Oral cleft prevention program (OCPP)

BMC Pediatrics (Impact Factor: 1.93). 11/2012; 12(1):184. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-12-184
Source: PubMed


Oral clefts are one of the most common birth defects with significant medical, psychosocial, and economic ramifications. Oral clefts have a complex etiology with genetic and environmental risk factors. There are suggestive results for decreased risks of cleft occurrence and recurrence with folic acid supplements taken at preconception and during pregnancy with a stronger evidence for higher than lower doses in preventing recurrence. Yet previous studies have suffered from considerable design limitations particularly non-randomization into treatment. There is also well-documented effectiveness for folic acid in preventing neural tube defect occurrence at 0.4 mg and recurrence with 4 mg. Given the substantial burden of clefting on the individual and the family and the supportive data for the effectiveness of folic acid supplementation as well as its low cost, a randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of high versus low dose folic acid for prevention of cleft recurrence is warranted.

This study will assess the effect of 4 mg and 0.4 mg doses of folic acid, taken on a daily basis during preconception and up to 3 months of pregnancy by women who are at risk of having a child with nonsyndromic cleft lip with/without palate (NSCL/P), on the recurrence of NSCL/P. The total sample will include about 6,000 women (that either have NSCL/P or that have at least one child with NSCL/P) randomly assigned to the 4 mg and the 0.4 mg folic acid study groups. The study will also compare the recurrence rates of NSCL/P in the total sample of subjects, as well as the two study groups (4 mg, 0.4 mg) to that of a historical control group. The study has been approved by IRBs (ethics committees) of all involved sites. Results will be disseminated through publications and presentations at scientific meetings.

The costs related to oral clefts are high, including long term psychological and socio-economic effects. This study provides an opportunity for huge savings in not only money but the overall quality of life. This may help establish more specific clinical guidelines for oral cleft prevention so that the intervention can be better tailored for at-risk women. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT00397917.

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Available from: Danilo Moretti-Ferreira
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To evaluate the effects of folic acid supplementation on isolated oral cleft recurrence and fetal growth. Patients and methods: The study included 2,508 women who were at-risk for oral cleft recurrence and randomized into two folic acid supplementation groups: 0.4 and 4 mg per day before pregnancy and throughout the first trimester. The infant outcome data were based on 234 live births. In addition to oral cleft recurrence, several secondary outcomes were compared between the two folic acid groups. Cleft recurrence rates were also compared to historic recurrence rates. Results: The oral cleft recurrence rates were 2.9% and 2.5% in the 0.4 and 4 mg groups, respectively. The recurrence rates in the two folic acid groups both separately and combined were significantly different from the 6.3% historic recurrence rate post the folic acid fortification program for this population (p = 0.0009 when combining the two folic acid groups). The rate of cleft lip with palate recurrence was 2.9% in the 0.4 mg group and 0.8% in the 4 mg group. There were no elevated fetal growth complications in the 4 mg group compared to the 0.4 mg group. Conclusions: The study is the first double-blinded randomized clinical trial (RCT) to study the effect of high dosage folic acid supplementation on isolated oral cleft recurrence. The recurrence rates were similar between the two folic acid groups. However, the results are suggestive of a decrease in oral cleft recurrence compared to the historic recurrence rate. A RCT is still needed to identify the effect of folic acid on oral cleft recurrence given these suggestive results and the supportive results from previous interventional and observational studies, and the study offers suggestions for such future studies. The results also suggest that high dosage folic acid does not compromise fetal growth.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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    Preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Jornal de pediatria
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The pathogenesis and prevention of cleft lip and palate (CL/P) have been studied mainly in clinical and animal experiments. A prophylactic poly-B-vitamin substitution during the first months of pregnancy has provided the most encouraging results for the prevention of CL/P recurrence in families at risk. In vitro studies of the palatal organ in an A/WySn mouse model have confirmed the positive influence of B-vitamins on palatal development. The present animal study was performed to analyze different B-vitamin concentrations in the serum and amniotic fluid of A/WySn mice according to the appearance of CL/P in their offspring. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Concentrations of different B-vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, and folic acid) in serum and amniotic fluid were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatographic detection. Immunohistochemical staining against thiamin-1 receptor was performed on histologic midface sections of A/WySn fetuses with (n = 12) and without (n = 14) CL/P. RESULTS: Vitamin B5 (P < .001) and folic acid (P < .004) concentrations in the amniotic fluid of dams with CL/P were significantly lower than in dams without CL/P. Serum concentrations of folic acid (P = .5) and B5 (P = .4) showed no difference between the 2 groups. Dams with CL/P had significantly lower thiamine concentrations in serum (P = .01) and amniotic fluid (P < .001). Histologic midface sections presented high thiamin-1 receptor expression in the palatal shelf of fetuses with CL/P. CONCLUSION: A decreased use or uptake of some B-vitamin subgroups (B1, B5, and folic acid) in amniotic fluid and serum (vitamin B1) was correlated to an increased cleft appearance in A/WySn mice. The high thiamin-1 receptor expression in the palatal tissue of mouse fetuses with CL/P may be caused by a decreased availability of vitamin B1.
    No preview · Article · May 2013 · Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery: official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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