategies of TAFS to socio-environmental changes.
... There are also adaptation prospects emerging from indigenous food management practices. Motivation of indigenous people to conserve or grow wild edible trees have been linked to food security and their use in traditional medicine and cultural events (Assogbadjo et al., 2012). Makondo and Thomas (2018) indicated that indigenous communities have been able to adapt, build resilience and solidarity against food shortages in the face of climate change through household interdependence and spirit of resource sharing. ...
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Purpose Against a milieu of fragmented research that documents indigenous practices related to food security, and the heterogeneous settings from which the studies have been conducted, this study aims to synthesize the evidence of indigenous knowledge-food security nexus to strengthen the call for the revitalization of indigenous knowledge (IK) as part of the mechanisms to manage food security challenges being aggravated by climate change. Design/methodology/approach Drawing on insights from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), this study reviews 122 articles accessed from the Web of Science and Scopus databases, which covered indigenous methods used for producing, gathering, processing, preserving and storing diverse food sources that indigenous people deploy in securing their food systems. Findings The surge in attention to focus on IK-food security nexus tends to be influenced by the growing acknowledgement of climate change impacts on food systems. Essentially, the IK-based practices adopted address all the four food security pillars that are specified by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) as availability, accessibility, utilization and stability. The main motivation behind the continued use of IK-based ways relates largely to the interest to be food secure against climatic shocks and partly to the desire to maintain people’s food cultures and food sovereignty. Originality/value This study deploys the food security pillars provided by the FAO (2012) to demonstrate that IK-based ways of food management are capable of addressing all the four food security dimensions, a critical observation toward revitalizing IK in managing growing food security challenges that are intensified by climate change in SSA.
... The two species are also being intensively used in agroforestry countrywide to sustain livelihoods of indigenous populations (Teklehaimanot, 2004). They represent the two most saved species on farms in northern Benin and provide a wide range of timber and non-timber forest products to local populations (Assogbadjo et al. 2012). Moreover, saving them in agroforestry associations provide a continuous tree cover and contributes to farming system productivity and sustainability by maintaining soil fertility (Dotchamou et al. 2016). ...
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In West Africa, African locust bean (P. biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth.) and Shea (V. paradoxa (Gaertn. F) are among the most important multipurpose plant species commonly found in traditional agroforestry systems. Most of research on these species are dominated by patterns and properties of their food uses, and additionally cosmetics for the shea. Yet, the species also have interesting medicinal properties that have been little explicitly explored. Using an ethnobotanical survey, we explored the patterns of diseases and other human disorders healed by the species, the different plants parts involved in diseases treatment, the recipes adapted for the treatment of the diseases and disorders and the other species involved in recipes composition in Northern Benin where they are widely distributed and used. Plants parts used by respondents were subjected to a Principal Component Analysis together with the ethnic groups. Alpha diversity indices were used to compute disease diversity while the Intraspecific Use Values index was applied to assess the frequency of utilization of each plant part. Results showed that 11 categories comprising 51 diseases and disorders were listed by respondents for the two species, with the predominance of Gastro-intestinal diseases (RFC = 31.10% for P. biglobosa and RFC = 31.81% for V. paradoxa) and Infectious diseases (RFC = 26.82% for P. biglobosa and RFC = 27.27% for V. paradoxa). Most used plants parts were nuts (IVU = 90.90%) and roots (IVU = 90.90%) for V. paradoxa and roots (IVU = 90.24%) and bark (IVU = 70.73%) for P. biglobosa. The PCA analysis showed a strong variation in the used plants parts across the sociocultural groups.
... wind erosion control) and income generation (e.g. Vitellaria paradoxa for shea butter., animal husbandry, construction, fuelwood, and medicinal uses) Breman and Kessler, 1995;Belem et al., 1996;Lykke et al., 2004;Faye et al., 2010;Kristensen and Lykke, 2003;Assogbadjo et al., 2012). Thus, other CA practices are needed in the intra-tree space to increase crop yields and preempt food shortages in the Sahel that will only increase with climate change. ...
Article
The Sahel is at the nexus of extreme ecological, socio-economic, and food security challenges where Green Revolution technologies have not been adopted and yields remain unchanged since the 1960s. Although the Parkland system where trees are maintained in cropped fields can have positive ecosystem outcomes, there is limited success for increasing yields at the landscape level. Here we report on a long-term study of inter-cropping with a local and overlooked evergreen shrub, Guiera senegalensis that offers a new approach to remediate degraded soils and increase crop productivity. A long-term factorial split-plot experiment of an optimized G. senegalensis intercropping system (~1500 shrubs ha⁻¹ with coppiced residue additions to soils) compared to sole-cropping (as the main plot treatment) under four fertilizer treatments (0–1.5 times the recommended NPK rate) (as sub-plot treatment) was conducted relative to edaphic and agronomic performance of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) in Senegal, West Africa. Contrary to conventional perspectives, G. senegalensis was non-competitive and indeed when coppiced there was a temporal offset of its fine root growth to the late rainy season when crop nutrient and water requirements are diminishing. The G. senegalensis intercropping system significantly increased crop yields, notably for millet where yields averaged across fertilizer treatments increased 126%. Importantly this system, over sole-cropping, maintained yields in low rainfall years which coincided with this system having significantly greater water use efficiency for both millet and groundnut. These responses were related to improved soil quality (increased particulate and total organic matter, and extractable nutrients). An important finding was that this system keeps surface soil temperatures below the critical 35 ℃, plant-physiological threshold during crop establishment which greatly improves crop emergence and early season growth. We conclude that this optimized shrub-intercropping system with its ability to produce abundant biomass (unpalatable to livestock) and unique ecological adaptation to coppicing, provides a logical approach for increasing food security and mitigating climate change. It is a local resource which subsistence farmers can directly utilize without external inputs or new infrastructure.
... The average consumption of its oil is estimated at 21 g per person per day in rural areas [14]. In Benin, shea ranks among the top local wild edible trees that farmers protect or grow in their elds, and is mostly used for food processing and ceremonies [15]. Shea tree is also exported for use as a primary cocoa butter equivalent in the chocolate industry and a high-quality ingredient in cosmetics. ...
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Background: Local knowledge and perception are crucial to undertake the domestication of useful species such as Vitellaria paradoxa that makes significant contribution to rural household economy in Africa. This study aims to document shea morphotypes diversity based on folk knowledge especially the main criteria farmers used to distinguish shea trees and to examine the influence of sociodemographic characteristics on that knowledge. Methods: 405 respondents were surveyed across shea parklands in Benin using semi-structured questionnaire. We used the relative citation frequency of criteria followed by Kruskal-Wallis test to evaluate the influence of sociodemographic attributes on local knowledge of Shea morphotypes variation. Factorial Correspondence Analysis described the links between the different morphotypes and parklands, and Principal Components Analysis was used to characterize farmers perception on morphotypes’ abundance, fruits and butter yields. Results: Respondents identified 13 morphotypes based on the five most cited criteria which are fruit size (55.5%), tree fertility (15.40%), bark colour (10.51%), timing of production (5.38%) and pulp taste (3.42%). The citation frequency of classification criteria varied significantly depending on the age, the education level and the sociolinguistic group of the respondent. The Bembèrèkè zone shea parkland revealed higher diversity of morphotypes traits. The small fruit type (‘Yanki’) was reported to be widespread. It produces higher fruit and butter yields according to respondents. Conclusions: From our findings, farmers perceived an important diversity of shea traits that are used to classify morphotypes with economic or sociocultural importance. The revelation of that natural variation in shea tree is a key step toward the development of shea improvement program that could focus on the morphotype Yanki reported to be potentially high in fruit production and butter yield.
... Several factors affect local communities' ethnobotanical knowledge, socio-cultural values (i.e., social needs, perceptions, and preferences towards nature) related to ethnicity being an important one (e.g., Assogbadjo et al. 2012;Sop et al. 2012;Yogom et al. 2020). We understand socio-cultural values as a type of assigned value as defined by Lockwood (1999), which denotes those values that people attach to things, in this case, to nature. ...
Article
From tree species to forest services: ethnic differences in Lomami, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Ethnicity is well–known to affect plant species’ utilization, but how ethnicity affects the identification and importance ranking of forest ecosystem services has been less documented, particularly in the Congo Basin. This research investigates how six different ethnic groups (farmers of Bantu origin and Mbote hunter–gatherers) use and value tree species and forest ecosystem services in Lomami National Park, in central Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Data were collected through 24 focus–group discussions with village elders, four for each ethnic group studied. Considerable variation in preferred tree species was observed: of the 89 morphospecies cited in total only two were cited by all ethnic groups for the same usage. Ethnicity also affected the identification and importance ranking of forest ecosystem services. Mbote hunters–gatherers prioritized bushmeat, honey, and identity, while farmer groups prioritized bushmeat, fish, and microclimate regulation. We discuss the implications of the findings for forest management in the Buffer Zone of the national park.
... Source: author management practices. Studies on Benin farmers (West Africa) showed that they conserve or plant trees to conduct traditional ceremonies [43]. Therefore, losing folktales on the origin of corn and vegetables in Tawangmangu hinders the next generation from recognizing the story's important message, namely non-rice food security. ...
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As a country with rice as the staple food, the dominant traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) on food in Indonesia is rice. However, in Tawangmangu District, Central Java Province, the TEK inherited from their ancestors is about non-rice food security. This study aimed to explore how villagers pass on and practice their knowledge and beliefs in food defense based on traditional ecological knowledge. The data were collected through FGD, interviews, and field observations of traditional ceremonial processions, agricultural activities, and natural resource management. The results showed that TEK in Tawangmangu had three themes, including (1) TEK communication and inheritance through folktales on the origin of vegetables and corn, taboo words, such as the prohibition of planting rice, and the symbolic meaning of traditional rituals and offerings; (2) the people’s philosophy is reflected in their view of God, ancestors’ spirits as folktales figures, village guards’ spirits, and other living things. The folktales protagonists’ spirits are asked to provide protection, while the antagonists' spirits are asked not to interfere; and (3) natural resources sustainability involves maintaining non-rice plant commodities, terraced agricultural land management, intercropping systems, managing water resource and crop yields, and traditional houses architecture. The locals protect the forest on Mount Lawu and Pringgodani Cave as their source of life by prohibiting cutting trees and reforestation.
... In Africa, there are several agroforestry practices such as maintaining trees on cultivated land, living fences, home gardens and grazing (Mbow et al., 2013;Abreha and Gebrekidan, 2014). Several studies carried out across the world have demonstrated the importance of preserving tree species on cultivated lands for socio economic, ecological and biodiversity conservation purposes (McNeely, 2004;Acharya, 2006;Nouaïm et al., 2007;Eloy, 2008;Vodouhê et al., 2009;Tesfaye et al., 2010;Assogbadjo et al., 2012). Indeed, local communities resort to tree species for their daily needs, including herbal medicine, food, fodder, construction of housing, and manufacture of household tools (Omafuvbe et al., 2004;De Smedt et al., 2011). ...
Article
Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) G. Don, Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir, Milicia excelsa (Welw.) C. C. Berg, Prosopis africana (Guill., Perrot. and Rich.) Taub., Afzelia africana Sm. and Khaya senegalensis (Desv.) A. Juss. are the most highly valued indigenous tree species in the agroforestry systems of the Ouémé catchment area. However, information on the population structure of these species is lacking, thus limiting the development of their sustainable conservation, utilization and restoration strategies. This study addressed this gap. It assessed the population structures and regeneration status of the six species from Don, Tan-Houègbo, Atchabita, Bétékoukou, Glazoué, Tchaorou, Zagnanado, Tévèdji, Sinaou and Bétérou along the catchment. Data were collected from 78 permanent rectangular plots (50 × 30 m) randomly installed within 10 provenances. Dendrometric data including diameter at breast height (dbh) of adult trees (dbh ≥ 10 cm), collar diameter, total height of seedlings and saplings, number of individuals per species according to adult, sapling and seedling were recorded. The population structure was described using ecological and dendrometric parameters (relative frequency, importance value index (IVI), mean densities, basal area, mean height), and diameter size-class distributions. Seedling:sapling and sapling:adult ratios were also computed and analyzed for determining regeneration patterns. Based on IVI, Parkia biglobosa (95.85%) and Khaya senegalensis (65.92%) were the most represented species in the catchment area. The analysis of variances showed that dendrometric parameters of the six species varied significantly between provenances. Seedling:sapling and sapling:adult ratios were
... Many NTFP species provide food and fodder to the local people or to the people living in forest. Food is a core element, and it provides many important edible products to people (Assogbadjo et al., 2012). Many NTFP species produce resources, i.e., fruit, floras, seeds, leaves, bark, resin, and gums, consumed by other members of the ecological community and humans. ...
Chapter
Ecosystem is under the threat of rapid degeneration across the globe. Earth is bestowed with diverse ecosystem services. Among them, some are very unique in nature and also much fragile, and leads to various types of degradation on the earth. Riparian ecosystem is one of the unique examples that sustain diverse life form and various modes of ecological services. Research reports reveal diverse ecosystem services of the riparian ecosystem that includes flood control, habitat for biodiversity, mitigation and adaptation towards climate change, as well as social and its cultural values. Considering these diversified services in the riparian ecosystem has gained sufficient importance on the earth to sustain the life. If the degradation of the earth continues, it will be harmful to the future humankind. Thus, there is need of the riparian system that will have major impacts on the hydrology and biodiversity. This chapter focuses on the issues related to worldwide initiatives towards protection and conservation of these valuable assets of nature. It is covering proper strategies and policies implementation in relation to awareness, sustainable use, as well as protection from anthropogenic encroachment that needs to be done with immediate effect. The continuous monitoring and inventorization of riparian system across the world should be centralized for future research on riparian system. The riparian systems should be on top priority for conservation and restoration of ecological sustainability.
... Many NTFP species provide food and fodder to the local people or to the people living in forest. Food is a core element, and it provides many important edible products to people (Assogbadjo et al., 2012). Many NTFP species produce resources, i.e., fruit, floras, seeds, leaves, bark, resin, and gums, consumed by other members of the ecological community and humans. ...
Chapter
Ecosystem is under the threat of rapid degeneration across the globe. Earth is bestowed with diverse ecosystem services. Among them, some are very unique in nature and also much fragile, and leads to various types of degradation on the earth. Riparian ecosystem is one of the unique examples that sustain diverse life form and various modes of ecological services. Research reports reveal diverse ecosystem services of the riparian ecosystem that includes flood control, habitat for biodiversity, mitigation and adaptation towards climate change, as well as social and its cultural values. Considering these diversified services in the riparian ecosystem has gained sufficient importance on the earth to sustain the life. If the degradation of the earth continues, it will be harmful to the future humankind. Thus, there is need of the riparian system that will have major impacts on the hydrology and biodiversity. This chapter focuses on the issues related to worldwide initiatives towards protection and conservation of these valuable assets of nature. It is covering proper strategies and policies implementation in relation to awareness, sustainable use, as well as protection from anthropogenic encroachment that needs to be done with immediate effect. The continuous monitoring and inventorization of riparian system across the world should be centralized for future research on riparian system. The riparian systems should be on top priority for conservation and restoration of ecological sustainability. Keywords:: Conservation, Ecological sustainability, Restoration, Riparian vegetation
... This number of WOPs represents also approximately one-quarter of the food plant species (168) by Codjia et al. (2015) and one-third of the non-timber forest products (NTFP; 121) recorded in Benin by Assogbadjo et al. (2017). In addition, this diversity of WOPs is relatively small compared to that of Sèwadé et al. (2016) for woody fodder (48), Assogbadjo et al. (2012) for agroforestry systems species (43) and Dansi et al. (2012) for neglected and underutilized crop species (NUCS; 41) in Benin. These different trends observed are explained by the fact that the species richness (36 species) of WOPs (Appendix A) is exclusively made of native/indigenous species and represents a sub-group of NTFP drawn from a large set of species with 1.28% of the flora of Benin estimated at 2807 species (Akoègninou et al., 2006). ...
Article
Wild oil plants (WOP) are species used for food, cosmetics, nutraceutical, and medicine. In Benin, their importance is still poorly documented. This study investigated the diversity of WOPs and identified priority species for valorization in Benin. Literature synthesis was used to gather data on a list of WOP species. This was completed by ethnobotanical surveys involving users (traditional healers, farmers, fishers, traders, and resource persons), actors in the three biogeographical zones of Benin (Guineo-Congolian, Sudano-Guinean, and Sudanian zones). In addition, field visits to the species habitats were conducted with the help of local populations to assess the true presence of species mentioned during the survey and their availability. Data were collected on the identity of informants, WOPs used or known, ethnobotanical, nutritional and economic values, valorization level, their national distribution and threat status. Data were analyzed using the Chi-square test and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Findings showed that oils extracted from these WOP seeds serve for medicinal (49.25%), food (29.85%), cosmetic (17.91%), and fuel (2.99%) purposes, and neither gender nor the main occupation defined knowledge of WOP diversity. A total of 36 WOPs belonging to 25 botanical families were identified. The top five priority species to be valorized across the country were: Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile, Ricinodendron heudelotii (Bail.) Pierre, Lophira lanceolata Tiegh. ex Keay, Sesamum indicum L., and Cleome gynandra L. These species were identified as important resources for alleviating poverty and food insecurity in the communities and as potential candidates for the development of the oilseed sector in Benin. Further studies are needed to document the indigenous knowledge associated with those species, existing processing techniques, and exploitable capital to ensure their sustainable management.
... We surveyed residents of both communities over a three month period from November 2020 to January 2021. In each community, the number of the households to be surveyed was determined using the normal approximation of the binomial distribution following Dagnelie, (1998), an approach applied in several other forest ES assessment studies in Benin (Assogbadjo et al., 2012;Lokonon et al., 2019). Consequently, we sampled 68 households in KSF and 135 in PFR. ...
Article
Identification and assessment of the influence of socio-cultural beliefs in the perception of ecosystem services values are increasingly important for the management of forest resources. In this paper, we present a comparative study of local perceptions of the diversity of ecosystem services, values and priorities between communities living near sacred and non-sacred forests. This study revealed 21 ecosystem services related to sacred and non-sacred forests, grouped under four categories: provisioning (n = 6), regulating (n = 7), supporting (n = 2) and cultural (n = 6) services. Local populations living near the sacred forest (Kikélé Sacred Forest) identified the non-material benefits of ecosystem services such as spiritual inspiration and religious values as more important compared to populations living around the non-sacred forest (Pénessoulou Forest Reserve). In communities near the sacred forest, similar perceptions of spiritual values of the forest were observed among young and old, and between those with and without formal education, suggesting a strong transmission between socio-demographic strata of cultural values related to the forest. However, a greater importance was given by young and formally educated community members in the provisioning services of non-sacred forests. Forest management under traditional rules and harboring voodoo, a traditional religion in Benin, could explain forest ecosystem perceptions, with higher valuation of non-material ecosystem services in comparison to those of people living in the vicinity of forests without voodoo. Our study highlights the challenges of ecosystem service valuation at the sacred and non-sacred forest interface and shows the importance of integrating traditional beliefs in forest ecosystem management strategies.
... R.Br. ex Benth., Vitellaria paradoxa C. F. Gaertn., are preserved and among which annual crops are cultivated (Assogbadjo et al., 2012;Bayala et al., 2014). ...
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Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile and Ricinodendron heudelotii (Bail.) Pierre are socioeconomically important species in sub-Saharan Africa. This study was conducted to assess the seed germinability and seedling growth of those species based on several treatments and to define proper conservation and domestication strategies in Benin. The seeds were randomly collected in their natural habitats. The experiment was conducted using a split-split plot design and the data was analyzed using the generalized linear mixed and survival models. The heaviest seeds (B. aegyptiaca seed mass ≥3 g and R. heudelotii ≥ 1.50 g) provided the highest germination rates (73.60 ± 5.19% and 62.50 ± 5.71%, respectively) when seeds were scarified with a hammer. For B. aegyptiaca seedlings, the seeds from the phytodistrict of North Borgou scarified with a hammer and the heaviest seeds showed the highest total height (36.43 ± 1.03 cm), basal diameter (2.84 ± 0.03 mm), the greatest number of leaves (32), and ramifications. The heaviest seeds of R. heudelotii had also the highest value for total height at the day-28 after sowing (26.73 ± 13.56 cm) until the day-105 (151.97 ± 6.37 cm). The heaviest seeds of R. heudelotii from the phytodistrict of Pobe showed the highest basal diameter (12.53 ± 1.47 mm) and the greatest number of leaves (14), with almost no ramification during the trial period. These findings constitute a step forward in upscaling the reproduction of these species for better contribution to economies while serving in restoration plans.
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Trait diversity is crucial in undertaking the domestication of useful species such as Vitellaria paradoxa which makes a significant contribution to the rural household economy in Africa. This study aims to document the criteria farmers use to distinguish shea trees; how they vary according to age, education level and sociolinguistic group; and their perception of trees’ abundance and production. We surveyed 405 respondents across shea parklands in Benin using a semi-structured questionnaire. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test to evaluate the influence of sociodemographic attributes on relative criteria citation frequency and principal components analysis to characterize farmers’ perception on morphotypes’ abundance, fruits, and butter yields. The five most cited criteria were fruit size (55.5%), tree fertility (15.40%), bark colour (10.51%), timing of production (5.38%), and pulp taste (3.42%). The citation frequency of criteria varied significantly depending on the sociodemographic factors considered. Trees having small fruit (‘Yanki’) were reported to be widespread and high fruit/nuts and butter producers. Farmers perceived five important traits with variable importance depending on the sociocultural factors studied. This finding is a key step toward the development of a shea improvement program that could focus on the morphotype Yanki reported to potentially be a high fruit and butter producer.
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Dans ce papier, nous apportons un élément de réponse, du point de vue conceptuel et matériel, au problème rencontré dans l’enseignement-apprentissage du dessin technique en année préparatoire de l’École Normale Supérieure pour l’Enseignement Technique à l’Université d’Antsiranana à Madagascar. Après avoir analysé et discuté les résultats de mesures prises lors des observations sur le terrain, nous avons ajusté le dispositif d’enseignement-apprentissage, à travers des cadres référentiel, théorique et conceptuel adaptés et adoptés à la suite de la recension des écrits. Avec ce travail, nous présentons une nouvelle façon d’appréhender l’objet d’apprentissage, à l’ère nouvelle au biais de l’informatique qui répondra à certains critères d’attirance sociale, de modernisation et de création induisant une culture scientifique stable de la population impliquée.
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Although a number of wild fruit trees in Benin have been studied, others, such as Cola millenii K. Schum., are still relatively undocumented. The aim of this study was to collect ethnobotanical knowledge on C. millenii among socio-cultural groups in Benin. Individual structured interviews were conducted with 1 009 people. Relative frequency of citation and the efficiency index were used to assess the relative importance of each use and the degree of effectiveness of the plant in treating given ailments. C. millenii falls into eight different use categories. Most frequently cited is use of the fruit pulp for food, and malaria is the most frequently cited ailment. Overall, the species is considered to be very effective against malaria, jaundice, stomach pains, high blood pressure, stiff joints, fatigue, fever and vertigo; fairly effective against asthma, pregnancy-related disorders and swollen feet; and not effective to treat a low sperm count. The leaves are most frequently used to treat ailments, mainly as decoctions. The Anii and Chabè use the species preferentially for food, while the Adja and Kotafon mainly use it for magical purposes, to make brushes and as construction wood. It is used most frequently for medicinal purposes by the Aïzo, while the Mahi consider it to be most useful for construction. Trade is mainly in the leaves and fruit. Despite its importance, the species is under pressure in various ways and inadequately protected. Future studies need to focus on sylvicultural techniques with a view to domesticating the species.
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Sustainable production in upland watersheds is a formidable challenge for farmers. The trade-off laid between economic benefits (productivity) and sustainability. Farmers’ resilience in the upstream watershed needs to meet sustainable agricultural production. This paper was conducted to review the local driving factors which are supporting economic resilience and climate change mitigation to sustainable production in upland watersheds. Systematic Literature Review (SLR) design as preliminary exposure toward the key variables and driving question. The framework of a systematic literature review refers to the conservation and environmental management that is built with PRISMA protocol. SLR protocol starts from planning review, citation screening, data extraction, and analysis. The review addressed terms of current developments and plans for the participatory in sustainable watersheds management. This review article performed the basic steps of SLR and meta-analysis studies on environmental science and agricultural and biological science fields. The SLR protocol starts from planning review, citation screening, data extraction, review progress, the analysis result. The keywords addressed to current study in sustainable production in upland watersheds. This review has highlighted that agroforestry as a primary driving factor in directing the sustainable production in upland. Agroforestry within coffee farming could set as sustainable production system in upstream watersheds.
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Cochlospermum planchonii Hook.f. ex Planch. and Cochlospermum tinctorium Perrier ex A. Rich. are two wild edible plant species (WEPs), widely used in the West African Sudanian zone. Their parts are used as food additive, fodder, medical-magic and ethnoveterinary purposes, dye and arts. Unfortunately, the overexploitation of their rootstocks constitutes a great threat. While, an increasing number of studies reported on their uses, socio-economic importance, biological properties, and the anthropogenic pressure, knowledge on their reproductive biology, threats, domestication, and conservation status are still lacking. It therefore becomes crucial to systematically review literature on the current knowledge to identify research gaps and future research. Hence, this review aimed to critically synthetize knowledge, and gaps therein, to highlight future research for sustainable use and conservation of both species. To this end, publications were searched online in Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Springer Online and Research Gate, using following keywords: ‘‘taxonomy’’, ‘‘distribution’’, ‘‘ecology’’, ‘‘botanical description’’, ‘‘structural characteristics’’, ‘‘vernacular names’’, ‘‘uses’’, ‘‘plant parts used’’, ‘‘phytochemical’’ and ‘‘pharmacological properties’’, ‘‘economy’’, ‘‘propagation’’, ‘‘pollination’’, ‘‘reproduction’’, ‘‘threats’’, ‘‘conservation’’ and ‘‘domestication’’ in combination with ‘‘C. planchonii’’ or ‘‘C. tinctorium’’, ‘‘False-cotton’’. Out of 423 publications initially recorded, 165 were retained, of which 153 conducted in West Africa; the remaining 12 tackled botanical and taxonomical issues. Most of the publications addressed ethnobotany, chemical and pharmacological properties. Information obtained was compiled, critically analyzed, and discussed; knowledge gaps were keyed out and potential future research was highlited. The review confirmed the over-exploitation of both species mainly for human livelihoods. Both species were valuable sources of compounds and showed various pharmacological activities. A risk of genetic erosion was reported due overharvesting of their rootstocks whose powder was highly marketable. Future studies on their reproductive biology could enable their cultivation in order to reduce anthropogenic pressure and promote their sustainable use and conservation. Keywords: Cochlospermum, Wild edible plants, Conservation ecology, Sustainable management, West Africa.
Thesis
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Native plant species in general and fodder trees in particular contribute significantly to the daily needs of both human and animal especially in developing countries. During the dry season, fodder trees are an important source for the survival of ruminants because of herbaceous forage lack. They are multipurpose species exploited by various actors who are sometimes protagonists. In view of the pressure faced by these trees, and their consequent rarity noted in rangelands, a study was conducted in the Guineo-Congolese/Sudanian transition zone of Benin at the level of the local population surrounding the protected forests of Monts Kouffé, Wari-Maro and Ouémé Supérieur. This thesis contributes to the rational management of fodder trees’ resources. Specifically, it aims at (i) evaluate the diversity, the pastoral and conservation priority of fodder trees; (ii) assess the influence of age, sex and ethnicity on the perception of fodder species use values; (iii) describe the relationship between the availability and the use status of fodder species; (iv) develop models for estimating leaf biomass of three priority browse species; (v) contribute to the understanding of the socio-cultural dynamics of the study area in relation to the fodder trees’ exploitation and the associated conflicts. A total of 220 informants belonging to three sociolinguistic groups (Bariba, Nago and Peul) were interviewed through a semi-structured survey on the fodder trees that they use for different purposes. The citation rates of the fodder trees by the surveyed populations were used to establish pastoral priority, while their conservation priority was established using a combination of four methods and nine criteria. The use categories were defined in the study area and at an international level for the use rates calculation. The ethnoecological approaches were used to analyze the availability of fodder tree species in the study region. A total of 25 trees per species were sampled for biomass estimating. Carrying capacity was determined for the dry season in the study area. A total of 48 fodder trees belonging to 17 families dominated by Leguminosae (27.1%) and Moraceae (16.6%) were reported. These species were distributed among 37 genera, with the genus Ficus being the most represented (16.6%). Palatability, species availability and the impact of tree fodder on animal productivity were the criteria used by the surveyed sociolinguistic groups in their selection of fodder trees. The prioritization methods yielded ten top ranked species: Afzelia africana, Pterocarpus erinaceus, Khaya senegalensis, Vitellaria paradoxa, Mangifera indica, Ficus platyphylla, Balanites aegyptiaca, Annona senegalensis, Ficus umbellata and Daniellia oliveri. As a multipurpose species, the fodder trees are classified in six use categories: food, medicine, construction, fuel, veterinary and fodder. A. africana, K. senegalensis and P. erinaceus are the most widely used species by Peul and Bariba sociolingustic groups to feed animals, while the Nagos use M. indica comes first followed by F. umbellata, F. platyphylla and P. Erinaceus. Combining the different use categories, overharvested or underutilized species depend significantly on the sociolinguistic group. The forest inventory revealed 63 tree species of dbh ≥ 10 cm distributed in 24 families and 52 genera. The most represented families in genus and species are Leguminosae (28.57 %), Combretaceae (14.28 %). The Leguminosae family had the highest importance values (FIVI=83.42) followed at a distance by Combretaceae (21.68). The most important and ecologically dominant species are V paradoxa (SIVI = 42.76); I. doka (41,88); B. ferruginea (22.98); and D. oliveri (16,18). It is also noted that aerial fodder production significantly varied among species. The best models that estimated leaf biomass production of A. africana and P. erinaceus were obtained with diameter at breast height; a plant trait not directly affected by pruning as predictors. For D. oliveri the best model uses the crown height as estimator parameter. Globally, the carrying capacity of each species is about 0.05 to 0.09 TLU ha-1an-1 for A. africana; 0.03 to 0.08 TLU ha-1an-1 for P. erinaceus and 0.04 to 0.79 TLU ha-1an-1 for D. oliveri. The number of animal that can sustainably be fed in the study area was 38 497 TLU. Conflicts arise between sawyers and foresters, between foresters and Peul (herders), farmers and herders, farmers and sawyers, foresters and farmers. These conflicts are caused by the illegal exploitation of trees for their timber and fodder, and the breeders camp near the agricultural areas or sometimes in the forest reserves. Direct negotiations between those involved in conflicts or the arbitration of a local authority were the main strategies and ways of these conflicts managing. With the aim of establishing a sustainable management of pasture lands, we suggest that priority be given to the pastoral and conservation priority species witch are also overexploited species in the restoration, afforestation/reforestation and plantation activities. The introduction of these fodder tree species in afforestation/reforestation activities can improve the availability of leaf biomass to feed animals. Keywords: Availability, Benin, Biodiversity, Conservation priority, Ethnoecology, Fodder trees, Leaf biomass, Pastoralism.
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Evidence shows that there is a negative relationship between intensification of shifting cultivation (SC) and the Amazon forest resilience. However, SC is a widely implemented agricultural practice around the Amazon region due to its cultural, social, and economic relevance. In pristine indigenous communities, which have not experienced Western influence, SC will continue to be the main livelihood as part of the conservation of a patrimony of humanity. Nevertheless, the main adverse effects of SC on ecosystems (i.e. forest degradation), particularly on Amazon forests, are our ground to justify the implementation of public policies aiming to the substitution by agroforestry systems (AFS) as a sustainable food system. In this context, we propose linking AFS to Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+ strategies) in shifting cultivation landscapes where there is high local-scale expansion and intensification of SC. AFS has higher potential as sustainable food systems for degraded forest rehabilitation and reduction of the expansion and intensification of SC. Consequently, AFS reduce deforestation of new forest areas for SC, meanwhile, sustainable management of second-growth forests could also be implemented through improved fallows, increasing the planting density of long-cycle agroforestry tree species. AFS should be implemented in local communities, in particular, those undergoing human-modified Amazon landscapes, where there is a high intensification of SC.
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Local ecological knowledge is closely linked to decision-making process for planting tree. The aims of this study are to describe and explain local community’s decision-making process in the selection of shading trees on their lands according to their understanding and knowledge. This study used case study approach. Data was collected through in-depth interviews and observations. The results of the study showed that to manage traditional agroforestry, the community planted nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) as the main crop species and selected the covering trees, such as walnuts (Canarium sp.) and durian (Durio sp.). The reasons in selecting shading trees were as follows: the suitability of biophysical condition; supporting nutmeg growth; ease of maintenance and harvesting activities; parental inheritance; yield diversity; and ease of marketing activities. Learning from the study, the government and relevant stakeholders are expected touse local ecological knowledge to support the development of community forestry. Keywords: Local ecological knowledge; shading trees; agroforestry; dusung; nutmeg.
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Folk Classification, Perception, and Preferences of Baobab Products in West Africa: Consequences for Species Conservation and Improvement.The present study is a component of a baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) domestication research program being undertaken in Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Senegal. Surveys conducted on a total of 129 women and 281 men of different ages included questions on perceptions and human/cultural meaning of morphological variation, use forms, preferences (desirable/undesirable traits), and links between traits. Local people in the four countries use 21 criteria to differentiate baobab individuals in situ. According to them, the easier the bark harvesting, the tastier the pulp and leaves; the slimier the pulp, the less tasty it is; the more closely longitudinally marked the fruit capsules, the tastier the pulp. This study shows that farmers are able to use preferred combinations of traits as a guide in collecting germplasm from trees. This can allow the selection of trees that would be candidates for propagation, and planning for a domestication program based on the indigenous knowledge.
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This study evaluates the spatial genetic structure of baobab (Adansonia digitata) populations from West African agroforestry systems at different geographical scales using AFLP fingerprints. Eleven populations from four countries (Benin, Ghana, Burkina Faso, and Senegal) had comparable levels of genetic diversity, although the two populations in the extreme west (Senegal) had less diversity. Pairwise F(ST) ranged from 0.02 to 0.28 and increased with geographic distance, even at a regional scale. Gene pools detected by Bayesian clustering seem to be a byproduct of the isolation-by-distance pattern rather than representing actual discrete entities. The organization of genetic diversity appears to result essentially from spatially restricted gene flow, with some influences of human seed exchange. Despite the potential for relatively long-distance pollen and seed dispersal by bats within populations, statistically significant spatial genetic structuring within populations (SGS) was detected and gave a mean indirect estimate of neighborhood size of ca. 45. This study demonstrated that relatively high levels of genetic structuring are present in baobab at both large and within-population level, which was unexpected in regard to its dispersal by bats and the influence of human exchange of seeds. Implications of these results for the conservation of baobab populations are discussed.
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Introduction. Adansonia digitata L. is a multi-purpose species in Africa; it has a great morphological variability. Our work aimed at characterizing and measuring this morphological variability in various prospected climatic zones in Benin, then at building predictive models of production variables starting from capsule characters. Materials and methods. The analyses related to a biometric characterization of 1200 capsules grouped in four various forms distributed in the whole of three climatic zones; these data were supplemented by an evaluation and a modelling of the baobab productions. Results and discussion. The most discriminating variables of the baobab capsule form and of the prospected climatic zones were the capsule length, the pulp weight, the total capsule weight, the almond weight, the capsule thickness and the ratio [length / width]. On average, a capsule weighs 275 g in the Guinean zone, 273 g in the Sudan-Guinean zone and 204 g in the Sudanian zone; in each one of these zones, it produces 54 g, 51 g and 32 g of pulp, and approximately 37 g, 28 g and 23 g of almond. The average productions of seeds, almond and pulp were modeled and adjusted with square root functions and/or a logarithmic curve according to the various climatic zones. Conclusion. The morphometric variables made it possible not only to make a rather precise typology of the various capsule forms but also to estimate their production starting from predictive models. The variability of the baobab capsule production in various climatic zones could be a parameter useful for a genetic improvement of the species answering the needs and the means of the rural populations. Introduction. Adansonia digitata L. est une espèce à usages multiples en Afrique qui présente une forte variabilité morphologique. Nos travaux ont cherché à caractériser et à mesurer cette variabilité morphologique dans différentes zones climatiques prospectées au Bénin, puis à construire des modèles prédictifs de variables de production à partir de caractères de la capsule. Matériel et méthodes. Les analyses ont porté sur une caractérisation biométrique de 1200 capsules groupées en quatre différentes formes réparties dans l’ensemble de trois zones climatiques ; ces données ont été complétées par une évaluation et une modélisation de leurs productions. Résultats et discussion. Les variables les plus discriminantes de la forme des capsules de baobab et des zones climatiques prospectées ont été la longueur de la capsule, le poids de la pulpe, le poids total de la capsule, le poids de l’amande, l’épaisseur de la capsule et le rapport [longueur / largeur]. En moyenne, une capsule pèse 275 g en zone guinéenne, 273 g en zone soudano-guinéenne et 204 g en zone soudanienne ; elle produit dans chacune de ces zones 54 g, 51 g et 32 g de pulpe, ainsi que 37 g, 28 g et 23 g d’amande. Les productions moyennes en graines, amande et pulpe ont été modélisées et ajustées à des fonctions racine carrée et/ou logarithmique suivant les différentes zones climatiques. Conclusion. Les variables morphométriques ont permis non seulement de faire une typologie assez précise des différentes formes de capsules mais aussi d’estimer leur production à partir de modèles prédictifs. La variabilité de la production des capsules de baobab suivant différentes zones climatiques pourrait être un paramètre utile à une amélioration génétique de l’espèce répondant aux besoins et aux moyens des populations rurales.