Article

Effects of Microplastic on Fitness and PCB Bioaccumulation by the Lugworm Arenicola marina (L.)

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Abstract

It has been speculated that marine microplastics may cause negative effects on benthic marine organisms and increase bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Here, we provide the first controlled study of plastic effects on benthic organisms including transfer of POPs. The effects of polystyrene (PS) microplastic on survival, activity, and bodyweight as well as the transfer of 19 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were assessed in bioassays with Arenicola marina (L.). PS was pre-equilibrated in natively contaminated sediment. A positive relation was observed between microplastic concentration in the sediment and both uptake of plastic particles and weight loss by A. marina. Furthermore, a reduction in feeding activity was observed at a PS dose of 7.4% dry weight (DW). A low PS dose of 0.074% increased bioaccumulation of PCBs by a factor 1.1 - 3.6, an effect that was significant for ΣPCBs and several individual congeners. At higher doses, bioaccumulation decreased compared to the low dose, which however, was only significant for PCB105. PS has statistically significant effects on the organisms' fitness and bioaccumulation, but the magnitude of the effects was not high. This may be different for sites with different plastic concentrations, or plastics with a higher affinity for POPs.

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... This proportion is probably much lower in other species, including humans . Still, certain results from natural populations as well as experimental studies (Beaman et al., 2016;Besseling et al., 2013;Browne et al., 2013;Tanaka et al., 2015) imply some contribution of microplastics to the contamination of marine life. Plastic-mediated exposure could be minor where background pollution is high, e.g. in industrial areas, but be important in remote areas with low background pollution (Tanaka et al., 2016). ...
... Worms exposed to microplastics with PCBs accumulated more PCB in their tissues than worms exposed only to PCBs (Besseling et al., 2013), but microplastic ingestion contributes very little to the overall PCB bioaccumulation of worms (Besseling et al., 2017). However, it should be noted that these pollutants are transferred into food, sediment, and water by leaching from plastics, which may lead to a growing contamination of the environment (Section 5.3). ...
... out of 205 cod caught for human consumption in the Atlantic contained microplastics(1-5 mm), with seven particles found in total(Liboiron et al., 2016). 13% of 80 sampled North Sea cod contained microplastics, with all particles < 3 mm(Foekema et al., 2013).30% of 201 cod caught in the Baltic and North Seas had microplastics in their stomachs, with more offshore cod containing microplastics compared to coastal fish (Lenz et al., 2016). 3% of 302 indi-viduals caught in Norwegian waters had plastic particles in their stomachs (Bråte et al., 2016). ...
Technical Report
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A new report commissioned by WWF provides the most comprehensive account to date of the extent to which plastic pollution is affecting the global ocean, the impacts it’s having on marine species and ecosystems, and how these trends are likely to develop in future. The report by researchers from the Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) reveals a serious and rapidly worsening situation that demands immediate and concerted international action: ● Today almost every species group in the ocean has encountered plastic pollution, with scientists observing negative effects in almost 90% of assessed species. ● Not only has plastic pollution entered the marine food web, it is significantly affecting the productivity of some of the world’s most important marine ecosystems like coral reefs and mangroves. ● Several key global regions – including areas in the Mediterranean, the East China and Yellow Seas and Arctic sea ice – have already exceeded plastic pollution thresholds beyond which significant ecological risks can occur, and several more regions are expected to follow suit in the coming years. ● If all plastic pollution inputs stopped today, marine microplastic levels would still more than double by 2050 – and some scenarios project a 50-fold increase by 2100.
... Such studies received additional impetus when Arenicola marina (lugworm) upon ingestion of MPs adhered to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) showed a high bioaccumulation of contaminant mixture, decreasing survival rates up to 55%, lowering feeding rates up to 65%, and reducing resilience to fight oxidative stress up to 30% (Browne et al., 2013). Another study corroborated these findings that showed feeding and survival rates of lugworms decreased on ingestion of contaminated MPs (Besseling et al., 2013). It may be noted that lugworms serve as a critical food source for coastal animals such as fish, birds, and other worms (Besseling et al., 2013). ...
... Another study corroborated these findings that showed feeding and survival rates of lugworms decreased on ingestion of contaminated MPs (Besseling et al., 2013). It may be noted that lugworms serve as a critical food source for coastal animals such as fish, birds, and other worms (Besseling et al., 2013). In addition, lugworms increase oxygen, reduce methane levels, and help sand transportation across the beach environment (Timmermann et al., 2006;Volkenborn et al., 2007). ...
... In addition, occupational hazards to industrial workers are very high due to poor infrastructure and lack of safety conditions. (Besseling et al., 2013). Similarly, MPs were found not only to serve as a source of PBDEs but also to be a cause of enhanced bioaccumulation in abdominal J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f adipose tissue in seabirds (Tanaka et al., 2013). ...
Article
The high prevalence and persistence of microplastics (MPs) in pristine habitats along with their accumulation across environmental compartments globally, has become a matter of grave concern. The resilience conferred to MPs using the material engineering approaches for outperforming other materials has become key to the challenge that they now represent. The characteristics that make MPs hazardous are their micro to nano scale dimensions, surface varied wettability and often hydrophobicity leading to non-biodegradability. In addition, MPs exhibit a strong tendency to bind to other contaminants along with the ability to sustain extreme chemical conditions thus increasing their residence time in the environment. Adsorption of these co-contaminants leads to modification in toxicity varying from additive, synergistic, and sometimes antagonistic, having consequences on flora, fauna, and ultimately the end of the food chain, human health. The resulting environmental fate and associated risks of MPs, therefore greatly depend upon their complex interactions with the co-contaminants and the nature of the environment in which they reside. Net outcomes of such complex interactions vary with core characteristics of MPs, the properties of co-contaminants and the abiotic factors, and are required to be better understood to minimize the inherent risks. Toxicity assays addressing these concerns should be ecologically relevant, assessing the impacts at different levels of biological organization to develop an environmental perspective. This review analyzed and evaluated 171 studies to present research status on MP toxicity. This analysis supported the identification and development of research gaps and recommended priority areas of research, accounting for disproportionate risks faced by different countries. An ecological perspective is also developed on the environmental toxicity of contaminated MPs in the light of multi-variant stressors and directions are provided to conduct an ecologically relevant risk assessment. The presented analyses will also serve as a foundation for developing environmentally appropriate remediation methods and evaluation frameworks.
... Nevertheless, exposure studies have confirmed that a diverse array of marine organisms, across all trophic levels, can absorb or consume microplastics. These include phytoplankton (e.g., Davarpanah and Guilhermino, 2015;Zhang et al., 2017), protists (Christaki et al., 1998), copepods (Cole et al., 2013(Cole et al., , 2015Sun et al., 2017), annelids (Besseling et al., 2013;Wright et al., 2013;, echinoderms (Della Torre et al., 2014;Nobre et al., 2015;Martínez-Gómez et al., 2017), cnidaria (Corinaldesi et al., 2021), amphipods (Ugolini et al., 2013), decapods (Watts et al., 2014;Dawson et al., 2018), isopods (Hämer et al., 2014), molluscs (Avio et al., 2015a;Paul-Pont et al., 2016;Magni et al., 2018;Piarulli and Airoldi, 2020;Wang et al., 2020;Trestail et al., 2021), and fish (Mazurais et al., 2015;Peda et al., 2016;Jovanovic et al., 2018;Barboza et al., 2018). It should be noted, however, that in order to observe the ingestion of dosed MPs and obtain a good distribution of particles in tanks, the exposure concentrations and types of MPs (i.e., shapes, sizes, polymeric types, load and type of contaminant adsorbed, etc.) used in the majority of experiments were not those expected in the field, thus, the results should be treated with attention (Phuong et al., 2016). ...
... Besides, polychaeta worms, sea cucumbers, and sea urchins can excrete unwanted materials through their intestinal tract without suffering apparent harm (Graham and Thompson 2009;Kaposi et al., 2014). Contrarily, adverse effects of microplastic ingestion were reported for lugworms: weight loss, low feeding activity, and decrease in energy reserves were positively correlated with exposure to PS and PVC (Besseling et al., 2013;Wright et al., 2013). Adverse effects were reported also for the Mediterranean coral Astroides calycularis: its polyps seemed not able to discern between food items and microplastics when occurring simultaneously, so they are not fully able to profit from the drifting plankton aggregations, with a consequent impairment of the feeding efficiency and reduction of their fitness (Savinelli et al., 2020). ...
Chapter
Huge amounts of plastic debris, both macro and microscopic sizes, float in marine environment and, currently, plastic contamination is widely assumed as an emerging threat to marine ecosystems. To better elucidate its implications on marine habitats, marine food webs and human health, there is an urgent need to study and understand its distribution, behaviour and the way it interacts with biota. In addition, knowledge about the drivers affecting the bioavailability of plastics to organisms, as well as their potential toxicological and ecological effects, is still limited. While several field studies showed that Mediterranean Sea is strongly affected by plastic contaminants and resident organisms could ingest and interact with them on a daily basis, less information are available regarding toxicity in wild organisms. Furthermore, laboratory trials have shown that microplastics can cause mild but adverse effects due to physical and chemical impacts (i.e. physical disturbance and release of additives and/or chemicals adsorbed from the environment). Despite the concerns raised by this evidence, the effects of microplastic ingestion in natural populations and the impacts on food webs are far from being completely understood. This chapter summarizes the available knowledge for Mediterranean benthic species, from both field and laboratory studies, and provides an overview of the presence and impact of plastics and microplastics in the marine environment, addressing the issue from the organism to the community level. The lack of knowledge on the role of chemical and morphological features of particles in modulating ingestion/egestion rates, toxicological effects, capability to adsorb pollutants and/or release additives, as well as information on biological variables that may modulate ingestion phenomena, require special attention from researchers, to fully evaluate the ecological consequences of plastic pollution.
... Further, microplastics have been shown to cause a change in behavioral vigilance and predator avoidance in the Common periwinkle (Seuront, 2018). Ingested microplastics may also be transferred to the circulatory system (Browne et al., 2008), causing a reduction of feeding activity (Besseling et al., 2012), and an increased immune response (Avio et al., 2015). Ultimately, microplastics may act as vectors for transferring novel bacterial assemblages (Barnes, 2002;Gregory, 2009) and may contain adsorbed chemical pollutants (Carpenter and Smith, 1972;Hale et al., 2020). ...
... Though the documented effects on zooplankton are categorized as sublethal, the microplastics can prompt transgenerational mortality effects . Several studies have demonstrated contamination of microplastics in marine organisms with various feeding strategies such as marine invertebrates, fishes, mammals, and birds (Brillant and MacDonald, 2000;Besseling et al., 2012Besseling et al., , 2015Browne et al., 2013;Cole et al., 2013;Romeo et al., 2015;Carlin et al., 2020). Although it is not clear yet how microplastics might affect human health, evidence from aquatic organisms shows that microplastics cause negative effects on organism growth, metabolism, reproduction, and lead to weakened immune systems (Wright et al., 2013;Costa et al., 2015;Lu et al., 2016;Sussarellu et al., 2016). ...
... Floating plastics comprise of mastic pellets, docks, bulky nets, and boats that hover over the ocean surface carrying microbes (Carson et al. 2013), algal species, and other macro-organisms (fish and invertebrates) (Goldstein et al. 2014), to non-native areas (Barnes 2002) giving further basis to monitor and take measures to control plastic pollution in oceans . Some filter-feeding species like lungworms (Besseling et al. 2013;Wright et al. 2013b), mussels (von Moos et al. 2012;Avio et al. 2015;Van Cauwenberghe et al. 2015), zooplanktons (Besseling et al. 2014;Cole et al. 2015), and sea cucumbers (Graham and Thompson 2009) are also affected by microplastic accumulation that results in decreased feeding activity (Besseling et al. 2013), reserve depletion (Wright et al. 2013b), translocation of microplastic into the circulatory system (Browne et al. 2008;Avio et al. 2015), and inflammatory responses (von Moos et al. 2012;Avio et al. 2015). Plastic accumulation also results in decrease of survival rate, reproductive disturbance, and fecundity of some marine animals (Besseling et al. 2014;Cole et al. 2015). ...
... Floating plastics comprise of mastic pellets, docks, bulky nets, and boats that hover over the ocean surface carrying microbes (Carson et al. 2013), algal species, and other macro-organisms (fish and invertebrates) (Goldstein et al. 2014), to non-native areas (Barnes 2002) giving further basis to monitor and take measures to control plastic pollution in oceans . Some filter-feeding species like lungworms (Besseling et al. 2013;Wright et al. 2013b), mussels (von Moos et al. 2012;Avio et al. 2015;Van Cauwenberghe et al. 2015), zooplanktons (Besseling et al. 2014;Cole et al. 2015), and sea cucumbers (Graham and Thompson 2009) are also affected by microplastic accumulation that results in decreased feeding activity (Besseling et al. 2013), reserve depletion (Wright et al. 2013b), translocation of microplastic into the circulatory system (Browne et al. 2008;Avio et al. 2015), and inflammatory responses (von Moos et al. 2012;Avio et al. 2015). Plastic accumulation also results in decrease of survival rate, reproductive disturbance, and fecundity of some marine animals (Besseling et al. 2014;Cole et al. 2015). ...
... 24,26,[38][39][40][41] The vector effect is one of the major concerns in the field of plastic pollution, and is heavily debated in the research community. 26,[42][43][44] Transfer of HOCs from ingested plastics to biota has been investigated either with models accounting for a variety of exposure conditions using scenario analysis, [25][26][27]32,[45][46][47] in feeding experiments 38,41,[48][49][50][51] or in in vitro studies, [52][53][54] which mimic the organism's gastrointestinal (GI) system. While data from in vivo feeding experiments better represent the ultimate reality of nature and are essential for effects assessment, in vitro experiments provide significant advantages when determining chemical exchange rates between microplastics and gut fluid mimic. ...
... PCB 72 and 143 was used to account for method recovery and instrument fluctuations respectively. Extractions were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection following previously published procedures48,115 (Agilent 7890B equipped with an Agilent 7693 autosampler with two capillary fused silica columns: CP Sil 5 CB and CP-Sil 8 CB). The temperature at the injection port was 50°C, the column temperature was 50°C and temperature of the detector Chapter 2. Transfer of PCBs from microplastics was 300°C. ...
... On rocky shores, in addition to mussels, Fossi et al. (2018a) proposed to consider, as suitable indicators for microplastics, crabs from the genus Carcinus [the invasive C. maenas (L., 1758), and C. aestuarii Nardo, 1847 endemic to the Mediterranean], since it was proven in laboratory studies that these crabs, widely distributed along coastlines, are able to take up and retain microplastics (Watts et al., 2014). Possibly, the longworm Arenicola marina (L., 1758), a quantitatively important Mediterranean deposit feeder, can be considered as a proper indicator of microplastics in shallow waters sediments (Thompson et al., 2004;Besseling et al., 2013;Van Cauwenberghe et al., 2015). ...
Chapter
The Mediterranean Sea, one of the most important biodiversity hotspots, has been recently considered as one of the most affected areas by marine litter. Plastics are the prevailing type of debris, accounting for up to 95–100% of total floating material, and more than 50% of seabed litter. Over the past decades, biological indicators have emerged as particularly interesting and effective measurement systems. This chapter discusses the usefulness of the main marine organisms that interact with and/or are affected by marine debris. The high number of taxa impacted by different plastic materials underlines the magnitude of this threat to biodiversity, and highlights the urgent need to promote an effective monitoring and management through sink and source surveys, strong legislation and enforced policies on plastic dumping and reuse. The priority lines of future research on marine bioindicators of plastic pollution should be oriented to prepare a robust monitoring programme that relies on a multi-species approach.
... Egestion time and growth were also significantly less on exposure to polypropylene microplastic fibers on the freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca (Au et al. 2015). Polystyrene microplastics reduce the feeding activity at a PS dose of 7.4% dry weight in lungworm Arenicola marina (Besseling et al. 2013). The immediate effects of microplastics ingestion are gastrointestinal injury and obstructions thus reducing nutrition and food consumption ultimately leading to starvation and death (Da Costa et al. 2017). ...
Chapter
Microplastics (MPs), which are tiny plastic materials with size below 5 mm, are ubiquitous in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. They are an emerging pollutant posing potential threats to the biosphere. Once they get into the environment, microplastic wastes are difficult to eliminate and hence are continually accumulating in the environment resulting in pollution. Eventually, they end up in the food web, and due to their tiny size, they can easily enter bodies of the biosphere. They also can act as conduits for the proliferation of microbes and fungi. Undoubtedly, the MPs waste needs to be handled safely. Understanding the MPs cycle from the point of generation to disposal can help in the safe use of MPs and handling of MPs waste. This chapter, therefore, discusses the MPs cycle by focusing on the generation of MPs, characterisation of MPs and review of the current challenges associated with MPs waste. The current research trends in the area of MPs pollution will be reviewed together with recommendations on future mitigation measures.
... Moreover, selective binding between secretory molecules (e.g., infochemicals produced by fouling communities) and MPs may also increase the frequency of plastic ingestion by invertebrates (Procter et al., 2019) and vertebrates (Savoca et al., 2016). A variety of toxicological effects of MP ingestion by invertebrate species have been documented, including: tissue inflammation, neurotoxicity, energy depletion, reduced survival, growth, reproduction and immune function (Besseling et al., 2013;Avio et al., 2015;Cole et al., 2015;Sussarellu et al., 2015;Chapron et al., 2018;Hankins et al., 2018;Foley et al., 2018;Reichert et al., 2018;Tang et al., 2018;Ziajahromi et al., 2018;Rotjan et al., 2019;Piccardo et al., 2020;Cole et al., 2020;Xu et al., 2020). ...
Article
Microplastic (MP) pollution represents a distinctive mark of the Anthropocene. Despite the increasing efforts to determine the ecological impacts of MP on marine biodiversity, our understanding of their toxicological effects on invertebrate species is still limited. Despite their key functional roles, sponges (Phylum Porifera) are particularly understudied in MP research. These filter-feeders extract and retain particles from the water column, across a broad size range. In this study, we carried out a laboratory experiment to assess the uptake of MPs (polyethylene, PE) by the Mediterranean sponge Petrosia ficiformis, how MPs influence key biological process after different times of exposure (24h and 72h) and whether they can be subsequently eliminated. MP uptake increased with time of exposure, with 30.6% of the inoculated MP particles found in sponge samples after 72h. MPs impaired filtration and respiration rates and these effects were still evident 72h after sponges had been transferred in uncontaminated water. Our study shows that time of exposure represents a key factor in determining MP toxicity in sponges. In addition, our results suggest that sponges are able to incorporate foreign particles and may thus be a potential bioindicator for MP pollutants.
... The sorption of PCBs to Nano-PS was 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that of PE-MPs because of greater aromaticity and surface area/volume ratio of Nano-PS (Nano-PE was not available, but the relative effect of surface adsorption and volume distribution can still be deduced by comparing Nano-PS and PE-MPs) (Velzeboer et al. 2014). Previous study showed that low doses of PS (0.074%) increased biological accumulation of PCBs with the coefficient of 1.1-3.6, the influence of which was significant for ΣPCBs and a couple of separate homologs; however, at higher doses, biological accumulation reduced when compared with the low dose, but which only PCB105 was significant (Besseling et al. 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
As emerging pollutants, direct and indirect adverse impacts of micro(nano)plastics (MPs/NPs) are raising an increasing environmental concern in recent years due to their poor biodegradability and difficulty in recycling. MPs/NPs can act as carriers of bacteria, viruses, or pollutants (such as heavy metals and toxic organic compounds), and may potentially change the toxicity and bioavailability of pollutants. Ingested or attached MPs/NPs can also be transferred from low-trophic level organisms to high-nutrient organisms or even the human body through the food chain transfer process. This article reviews the emerging field of micro- and nanoplastics on organisms, including the separate toxicity and toxicity of compound after the adsorption of organic pollutants or heavy metals, as well as possible mechanism of toxicological effects and evaluate the nano- and microplastics potential adverse effects on human health. The inherent toxic effects MPs/NPs mainly include the following: physical injury, growth performance decrease and behavioral alteration, lipid metabolic disorder, induced gut microbiota dysbiosis and disruption of the gut’s epithelial permeability, neurotoxicity, damage of reproductive system and offspring, oxidative stress, immunotoxicity, etc. Additionally, MPs/NPs may release harmful plastic additives and toxic monomers such as bisphenol A, phthalates, and toluene diisocyanate. The vectors’ effect also points out the potential interaction of MPs/NPs with pollutants such as heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, perfluorinated compounds, pharmaceuticals, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Nevertheless, these potential consequences of MPs/NPs being vectors for contaminants are controversial.
... In our present study, the weight loss of earthworms occurred during the whole exposure period. Exposure to PE MPs alone had adverse effects on the weight of earthworms, with the highest weight loss by 10% PE (10%), which favors the previous conclusions (Besseling et al., 2013;Cao et al., 2017). After prolonged exposure (28 days), the weight loss induced by PE MPs became more significant, indicating a persistent inhibition of MPs. ...
Article
With the increasing release of microplastics (MPs) and nanoparticles (NPs) into the environment, there has been a growing concern about the co-occurrence of these emerging contaminants. However, little is known about the co-contamination effects of MPs and NPs on terrestrial organisms. For the first time, we studied the individual and combined effects of polyethylene (PE) MPs (0, 1%, and 10%, w/w) and ZnO NPs (0, 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) on earthworms (Eisenia fetida). Compared to the control, PE MPs or ZnO NPs alone increased the weight loss rate and mortality of earthworms, while the combined exposure of PE MPs and ZnO NPs resulted in higher weight loss rate at the 28th day and lower mortality compared to single application. ZnO NPs greatly increased soil available Zn content, with the highest increments by 1000 mg/kg ZnO NPsat the 28th day. Zn content in earthworms was not affected after 14 days of exposure to ZnO NPs, but showed an increasing trend with increasing ZnO NPs after 28 days of exposure. Co-occurring MPs did not affect soil available Zn content, but changed Zn accumulation in earthworms after 28 days of exposure. The highest Zn content (55.6 mg/kg) was observed in the earthworms under the co-exposure to 1% PE and 1000 mg/kg ZnO NPs. Single exposure to PE MPs or ZnO NPs caused oxidative stress and histopathological damage in the epidermis, intestinal tracts and seminal vesicles. However, co-exposure caused higher CAT and GST activity and MDA content, and more severe histopathological damage, indicating a combined toxicity between them. In conclusion, co-exposure to PE MPs and ZnO NPs caused higher Zn bioaccumulation and more pronounced toxicity response in earthworms, manifesting greater ecological risks. Our findings advance understanding the ecotoxicological risks of co-contamination of MPs and NPs to soil fauna.
... At a beads/bacteria ratio of approximately 1:1 in the sediments (SS, ISO), the reproduction was inhibited by 50%, irrespective of modifying food or PS bead abundance (Fig. 3), a phenomenon that was already found for water exposure . Also, for the marine lugworm Arenicola marina, feeding activity was inhibited by unplasticized polyvinylchloride (UPVC) and PS beads, however, at high concentrations (50 g UPVC/kg and 74 g PS beads/kg, respectively; Besseling et al., 2013;Wright et al., 2013), with negative impacts of UPVC beads on the energy reserves of A. marina already at 10 g UPVC beads/kg (Wright et al., 2013). ...
Article
Freshwater sediments represent a sink for microplastic (<5 mm) through various processes. Thus, benthic organisms can be exposed to relatively high concentrations of microplastics. Surprisingly, studies on benthic organisms are still underrepresented in the field of ecotoxicological effect assessment of microplastics. Therefore, we studied the effects of 1-μm polystyrene (PS) beads on the reproduction of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans using a standardized protocol for toxicity testing in freshwater sediments (96h; ISO 10872:2020), combined with ingestion experiments using fluorescent PS beads. To investigate the role of sediment properties (e.g., textures, organic contents) for ingestion and effects of PS beads, five different artificial and field-collected sediments were used. Body burdens of 1-μm PS beads in the intestinal tract of the nematodes after 96h differed between the sediments, however, differences were not significant over the whole course of the experiment. EC10 and EC50-values of 1-μm PS beads for C. elegans’ reproduction in the various sediments ranged from 0.9–2.0 and 4.8–11.3 mg PS/g dry sediment, respectively. The ECx-values showed to be considerably higher than values reported for water exposure (EC10/50: 0.2 and 0.6 mg PS/ml, respectively), which was probably due to higher food densities in sediment compared to water exposure. Based on the PS beads/bacteria ratio, ECx-values were comparable between sediment and water exposure, suggesting that also in sediments microplastic reduces the food availability for C. elegans causing lower reproduction. This indirect effect mechanism was confirmed by experiments with varying food densities. Thus, the nutritious conditions might play a crucial role for the overall ecological risk of microplastics in benthic ecosystems.
... Many studies have shown adverse effects of ingested micro-and nanoplastics on invertebrates including reduced feeding rates, energy reserves, fitness, and fecundity, as well as immune suppression (e.g. Besseling et al., 2013;Cole et al., 2013;Wright et al., 2013;Li et al., 2016;Auta et al., 2017). However, in experiments the load of microplastics often exceeds environmentally detected concentrations (Cunningham and Sigwart, 2019). ...
Article
Many invertebrate species inhabit coastal areas where loads of plastic debris and microplastics are high. In the current case study, we exemplarily illustrate the principal processes taking place in the Atlantic ditch shrimp, Palaemon varians, upon ingestion of microplastics. In the laboratory, shrimp readily ingested fluorescent polystyrene microbeads of 0.1–9.9 µm, which could be tracked within the widely translucent body. Ingested food items as well as micro-particles cumulate in the stomach where they are macerated and mixed with digestive enzymes. Inside the stomach, ingested particles are segregated by size by a complex fine-meshed filter system. Liquids and some of the smallest particles (0.1 µm) pass the filter and enter the midgut gland where resorption of nutrients as well as synthesis and release of digestive enzymes take place. Large particles and most of the small particles are egested with the feces through the hindgut. Small particles, which enter the midgut gland, may interact with the epithelial cells and induce oxidative stress, as indicated by elevated activities of superoxide dismutase and cellular markers of reactive oxygen species. The shrimp indiscriminately ingest microparticles but possess efficient mechanisms to protect their organs from overloading with microplastics and other indigestible particles. These include an efficient sorting mechanism within the stomach and the protection of the midgut gland by the pyloric filter. Formation of detrimental radical oxygen species is counteracted by the induction of enzymatic antioxidants.
... Certains de ces composés peuvent être libérés dans l'environnement et induire des effets toxiques (Lithner et al., 2009) comme le bisphénol A, les PCB, des pesticides chlorés (Teuten et al., 2009), les phtalates (Sajiki and Yonekubo, 2003) (Andrady and Rajapakse, 2019;Lithner et al., 2011Lithner et al., , 2009Meeker et al., 2009;Talsness et al., 2009). I.7 Effet « cheval de Troie » L'inquiétude de la communauté scientifique au sujet des nanoplastiques vient plutôt de leur potentiel à transporter des polluants à leur surface, plutôt que de leur nature intrinsèque (Koelmans et al., 2013). Ils sont qualifiés de « vecteurs de polluants » ou de « cheval de Troie » (Cole et al., 2011;Koelmans et al., 2016). ...
Thesis
La pollution mondiale des eaux de surface par les plastiques ne cesse de croitre et soulève des problèmes économiques et écologiques. D'après de récentes études, les macro-déchets plastiques marins se dégradent en microparticules puis en nanoparticules par des effets mécaniques et photochimiques. La fraction nanométrique des plastiques environnementaux est encore inconnue car cela reste un challenge analytique pour les caractériser à l'état d'ultra-trace. Ces particules sont potentiellement toxiques par leur composition, leur taille et leur forme, mais peuvent le devenir encore plus, par l'agrégation avec de la matière organique, ou bien par l'adsorption de métaux trace ou de polluants organiques à leur surface. Le comportement des nanoplastiques dans les eaux de transition comme les estuaires ou les mangroves est encore méconnu et peu étudié. Le but de cette thèse est de (i) caractériser le comportement physico-chimique de nanoparticules de plastiques modèles dans un gradient de salinité, avec une technique originale utilisant la microfluidique ; (ii) étudier l’impact écotoxicologique de ces nanoparticules sur des bivalves, avec un mode d’exposition représentatif des conditions d’exposition in situ.Des latex de polystyrène, ainsi que des nanoplastiques mécaniquement vieillis provenant soit de pellets de polystyrène, soit de macroplastiques prélevés sur des plages de Guadeloupe (polyéthylène, polypropylène), ont été soumis à un gradient de salinité dans des conditions dynamiques à l'intérieur de micro-puces. Les résultats ont été comparés à ceux des protocoles classiques qui consistent à disperser des nanosphères standards dans un milieu salin homogène en condition statique. Les tailles, concentrations, morphologies et stabilité de ces nanoparticules, ont été mesurées en fonction des conditions physico-chimiques du milieu.L'impact écotoxicologique des nanoplastiques modèles, dispersés via un gradient de salinité, a ensuite été étudié sur des huitres des palétuviers : Isognomon alatus. Les expositions ont été réalisées par voie directe à des concentrations environnementales. Différents marqueurs tels que la production de métallothionéines et l’expression précoce des gènes ont été utilisées pour évaluer la toxicité des nanoplastiques. Cette thèse a également permis le développement d’un des instruments les plus sensibles pour l'analyse de nanoparticules à l'état d'ultra-traces : la détection de plasmas induits par laser (LIBD). Ces travaux mettent en évidence l’impact des gradients de salinité sur le comportement des nanoplastiques et leur importance dans l’évaluation de la toxicité sur les bivalves lors de la transition eau douce-eau de mer.
... This difference may be associated with MPs exposure duration, short exposure time may increase animals' food intake, while long exposure time could reduce animal appetite. Plastic residues and MPs are difficult to be digested by animals, diluting and limiting the bioavailability of nutrients in food (Besseling et al., 2013), so animals have to intake more food to meet their physiological needs (Lwanga et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Plastic pollution is one of the global pressing environmental problems, threatening the health of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. However, the influence of plastic residues and microplastics (MPs) in soil ecosystems remains unclear. We conducted a global meta-analysis to quantify the effect of plastic residues and MPs on indicators of global soil ecosystem functioning (i.e. soil physicochemical properties, plant and soil animal health, abundance and diversity of soil microorganisms). Concentrations of plastic residues and MPs were 1–2,700 kg ha⁻¹ and 0.01–600,000 mg kg⁻¹, respectively, based on 6,223 observations. Results show that plastic residues and MPs can decrease soil wetting front vertical and horizontal movement, dissolved organic carbon, and total nitrogen content of soil by 14%, 10%, 9%, and 7%, respectively. Plant height and root biomass were decreased by 13% and 14% in the presence of plastic residues and MPs, while the body mass and reproduction rate of soil animals decreased by 5% and 11%, respectively. However, soil enzyme activity increased by 7%441% in the presence of plastic residues and MPs. For soil microorganisms, plastic residues and MPs can change the abundance of several bacteria phyla and families, but the effects vary between different bacteria.
... Egestion time and growth were also significantly less on exposure to polypropylene microplastic fibers on the freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca (Au et al. 2015). Polystyrene microplastics reduce the feeding activity at a PS dose of 7.4% dry weight in lungworm Arenicola marina (Besseling et al. 2013). The immediate effects of microplastics ingestion are gastrointestinal injury and obstructions thus reducing nutrition and food consumption ultimately leading to starvation and death (Da Costa et al. 2017). ...
Chapter
The quantity of plastic debris entering the ocean per annum is growing at an alarming rate . Synthetic plastic waste, both macro and microplastics enter the marine environment from fishing, coastal tourism, sea-food and other marine industries, and other plastic products. Plastic pollution has a drastic effect on all aquatic life. The conventional plastics which turn up in seas and oceans are recalcitrant to biodegradation and end up being around for decades and centuries. Marine biota is attracted to plastic due to its colour, odour and through the algae that develop films on floating plastics which is a significant source of food for marine animals. The most obvious and disturbing impact of pollution of the marine ecosystem with macro - plastics is the ingestion, suffocation and subsequent death of hundreds of marine species. Bioremediation is a useful strategy for the control of plastic pollution in water bodies. The microbes which live in the vicinity of plastic waste adapts and grows on the surface of plastic as biofilms. They produce catalytic enzymes which can degrade the plastic. However, the extent of biodegradation of the plastic will depend upon its structure and chemical properties. This chapter deals with the biodegradation of macro-plastic waste utilizing various microbes, and the challenges associated with the approach.
... As tiny as they are, plastics pose a problem for the environment since they are non-biodegradable and may find their way into marine food webs (Wright et al., 2013). Ingestion of microplastics, which may be mistaken for food and enter aquatic food webs, can occur by normal ventilation or swallowing them whole (Besseling et al., 2013;Setälä et al., 2014;Watts et al., 2014). Moreover, MPs may also cause indirect energy costs owing to their toxicity and tissue damage, and they may also be transmitted or enhanced via the food chain, presenting both ecological and human health hazards (Larue et al., 2021;Sokolova, 2021). ...
Article
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A microplastics (MPs) emergence study in pelagic and mesopelagic species was carried out to delineate coastal degradation and ecosystem status around the Karachi metropolis. Species of high commercial and ecological worth were sampled using a gillnet of 1.5 cm knot-to-knot mesh size in November and December 2021. In total twenty-six individuals including Liza subviridis (15), Thryssa dussumieri (3), Rastrelliger kanagurta (2), and Portunus sanguinolentus (6) were used to perceive MPs. A strong linearity between body length and MPs (R2 = 0.937, SE 0.071 and R2 = 0.928, SE 0.104) were calculated for L. subviridis and P. sangiuilatus, respectively. However, the data of T. dussummeiri and R. Kanagurta showed minimization failure. The MPs in GIT were extracted using direct observation under a sophisticated binuclear microscope and chemical digestion (KOH) together with wet peroxide oxidation (H2O2+FeSO4) methods. The MP materials were categorized as foam, film, fiber, fragment, and beads of three different sizes 170, 120, 100 μm in the stomach, intestine, and esophagus. Film-type MPs appeared frequently, whereas beads were rarely seen. It is hoped that this baseline research would help to minimize industrial release, recognize critical knowledge gaps, and demonstrate MP flux being released into the aquatic environment. The results will support mitigation of this emerging threat to the living resources around the Karachi coastal area.
... So far, there have been many investigations on the impacts of the contaminants held by plastic on organisms, e.g. in ammatory responses, reduced survival, behavioral modifications, weight loss in lugworm (Arenicola marina) were demonstrated as the results of the accumulation of nonylphenol, triclosan, phenanthrene, polybrominated diphenylethers-47, and polystyren in the gut Besseling et al., 2013). Polyethylene terephthalate was showed to cause endocrine disrupting effects and decreased reproductive output in mudsnails (Wagner and Oehlmann, 2009). ...
Chapter
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Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the major cause of global warming and involve�ment in climate change between 1750 and 2007. Concerns about carbon (C) overloading in the atmosphere have sparked international attention in agricul�tural soils’ ability to act as carbon sinks. In India and elsewhere, the effects of improved cropland management practices (when from traditional system to residue return, crop rotation and no-till) on soil C have been indecisive and inconsistent for various extents of management changes and soil depths. Searches of many databases suggest that these enhanced techniques can only store carbon at the soil’s surface (0–10 cm) for a short period of time. (CAB Abstracts, Agricola, Web of Science, Scopus, Natural Resources Index and Agriculture), and by investigating the all references which are cited to extract the published reports/data on the issue. This process has released a lot of carbon into the atmosphere, resulting in poor levels of soil organic carbon storage in agricultural soils, especially in the tropics. With future land use change expected to increase even more, adopting optimal land management techniques to croplands as a potential carbon sink option to store carbon permanently (a century or more) while also improving soil condition and therefore productivity is critical. Based up on the extensive study of published work, this chapter aimed to analyse the consequences of new and sustainable land management options on soil carbon and its sequestration which is considered as a novel strategy and soil stewardship practices to build soil-crop resilience and mitigate climate change impacts with potential to offset carbon dioxide emissions
... Single-use plastic goods like disposable face masks, according to a recent analysis [22], may create a number of problems in our environment. Inhibited photosynthesis [23]; weight loss [24]; decreased filtration [25]; influence on eating and digesting [3,26]; and even death [23]. Microplastic may represent a major hazard to bigger animals or even human health once it enters the food chain [27]. ...
... Egestion time and growth were also significantly less on exposure to polypropylene microplastic fibers on the freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca (Au et al. 2015). Polystyrene microplastics reduce the feeding activity at a PS dose of 7.4% dry weight in lungworm Arenicola marina (Besseling et al. 2013). The immediate effects of microplastics ingestion are gastrointestinal injury and obstructions thus reducing nutrition and food consumption ultimately leading to starvation and death (Da Costa et al. 2017). ...
Chapter
Asia is the largest global plastic consumer, with about 35% of the world’s plastic consumption. Considering that Malaysia is a part of Asia, it is evident that plastic use is extensive. Unfortunately, discarding plastic causes several environmental hazards and affects human wellbeing. The environmental authorities and the government have been organising campaigns that focus on propagating the reduce, recycling, and reuse concept among the Malaysian public. Nevertheless, after considering the extensive presence of microorganisms in the environment and their affinity towards degrading plastic, the use of such microorganisms and enzymes appears an efficacious approach. Environmental degradation of plastic typically happens through five processes: photodegradation, thermo-oxidative breakdown, hydrolytic degradation, mechanical degradation, and microbial degradation. Microbial degradation comprises plastic breakdown by microorganisms, which produce enzymes that can split long-chain polymers. Microbial enzymes are interesting since they are cost-effective and require minimal maintenance; at the same time, they are easy to manipulate. Rhizopus delemar, R. arrhizus, Pseudomonas sp., Penicillium funiculosum, and Aspergillus flavus are the five microbes that have been cited extensively regarding their ability to break down specific plastics. Moreover, fungal, bacterial, cyanobacteria, and actinomycetes capabilities for plastic degradation are among the environmentally friendly techniques that can help the environment. This chapter discussed how cyanobacteria could be used to break down plastics. The projected research outcome is the identification of potent microbial agents that can rapidly degrade plastics with minimal environmental impact. Keywords Biodegradation mechanism Cyanobacteria Plastics Phycoremediation
... Apart from the chemicals present from manufacture, microfibres, with their high surface-to-volume ratios, are able to adsorb a wide range of other substances present in surrounding waters, such as heavy metals, pharmaceuticals and other organic pollutants (Hou et al., 2021). This concentrates toxic compounds and raises the risk of enhanced bioavailability through ingestion (Besseling et al., 2013). ...
Technical Report
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This ETC/CE report provides the detailed analysis underpinning the EEA Briefing “Microplastics from textiles: towards a circular economy for textiles in Europe”. In recent years, concern about microplastic pollution in our seas, land and air has increased. While some microplastics are produced on purpose for dedicated applications, most result from weathering and degradation of plastic products. Among other sources, wearing and washing of synthetic textiles is regarded as a significant source of microplastics in the environment, responsible for the discharge of between 0.2 and 0.5 million tonnes of microplastics into the oceans each year. The aim of this report is to contribute to an improved understanding of microplastics release from textiles and their effects on the environment and human health. Next, the report explores potential approaches to reduce their release from textiles.
... Studies on MP ingestion often report varying results however, for example, an exposure trial of MPs in the marine Isopod, Idotea emarginata, showed no negative effects from ingestion of particles (Hämer et al., 2014). Similar findings were observed by Kaposi et al. (2014) on MP ingestion by the Sea Urchin, Tripneustes gratilla, whereas the lugworm (Arenicola marina) was observed to have significant weight loss (Besseling et al., 2013). Moreover, the pacific mole crab, Emerita analoga, a decapod crustacean, showed a higher level of mortality in crabs exposed to MPs than to the non-MP exposed control organisms (Horn et al., 2020). ...
Article
Microplastics (MPs) are an extensive global contaminant in the marine environment, known to be ingested by marine organisms. The presence of MPs in the commercially important marine decapod crustacean Nephrops norvegicus (Dublin Bay Prawn) has been documented for the North-East Atlantic and the Mediterranean, however, uncertainties remain about retention times of MPs in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of this species. This study aims to investigate the retention times of polyester MP fibres of three sizes (3, 5, and 10 mm in length) and to determine whether the egestion of MP fibres is size and time dependent. Results suggest that MP fibres of different lengths are retained for different periods of time, with larger MP fibres being retained for longer periods (e.g., minimum 96 h for 10 mm fibres). The present study also assesses for the first time, the size dependent relationship of MP fibres under controlled conditions for N. norvegicus.
... After entry of microplastics into the surface water, they may subjected to abiotic and biotic influences (Mato, et al., 2001). The organisms are exposed to physical stress and irritation due to uptake of microplastics and the stress level will depends on particle size and shape (Besseling, et al., 2013). The small angular particles are difficult to dislodge which creates blockage of gills and digestive tract of aquatic organism. ...
Chapter
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Healthcare waste includes the waste generated by healthcare facilities, medical laboratories and biomedical research facilities. Improper treatment of this waste stands severe risks of disease transmission to waste pickers, waste workers, health workers, patients, and the community in general through exposure to infectious agents. Poor management of the waste emits destructive and deleterious contaminants into society. The WHO has established guidelines for management of healthcare waste. These guidelines are assisting to manage the highly contagious healthcare waste resulting from the current pandemic. Proper healthcare waste management may add value by lower the spread of the COVID-19 virus and raising the recyclability of materials instead of sending them to landfill. Disinfecting and sorting out healthcare waste facilitate sustainable management and enable their utilization for valuable purposes. This review discusses the various healthcare solid waste management strategies and the possible solutions for overcoming these challenges. It also provides useful knowledge’s into healthcare solid waste management scenarios during the COVID-19 pandemic and a possible way forward.
... The light intensity used was higher than in some previous studies (ranging from 55 to 140 μmol photons m − 2 s − 1 ; Lagarde et al., 2016;Zhao et al., 2019) in order to accommodate the strong daylight conditions necessary for the growth of damselfly larvae collected from Dianchi lake. Besides, these light conditions have also been used in many previous studies quantifying plankton growth (e.g., Besseling et al., 2013;Pan et al., 2020). Ultrapure water from a water purifier (Shanghai LiDing Co. Ltd., Shanghai China) was used throughout the study for the configuration of the COMBO medium. ...
Article
The negative effects of microplastics on the normal growth of aquatic organisms have been well studied, but relatively little is known about their potential adverse effects on the function and stability of aquatic ecosystems. We investigated here the effects of polyethylene (PE) microplastics on several aspects of plankton ecosystems, including Daphnia magna behavior, the grazing rate of D. magna on Chlorella vulgaris cells, trophic-cascade effects in the C. vulgaris-D. magna-larval damselfly food chain, the life-history of D. magna, and the stability and persistence of the D. magna-larval damselfly system. PE microplastics decreased the D. magna grazing rate as a result of reductions in their heart rate and hopping frequency. In the trophic-cascade experiment, PE microplastics increased the foraging success of larval damselflies on grazers due to hopping inhibition in grazers, which ultimately strengthened the trophic-cascade effect on algal growth. Long-term exposure to PE microplastics reduced the stability and persistence of the grazer population via increased predation risk and reduced reproductive capacity for grazer species. This study provides evidence that microplastics can affect the trophic cascade strength and stability of plankton ecosystems via behavior-mediated indirect interactions, suggesting that microplastics have more extensive impacts on aquatic ecosystems than presently recognized. Enviromental implication The massive production and environmental releasing of microplastics have become ubiquitous in the global environment. The negative effects of microplastics on the normal growth of aquatic organisms have been well studied, but little is known about potential adverse effects on the function and stability of aquatic ecosystems. Here, we found that microplastics increased the positive impacts of larval damselflies on algal growth, and reduced the stability and persistence of plankton ecosystems via a behavior-mediated indirect interaction. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic study assessing the effects of microplastics on the community-level characteristics of a freshwater ecosystem. Synopsis PE microplastics affect trophic cascade strength and reduce the stability and persistence of plankton ecosystems via behavior-mediated indirect interactions.
... Le potentiel de toxicité varie avec les propriétés physiques, la composition chimique, la forme et la surface des MP, rendant la question complexe. De plus, leur devenir en cas d'ingestion chez l'homme est encore mal connu, bien que des études de toxicité sur divers modèles animaux aient été menées [VON MOOS et al., 2012 ;BESSELING et al., 2013]. Des effets négatifs ont été démontrés chez des modèles piscicoles tels qu'une hausse de la mortalité, des lésions tissulaires et une hausse du stress oxydatif. ...
... MPs' properties such as density, shape and size, as well as some external forces (seawater density, seabed topography and pressure, etc.) affect their spread. Studies on the transport and spreading of MPs in water [33] have indicated that the density of plastic particles is a very effective factor. The density of the plastics widely used today varies between 0.85-1.41 ...
Conference Paper
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Microplastics (MPs) are small in size and society has become increasingly reliant on plastics widely distributed in the aquatic environment and organism. Longterm exposure to MPs scientists that it will likelytoreach 33 billion tons by 2050. As a new type of pollutant, within organisms, but also act as mediators for chemicals or other contaminants in aquatic ecosystem, the ultimate exposure of MPs occur in human via aquatic organisms. This review environments. Co-exposure to MPs and chemical contaminants has been reported to increase reached 400 MT where 60 years ago its production was only 1.5 MT and it is believed by the Summarizationof the present global plastic situation, routes of MPs in the environment to toxicity in several organisms. As aquatic organisms are the important part of food web and aquatic organismsand human, eco-toxicological effect of MPs to aquatic organisms, results in ecotoxicity to the aquatic organismslike mortality, genotoxicity, neurotoxicity, interaction of MPs to other contaminants in the environment and their subsequent effects on sincecommercial production began in about 1950. Their versatility, stability, light weight, micro-plastics are an emerging scientific and social concern in the environment and are reproductive problems, oxidative stress, and so on. MPs not only deliver chemical substances and low production costs have fueled global demand.. In 2020, the total plastic production paperprovidesa critical perspective on published studies of MP ingestion byaquatic biota. aquatic organisms and finally the MPs pollution in Bangladeshare providedin this review paper.
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Equilibrium passive sampling has been applied in numerous abiotic environmental matrices. This approach was extended to biological material. In this work, a passive equilibrium sampling method for the measurement of HOCs in biota was developed as an innovative alternative because classical exhaustive extraction techniques are time-consuming and error-prone. The newly developed method is based on the well-proven SPME fiber method for sediment. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used as model lipophilic organic pollutants. Partition coefficients of PAHs and PCBs between the lugworm tissue and the PDMS sampling phase were determined. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated glass fibers were directly inserted in homogenized lugworm tissue and glass fibers were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The method application on lugworms from tidal sand flats near Wilhelmshaven showed that the mean body residue values of PCBs (4 μg g⁻¹) and PAHs (256 μg g⁻¹) were about five times higher for PCBs and more than 22 times higher for PAHs compared to literature data for the North Sea area. This high level of contamination might be a consequence of the oil processing refinery located in direct proximity to the sampling site. This novel approach of applying the SPME method to biota will make biological monitoring more effective and holistic, because seasonally and area-wide changes in all environmental compartments can be recorded quickly.
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Plastic trash dumped into water bodies degrade over time into small fragments. These plastic fragments, which come under the category of micro-plastics (MPs), are generally 0.05–5 mm in size, and due to their small size they are frequently consumed by aquatic organisms. As a result, widespread MPs infiltration is a global concern for the aquatic environment, posing a threat to existing life forms. MPs easily bind to other toxic chemicals or metals, acting as vector for such toxic substances and introducing them into life forms. Polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, and other polymers are emerging pollutants that are detrimental to all types of organisms. The main route for MPs into the aquatic ecosystems is through the flushing of urban wastewater. The current paper investigates the origin, environmental fate, and toxicity of MPs, shedding light on their sustainable remediation.
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Plastic debris are dispersed in the marine environment and are consequently available to many organisms of different trophic levels, including sediment-dwelling organisms such as polychaetae. Plastic degradation generates micro (MPs) and nanoplastics (NPs) and as well as releases bounded plastic additives, increasing the ecotoxicological risk for marine organisms. Therefore, this review summarizes current knowledge on the accumulation and effects of MPs and NPs and plastic additives in polychaetes, derived from laboratory and field evidences. Thirty-six papers (from January 2010 to September 2021) were selected and analysed: about 80% of the selected works were published since 2016, confirming the emerging role of this topic in environmental sciences. The majority of the analysed manuscripts (68%) were carried out in the laboratory under controlled conditions. These studies showed that polychaetes accumulate and are responsive to this contaminant class, displaying behavioural, physiological, biochemical and immunological alterations. The polychaetes Hesiste diversicolor and Arenicola marina were the most frequent used species to study MPs, NPs and plastic additive effects. The consideration of field studies revealed that MP accumulation was dependent on the plastic type present in the sediments and on the feeding strategy of the species. Since polychaetes are known to play an important role in coastal and estuarine food webs and exposure to MPs, NPs and plastic additives may impair their behavioural, physiological, biochemical and immunological responses. The estimated global increase of these contaminants in the marine environment could affect the health of these benthic organisms, with consequences at population and ecosystem levels.
Chapter
An increasing body of evidence exists on (micro)plastics in various environmental systems. Yet limited comprehensive reviews exist on the human health effects of (micro)plastics and their chemical additives, and the potential human exposure routes in low-income and developed countries. Here, evidence is examined to address three objectives: (1) to summarize the occurrence of (micro)plastics and their additives in environmental media relevant to human exposure, (2) to discuss the multiple human exposure pathways to (micro)plastics and chemical additives, and (3) to discuss potential and confirmed cases of human health risks of (micro)plastics and their additives. Evidence shows that (micro)plastics and their chemical additives occur in various environmental media including soils, aquatic systems, biota, human foods (e.g., fish, honey, table salt), and airborne particulates in occupational and non-occupational settings. This points to the potential transfer of (micro)plastics and chemical additives into the human food chain and the human body. Occupational and nonoccupational human exposure to (micro)plastics and chemical additives occurs through: (1) ingestion of contaminated foods and water, (2) inhalation of air-borne (micro)plastics, and (3) dermal or skin intake (contact exposure). (Micro)plastics pose multiple potential human health risks, including: (1) cell and DNA damage through oxidative stress, (2) inflammation, (3) lung/respiratory disorders, and (4) compromised immunity. Human health risks of chemical additives including endocrine disruptors are also documented. However, besides a few empirical studies, the bulk of the evidence remains largely inferential, and the reasons accounting for this are discussed. Future directions and perspectives on human health risks of MPs are summarized, including: (1) quantitative evidence linking human exposure risks to specific health outcomes, (2) human health risks in low-income countries, (3) human health risks arising from the interactions of (micro)plastics and chemical additives, and other human health stressors, and (4) long-term and inter-generational health risks.
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The aim of this study is to assess the importance of environmental pollution caused by microplastics and their high risks for the organisms living in water and soil ecosystems. Microplastics are one of the emerging contaminants which have been widely spread in soil and aquatic environments. In the last few years, many studies have been focused on their distribution and assessment of their adverse risk to the organisms living in both ecosystems. New methods for the identification of these small particles are also distinguished; however, these techniques are not adequate and sufficient for detection, toxicity, and impacts of their effects on biota. The evidence of large burden of microplastics in aquatic ecosystems has substantially increased. But we are at the beginning of understanding of the potential risk of these materials in soil, where it is still entirely unclear what the size of this problem is. Up to now, little information is present about the effects of these particles on soil organisms. Better understanding to the occurrence, spread, and negative influence of these particles in the ecosystems is needed.
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Plastics are a group of synthetic materials made of organic polymers and some additives with special characteristics. Plastics have become part of our daily life due to their many applications and uses. However, inappropriately managed plastic waste has raised concern regarding their ecotoxicological and human health risks in the long term. Due to the non-biodegradable nature of plastics, their waste may take several thousands of years to partially degrade in natural environments. Plastic fragments/particles can be very minute in size and are mistaken easily for prey or food by aquatic organisms (e.g., invertebrates, fishes). The surface properties of plastic particles, including large surface area, functional groups, surface topography, point zero charge, influence the sorption of various contaminants, including heavy metals, oil spills, PAHs, PCBs and DDT. Despite the fact that the number of studies on the biological effects of plastic particles on biota and humans has been increasing in recent years, studies on mixtures of plastics and other chemical contaminants in the aquatic environment are still limited. This review aims to gather information about the main characteristics of plastic particles that allow different types of contaminants to adsorb on their surfaces, the consequences of this adsorption, and the interactions of plastic particles with aquatic biota. Additionally, some missing links and potential solutions are presented to boost more research on this topic and achieve a holistic view on the effects of micro- and nanoplastics to biological systems in aquatic environments. It is urgent to implement measures to deal with plastic pollution that include improving waste management, monitoring key plastic particles, their hotspots, and developing their assessment techniques, using alternative products, determining concentrations of micro- and nanoplastics and the contaminants in freshwater and marine food-species consumed by humans, applying clean-up and remediation strategies, and biodegradation strategies.
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Microplastics (MPs) have become a major concern as it has emerged to become a trending pollutant, negatively affecting the aquatic environment. It has become a huge challenge, having the capacity to biomagnify and eventually affect human health, biodiversity, aquatic animals, and indeed the environment. This review provides in-depth knowledge of how MPs interact with different toxic organic chemicals, antibiotics, and heavy metals in the aquatic environment and its consequences. Membrane technologies like ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF), microfiltration (MF), and dynamic membranes can be highly effective techniques for the removal of MPs. Along with that, hybrid membrane techniques like advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), membrane fouling, electrochemical processes, and adsorption processes for superior efficiency can be incorporated. The review also focuses on the reactor design and performance of several membrane-based filters and bioreactors, to develop effective, feasible, and sustainable membrane technologies. The main aim of this work is to throw light on the alarming scenario of microplastic pollution in the aquatic milieu and strategies that can be adopted to tackle it.
Chapter
Over recent years, awareness of the ecological consequences of marine plastic debris has increased considerably. This chapter focuses on the ingestion of plastics. It defines harm within the ecotoxicological context of impacts on organisms and ecosystems. Owing to the small size of microplastics and their near ubiquitous presence throughout the marine environment, concern for marine life arises from their ingestion. The result of the microplastic exposure can lead to effects at different levels of biological functioning, including those on the individual, at site‐specific target organs, on certain cell types, and even subcellular effects. To date, few studies have quantified the effects of microplastic pollution on ecosystem functioning. During production, chemicals are added to plastics to alter or improve their desired properties, such as plasticizers, flame‐retardants, antimicrobial agents, or UV inhibitors. These additive chemicals can subsequently leach from the plastic into the environment or, if ingested, into organisms.
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Microplastics (MPs) tend to accumulate in marine sediments thus benthic fauna is particularly vulnerable to microplastic pollution. Hediste diversicolor is a widespread species in coastal marine sediments. It plays key ecological functions mostly related to bioturbation process which means sediment reworking due to the worm burrowing activity and building a network of galleries. Herein, we show that commercial plastic microspheres of two sizes (63–75 and 300–355 μm) have the potential to cause neurotoxicity in H. diversicolor. The whole-body acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity – a common indicator of neurotoxic effect - was on average 60% lower in polychaetes exposed for 28 days to MPs served at environmentally relevant concentrations (0.08% sediment d. wt.), than in unexposed ones. Significantly reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GST) indicated suppression of the cellular antioxidative system in worms exposed to MPs. No changes were, however, observed in tGSH, lipid or protein oxidation measures (CBO, MDA), and in the energetic value of these polychaetes. The response was generally similar with no regard to MPs size. Only very few microspheres were found in polychaetes exposed to MPs spiked sediment. The potential role of MPs-associated pollutants as a factor responsible for observed biochemical effects, is discussed.
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As emerging contaminants, microplastics (MPs) have attracted global attention. They are a potential risk to organisms, ecosystems and human health. MPs are characterized by small particle sizes, weak photodegradability, and are good environmental carriers. They can physically adsorb or chemically react with organic, inorganic and bio-pollutants to generate complex binary pollutants or change the environmental behaviors of these pollutants. We systematically reviewed the following aspects of MPs: (i) Adsorption of heavy metals and organic pollutants by MPs and the key environmental factors affecting adsorption behaviors; (ii) Enrichment and release of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) on MPs and the effects of MPs on ARG migration in the environment; (iii) Formation of “plastisphere” and interactions between MPs and microorganisms; (iv) Ecotoxicological effects of MPs and their co-exposures with other pollutants. Finally, scientific knowledge gaps and future research areas on MPs are summarized, including standardization of study methodologies, ecological effects and human health risks of MPs and their combination with other pollutants.
Chapter
Plastics are materials composed of polymers, defined as repeating chains of molecules that can be easily processed and shaped. Common plastics are obtained from fossil fuels, such as crude oil and natural gas, and are nowadays the main materials of most consumer goods. The many uses of plastics prompted an ever-increasing production that is now abundantly beyond 300 million tons per year. This massive production made plastics ubiquitous in the environment, especially in marine ecosystems that act as the final sink for most land-based plastic litter. Marine plastic pollution is made even worse by microplastics, whose harmful impact affects the geochemistry, biology, and ecology of all oceans and seas. The effects of marine plastic litter are recognized as a global issue, and important signals to fight this phenomenon come from the main stakeholders such as scientific community with intense research, policy-makers with measures to support a circular plastics economy, the third sector trying to improve their green image, as well as ordinary citizens more and more aware of the sea conditions.
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The ubiquity and detrimental effects of plastics in the environment have become global environmental concerns over the past decade. Intensive anthropogenic activities, such as urbanisation, industrialisation and increasing population density, have resulted in increased plastic pollution in the environment. Recently, nanoplastics have received increased research attention and concern because of their potential adverse effects on marine organisms. However, the potential ecological issues associated with nanoplastics are not yet fully understood because of the insufficient and limited research conducted to date on baseline data, exposure and associated risks for marine organisms. This review highlights an understanding of the nature and characteristics of nanoplastics, as well as the occurrence of nanoplastics in the marine environment. In the future, the effects of nanoplastics on marine organisms may directly or indirectly influence human health. Thus, this review also highlights the effects of nanoplastics on marine organisms. An overview and insights into the occurrence of nanoplastics in marine environments and their potential effects on marine organisms will facilitate the preventative interventions and measures of nanoplastics pollution in the marine environment.
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Plastic debris causes extensive damage to the marine environment, largely due to its ability to resist degradation. Attachment on plastic surfaces is a key initiation process for their degradation. The tendency of environmental marine bacteria to adhere to poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) plastic surfaces as a model material was investigated. It was found that the overall number of heterotrophic bacteria in a sample of sea water taken from St. Kilda Beach, Melbourne, Australia, was significantly reduced after six months from 4.2-4.7×10(3) cfu mL(-1) to below detectable levels on both full-strength and oligotrophic marine agar plates. The extinction of oligotrophs after six months was detected in all samples. In contrast, the overall bacterial number recovered on full strength marine agar from the sample flasks with PET did not dramatically reduce. Heterotrophic bacteria recovered on full-strength marine agar plates six months after the commencement of the experiment were found to have suitable metabolic activity to survive in sea water while attaching to the PET plastic surface followed by the commencement of biofilm formation.
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Assessing the hazard posed by sediments contaminated with hydrophobic organic compounds is difficult, because measuring the freely dissolved porewater concentrations of such low-solubility chemicals can be challenging, and estimating their sediment-water partition coefficients remains quite uncertain. We suggest that more accurate site assessments can be achieved by employing sampling devices in which polymers, with known polymer-water partition coefficients, are used to absorb the contaminants from the sediment. To demonstrate the current accuracy and limitations of this approach, we compared use of three polymers, polydimethylsiloxane, polyoxymethylene, and polyethylene, exposed to a single sediment in two modes, one in which they were exhaustively mixed (tumbled) with the sediment and the other in which they were simply inserted into a static bed (passive). Comparing porewater concentrations of specific polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners with results obtained using air bridges, we found the results for tumbled polymers agreed within 20%, and the passive sampling agreed within a factor of 2. In contrast, porewater estimates based on sediment concentrations normalized to f(OC)K(OC), the weight fraction of organic carbon times the organic-carbon normalized partition coefficient, averaged a factor of 7 too high. We also found good correlations of each polymer's uptake of the PCBs with bioaccumulation by the polychaete, Neanthes arenaceodentata. Future improvements of the passive sampling mode will require devices that equilibrate faster and/or have some means such as performance reference compounds to estimate mass transfer limitations for individual deployments.
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One of the most ubiquitous and long-lasting recent changes to the surface of our planet is the accumulation and fragmentation of plastics. Within just a few decades since mass production of plastic products commenced in the 1950s, plastic debris has accumulated in terrestrial environments, in the open ocean, on shorelines of even the most remote islands and in the deep sea. Annual clean-up operations, costing millions of pounds sterling, are now organized in many countries and on every continent. Here we document global plastics production and the accumulation of plastic waste. While plastics typically constitute approximately 10 per cent of discarded waste, they represent a much greater proportion of the debris accumulating on shorelines. Mega- and macro-plastics have accumulated in the highest densities in the Northern Hemisphere, adjacent to urban centres, in enclosed seas and at water convergences (fronts). We report lower densities on remote island shores, on the continental shelf seabed and the lowest densities (but still a documented presence) in the deep sea and Southern Ocean. The longevity of plastic is estimated to be hundreds to thousands of years, but is likely to be far longer in deep sea and non-surface polar environments. Plastic debris poses considerable threat by choking and starving wildlife, distributing non-native and potentially harmful organisms, absorbing toxic chemicals and degrading to micro-plastics that may subsequently be ingested. Well-established annual surveys on coasts and at sea have shown that trends in mega- and macro-plastic accumulation rates are no longer uniformly increasing: rather stable, increasing and decreasing trends have all been reported. The average size of plastic particles in the environment seems to be decreasing, and the abundance and global distribution of micro-plastic fragments have increased over the last few decades. However, the environmental consequences of such microscopic debris are still poorly understood.
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The Procellariiformes are the birds most affected by plastic pollution. Plastic fragments and pellets were the most frequent items found in the digestive tract of eight species of Procellariiformes incidentally caught by longline fisheries as well as beached birds in Southern Brazil. Plastic objects were found in 62% of the petrels and 12% of the albatrosses. The Great shearwater, Manx shearwater, Cory's shearwater and Antarctic fulmar were found to have greater quantities and frequencies of occurrence of plastic. There was no significant difference in the number of plastics between the birds from longline fisheries and beached birds. No correlation was found between the number of prey and number of plastics in the digestive tract of the birds analyzed, but this does not discard the hypothesis that, in some cases, the presence of plastic in the digestive tract has a negative effect on the feeding efficiency of these birds.
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Plastics debris is accumulating in the environment and is fragmenting into smaller pieces; as it does, the potential for ingestion by animals increases. The consequences of macroplastic debris for wildlife are well documented, however the impacts of microplastic (< 1 mm) are poorly understood. The mussel, Mytilus edulis, was used to investigate ingestion, translocation, and accumulation of this debris. Initial experiments showed that upon ingestion, microplastic accumulated in the gut. Mussels were subsequently exposed to treatments containing seawater and microplastic (3.0 or 9.6 microm). After transfer to clean conditions, microplastic was tracked in the hemolymph. Particles translocated from the gut to the circulatory system within 3 days and persisted for over 48 days. Abundance of microplastic was greatest after 12 days and declined thereafter. Smaller particles were more abundant than larger particles and our data indicate as plastic fragments into smaller particles, the potential for accumulation in the tissues of an organism increases. The short-term pulse exposure used here did not result in significant biological effects. However, plastics are exceedingly durable and so further work using a wider range of organisms, polymers, and periods of exposure will be required to establish the biological consequences of this debris.
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Millions of metric tons of plastic are produced annually. Countless large items of plastic debris are accumulating in marine habitats worldwide and may persist for centuries ([ 1 ][1]–[ 4 ][2]). Here we show that microscopic plastic fragments and fibers ([Fig. 1A][3]) are also widespread in the
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Thermoplastic resin pellets are melted and formed into an enormous number of inexpensive consumer goods, many of which are discarded after a relatively short period of use, dropped haphazardly onto watersheds and then make their way to the ocean where some get ingested by marine life. In 2003 and 2004 pre-production thermoplastic resin pellets and post-consumer plastic fragments were collected and analyzed for contamination for persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Samples were taken from the North Pacific Gyre, and selected sites in California, Hawaii, and from Guadalupe Island, Mexico. The total concentration of PCBs ranged from 27 to 980 ng/g; DDTs from 22 to 7100 ng/g and PAHs from 39 to 1200 ng/g, and aliphatic hydrocarbons from 1.1 to 8600 microg/g. Analytical methods were developed to extract, concentrate and identify POPs that may have accumulated on plastic fragments and plastic pellets. The results of this study confirm that plastic debris is a trap for POPs.
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The purpose of this study was to provide data to be used in The Netherlands for development of ecotoxicologically based quality criteria for oil-contaminated sediments and dredged material. In addition, the relation of toxicity to specific oil boiling-point fraction ranges was explored. Natural marine sediment, with a moisture, organic carbon, and silt content of approximately 80, 1.8, and 33% of the dry weight, respectively, was artificially spiked using a spiking method developed in this project. Aliquots of one part of the sediment were spiked to several concentrations of Gulf distillate marine grade A (DMA) gasoil (containing 64% C10-19) and aliquots of the other part to several concentrations of Gulf high viscosity grade 46(HV 46) hydraulic oil (containing 99.2% C19-40). Thus, for each individual oil type, a concentration series was created. Vibrio fischeri (endpoint: bioluminescence inhibition), Corophium volutator (endpoint: mortality), and Echinocardium cordatum (endpoint: mortality) were exposed to these spiked sediments for 10 min, 10 d and 14 d, respectively. Based on the test results, the effective concentration on 50% of the test animals was statistically estimated. For DMA gasoil and HV46 hydraulic oil, respectively, the effective concentrations were 43.7 and 2,682 mg/kg dry weight for V. fischeri, 100 and 9,138 mg/kg dry weight for C. voluntator, 190, and 1064 dry weight for E. cordatum. This study shows that the toxicity is strongly correlated with the lower boiling-point fractions and especially to those within the C10-C19 range.
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Sediment-quality guidelines (SQGs) have been published for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using both empirical and theoretical approaches. Empirically based guidelines have been developed using the screening-level concentration, effects range, effects level, and apparent effects threshold approaches. Theoretically based guidelines have been developed using the equilibrium-partitioning approach. Empirically-based guidelines were classified into three general categories, in accordance with their original narrative intents, and used to develop three consensus-based sediment effect concentrations (SECs) for total PCBs (tPCBs), including a threshold effect concentration, a midrange effect concentration, and an extreme effect concentration. Consensus-based SECs were derived because they estimate the central tendency of the published SQGs and, thus, reconcile the guidance values that have been derived using various approaches. Initially, consensus-based SECs for tPCBs were developed separately for freshwater sediments and for marine and estuarine sediments. Because the respective SECs were statistically similar, the underlying SQGs were subsequently merged and used to formulate more generally applicable SECs. The three consensus-based SECs were then evaluated for reliability using matching sediment chemistry and toxicity data from field studies, dose-response data from spiked-sediment toxicity tests, and SQGs derived from the equilibrium-partitioning approach. The results of this evaluation demonstrated that the consensus-based SECs can accurately predict both the presence and absence of toxicity in field- collected sediments. Importantly, the incidence of toxicity increases incrementally with increasing concentrations of tPCBs. Moreover, the consensus-based SECs are comparable to the chronic toxicity thresholds that have been estimated from dose-response data and equilibrium-partitioning models. Therefore, consensus-based SECs provide a unifying synthesis of existing SQGs, reflect causal rather than correlative effects, and accurately predict sediment toxicity in PCB-contaminated sediments.
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During a 4 month period in 1975, faeces production, growth, biomass, maturation and mortality were studied in juvenile lugworms, Arenicola marina, reared in the laboratory at 5 experimental temperatures under restricted and subsidized feeding conditions. Faeces production and hence food uptake is dependent on the food content of the sediment. In poor sediments a smaller and less frequent faeces production was measured. Therefore, the estimate of the size of lugworm populations by counting cast numbers is subject to a considerable bias. With favourable food conditions even in dense worm populations a rapid and almost linear length growth from 11 to about 80 mm and an increase in weight from 3.5 to about 200 mg (ash-free dry weight) was measured. The growth resulted in biomass values as high as 200 g (ADW) ·m-2 or more, values never found in the Wadden Sea. Restricted feeding conditions caused stagnancy of growth and increased mortality. Retarded growth, as observed in natural populations of O-group worms on the extensive mud flats as well as on special "nursery" flats is attributed to an insufficient food supply on these flats, though these are characterized by a high input of primary organic matter, locally produced as well as imported from the adjacent North Sea. Over a wide range (5° to 20° C), the influence of temperature on growth was found to be relatively small. At 25° C, however, growth was retarded.
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Domestic chickens Gallus domesticus were fed polyethylene pellets to test whether ingested plastic impairs feeding activity. When food was temporally limited, plastic-loaded birds ate less than control birds, apparently as a result of reduced gizzard volume. When given food ad libitum, plastic-loaded birds also ate less and grew slower than did control birds. It is concluded that ingested plastic reduces meal size and thus food consumption when plastic reduces the storage volume of the stomach. This reduced food consumption may limit the ability of seabirds with large plastic loads to lay down fat deposits, and thus reduce fitness.
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The incidence of plastic in seabirds was studied (number of individuals of a species containing plastic per number inspected, and number of particles per individual), in 1574 individuals representing 36 species of seabirds collected in the tropical Pacific, mostly between 110 and 150 ° W longitude, from 1984 to 1991. Incidence of plastic was lower in resident species compared to those which bred to the south or north but wintered in the region, and especially when compared to species that crossed the tropics in migration between the South and North Pacific. Seasonal and age-related patterns in incidence of plastic, number of particles, and particle type (pellets versus user-plastic) among a group of five Procellariiform species (each with >5% of the individuals containing plastic and for which samples were >20 birds) indicated that degradation for an individual particle in the gizzard required less than one year, and that little plastic was regurgitated by parents to chicks. Two patterns emerged from this data regarding body weight: (i) heavier birds (for a given species, age-class, season and year) were more likely to contain at least some plastic, from which we hypothesize that birds in better physical condition fed more often in areas where higher densities of plastic and food are found, such as fronts and convergences; and (ii) among individuals who contained plastic (grouped by species), there was a significant negative correlation between number of plastic particles and body weight. This is the first solid evidence for a negative relationship between plastic ingestion and physical condition in seabirds. The likelihood that higher quality individuals are more prone to ingestplastic has serious implications regarding health of some seabird populations.
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Macrofauna benthos has been sampled frequently during 6 years at 3 intertidal stations on a tidal flat area in the westernmost part of the Wadden Sea. Biomass, expressed as ash-free dry weight, fluctuated with a regular annual pattern. Maximal amounts were observed every year at each station during the July–September periods, minimal amounts during the December–March periods. The steep increases during spring were for the greater part due to fast growth of animals already present in winter. Spat fall generally contributed only a minor part to the annual biomass increases. The declines during autumn were attributable both to decreases in numbers and to individual weight losses. The latter dominated in the big and deep-living specimen of 2 species (Mya arenaria and Arenicola marina) which comprised about half of the total biomass of the benthos.Among the predators feeding on the benthos at the tidal flats, fish, just as the shell-fish, are most numerous during summer, but monthly numbers of birds are unrelated to seasonal changes in availability of food.
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lying in close contact with the skull between the otic process of the quadrate and the orbital ridge. A diagram of the arterial RMO for six species of Hawaiian seabirds is presented in Fig. 1. The RMO is composed of an arterial rete supplied by the external ophthalmic branch of the common carotid and a medial venous rete composed of branches of ophthalmic veins supplying venous blood to the cavernous sinus. The external ophthalmic artery crosses the middle ear in a canal dorsomedial to the oval window and emerges to subdivide into four rami: temporal, supraorbital, ophthalmic, and infraorbital. All rami and the inferior alveolar artery contribute vessels to the arterial component of the RMO. The common carotid arterial supply to the RMO is derived from a unique intercarotid anastomosis characteristic of avian species (Baumel and Gerchman 1968). Two of the three principal patterns de- scribed by Baumel and Gerchman were observed (Table 1). The functional differences in the patterns of intercarotid anastomosis are not clear, but they may reflect differences in the amount of blood available for circulation to the RMO. Birds do not possess a cerebral arterial circle of Willis comparable to mammals, but the intercarotid anastomosis may serve as an effective substitute with the potential for shunting blood from one side to the other. The existence of common morphologies for the RMO of these Hawaiian seabirds suggests that counter- current heat exchange is the common underlying mechanism for cooling the brain, as it is in most arian species. The advantages of tolerating an increase in body temperature while maintaining brain temper- ature below body temperature enhances a bird's tolerance of environmental heat stress. These advan- tages have been stated previously (Kilgore et al. 1976). In addition, the advantage of protecting brain tissue from thermal extremes during heat-stress associated with flight (Bernstein et al. 1979b) must be considerable for pelagic, migratory species. Based on morphology alone, the effectiveness of heat exchange
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The thermal stability and degradation behavior of polyethylene (PE) particles having a diameter varies from few nanometers to micrometers were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The PE particles of average diameter ∼20, ∼10, ∼1 μm and <500 nm were studied over a range of temperatures from 25 to 600 °C in N2 atmosphere and heating rates of 5, 10 and 15 °C min−1. The three single heating-rate techniques such as Friedman, Freeman–Carroll, and second Kissinger; and three multiple heating-rate techniques such as the first Kissinger, Kim–Park and Flynn–Wall were used to work out the kinetic parameters of the degradation reactions, e.g., activation energy (Ea), order of reaction (n) and frequency factor [ln(Z)]. The lifetime of macro, micro and nanosized PE particles were also estimated by a method proposed by Toop. It was found that the activation energy and lifetime of nanosized PE nanoparticles were moderately high compared to the micron sized PE particles. Moreover, the decomposition temperature, order of reaction (n), frequency factor [ln(Z)] do not only depend on heating rates and calculation techniques, but also on particle size of the PE. The results obtained from the kinetic and lifetime studies for nano and micro sized particles were compared with macro sized PE.
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Pollutants in aged field sediments seem to differ from spiked sediments in their chemical and biological availability. Biphasic desorption is often used as an explanation. In the present study, desorption kinetics and partitioning of chlorobenzenes (CBs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in long term field contaminated sediment cores and top layer sediment were measured by gas-purging. Desorption from sediment was deduced to be triphasic:  fast, slowly, and very slowly desorbing fractions were distinguished. In both the sediment core and the top layer sediment no detectable fast fractions were present for all the compounds studied, so these were estimated as upper limits from the desorption curves. This observation coincided with very high in situ distribution coefficients for several PCBs and PAHs:  10−1000 times higher than literature values for short contact time experiments. Rate constants were (3−8) × 10-3 h-1 for slow desorption and (0.16−0.5) × 10-3 h-1 for very slow desorption. In some cases only a very slowly desorbing fraction was detectable. Desorption from field contaminated sediments with extended contact times may not be readily estimated from laboratory experiments in which contaminants have contact times with the sediment in the order of weeks.
In the regulatory context, bioaccumulation assessment is often hampered by substantial data uncertainty as well as by the poorly understood differences often observed between results from laboratory and field bioaccumulation studies. Bioaccumulation is a complex, multifaceted process, which calls for accurate error analysis. Yet, attempts to quantify and compare propagation of error in bioaccumulation metrics across species and chemicals are rare. Here, we quantitatively assessed the combined influence of physicochemical, physiological, ecological, and environmental parameters known to affect bioaccumulation for 4 species and 2 chemicals, to assess whether uncertainty in these factors can explain the observed differences among laboratory and field studies. The organisms evaluated in simulations including mayfly larvae, deposit-feeding polychaetes, yellow perch, and little owl represented a range of ecological conditions and biotransformation capacity. The chemicals, pyrene and the polychlorinated biphenyl congener PCB-153, represented medium and highly hydrophobic chemicals with different susceptibilities to biotransformation. An existing state of the art probabilistic bioaccumulation model was improved by accounting for bioavailability and absorption efficiency limitations, due to the presence of black carbon in sediment, and was used for probabilistic modeling of variability and propagation of error. Results showed that at lower trophic levels (mayfly and polychaete), variability in bioaccumulation was mainly driven by sediment exposure, sediment composition and chemical partitioning to sediment components, which was in turn dominated by the influence of black carbon. At higher trophic levels (yellow perch and the little owl), food web structure (i.e., diet composition and abundance) and chemical concentration in the diet became more important particularly for the most persistent compound, PCB-153. These results suggest that variation in bioaccumulation assessment is reduced most by improved identification of food sources as well as by accounting for the chemical bioavailability in food components. Improvements in the accuracy of aqueous exposure appear to be less relevant when applied to moderate to highly hydrophobic compounds, because this route contributes only marginally to total uptake. The determination of chemical bioavailability and the increase in understanding and qualifying the role of sediment components (black carbon, labile organic matter, and the like) on chemical absorption efficiencies has been identified as a key next steps. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2012;8:42–63. © 2011 SETAC
Article
Sediment-quality guidelines (SQGs) have been published for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using both empirical and theoretical approaches. Empirically based guidelines have been developed using the screening-level concentration, effects range, effects level, and apparent effects threshold approaches. Theoretically based guidelines have been developed using the equilibrium-partitioning approach. Empirically-based guidelines were classified into three general categories, in accordance with their original narrative intents, and used to develop three consensus-based sediment effect concentrations (SECs) for total PCBs (tPCBs), including a threshold effect concentration, a midrange effect concentration, and an extreme effect concentration. Consensus-based SECs were derived because they estimate the central tendency of the published SQGs and, thus, reconcile the guidance values that have been derived using various approaches. Initially, consensus-based SECs for tPCBs were developed separately for freshwater sediments and for marine and estuarine sediments. Because the respective SECs were statistically similar, the underlying SQGs were subsequently merged and used to formulate more generally applicable SECs. The three consensus-based SECs were then evaluated for reliability using matching sediment chemistry and toxicity data from field studies, dose-response data from spiked-sediment toxicity tests, and SQGs derived from the equilibrium-partitioning approach. The results of this evaluation demonstrated that the consensus-based SECs can accurately predict both the presence and absence of toxicity in field-collected sediments. Importantly, the incidence of toxicity increases incrementally with increasing concentrations of tPCBs. Moreover, the consensus-based SECs are comparable to the chronic toxicity thresholds that have been estimated from dose-response data and equilibrium-partitioning models. Therefore, consensus-based SECs provide a unifying synthesis of existing SQGs, reflect causal rather than correlative effects, and accurately predict sediment toxicity in PCB-contaminated sediments.
Article
In order to assess the importance of the mode of feeding for the bioaccumulation of contaminants from sediments, three marine benthic invertebrates, with different feeding habits, were exposed to contaminated sediments in outdoor mesocosms. Residue analyses were carried out for several polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons after exposure periods of 60 to 140 days. It was shown that sediment ingestion is a major uptake route for the sediment-feeding lugworm, Arenicola marina, and for the facultative deposit-feeding baltic tellin, Macoma balthica. Residues in the filter-feeding mussel, Mytilus edulis, appeared to be independent of contaminant concentrations in the sediment. The difference between deposit and filter-feeding bivalves was confirmed in experiments involving the baltic tellin, with differences in the food availability in the overlying water. A simple linear regression model was used to describe contaminant concentrations in sediment-feeding invertebrates as a function of concentrations in sediment. A correction for the accumulation from water was made by subtracting the concentrations in filter feeders. It was concluded that chemical equilibrium partitioning alone is not sufficient for the assessment of the risks of contaminated sediments to sediment-feeding invertebrates, but that feeding habits should also be considered.
Article
The purpose of this review paper is to present the technical basis for establishing sediment quality criteria using equilibrium partitioning (EqP). Equilibrium partitioning is chosen because it addresses the two principal technical issues that must be resolved: the varying bioavailability of chemicals in sediments and the choice of the appropriate biological effects concentration.The data that are used to examine the question of varying bioavailability across sediments are from toxicity and bioaccumulation experiments utilizing the same chemical and test organism but different sediments. It has been found that if the different sediments in each experiment are compared, there is essentially no relationship between sediment chemical concentrations on a dry weight basis and biological effects. However, if the chemical concentrations in the pore water of the sediment are used (for chemicals that are not highly hydrophobic) or if the sediment chemical concentrations on an organic carbon basis are used, then the biological effects occur at similar concentrations (within a factor of two) for the different sediments. In addition, the effects concentrations are the same as, or they can be predicted from, the effects concentration determined in water- only exposures.The EqP methodology rationalizes these results by assuming that the partitioning of the chemical between sediment organic carbon and pore water is at equilibrium. In each of these phases, the fugacity or activity of the chemical is the same at equilibrium. As a consequence, it is assumed that the organism receives an equivalent exposure from a water-only exposure or from any equilibrated phase, either from pore water via respiration, from sediment carbon via ingestion; or from a mixture of the routes. Thus, the pathway of exposure is not significant. The biological effect is produced by the chemical activity of the single phase or the equilibrated system.Sediment quality criteria for nonionic organic chemicals are based on the chemical concentration in sediment organic carbon. For highly hydrophobic chemicals this is necessary because the pore water concentration is, for those chemicals, no longer a good estimate of the chemical activity. The pore water concentration is the sum of the free chemical concentration, which is bioavailable and represents the chemical activity, and the concentration of chemical complexed to dissolved organic carbon, which, as the data presented below illustrate, is not bioavailable. Using the chemical concentration in sediment organic carbon eliminates this ambiguity.Sediment quality criteria also require that a chemical concentration be chosen that is sufficiently protective of benthic organisms. The final chronic value (FCV) from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) water quality criteria is proposed. An analysis of the data compiled in the water quality criteria documents demonstrates that benthic species, defined as either epibenthic or infaunal species, have a similar sensitivity to water column species. This is the case if the most sensitive species are compared and if all species are compared. The results of benthic colonization experiments also support the use of the FCV.Equilibrium partitioning cannot remove all the variation in the experimentally observed sediment- effects concentration and the concentration predicted from water-only exposures. A variation of approximately a factor of two to three remains. Hence, it is recognized that a quantification of this uncertainty should accompany the sediment quality criteria.The derivation of sediment quality criteria requires the octanol/water partition coefficient of the chemical. It should be measured with modern experimental techniques, which appear to remove the large variation in reported values. The derivation of the final chronic value should also be updated to include the most recent toxicological information.
Article
A sediment bioassay is being developed using several marine benthic invertebrates to assess the effects of parental transfer of contaminants to the gametes. In this preliminary study, the emphasis was placed on developing methods for the in vitro fertilization of lugworm, Arenicola marina, oocytes. Lugworms exposed to contaminated sediments in outdoor mesocosms were brought to the laboratory, just before the beginning of the spawning period. The reliability of an in vitro fertilization procedure was tested by varying several parts of the method. Main results are that eggs and embryos may be physically damaged by cleaning over a sieve. However, as no negative effects were observed when leaving eggs and sperm together for 24 h, the sperm need not be washed off until the embryos are preserved for further examination later on. A first, incomplete screening of the effects of contaminated harbour dredged sediments indicated some effect on the reproductive success.
Article
Published ingestion rates of total dry material (inorganic and organic) by benthic invertebrate deposit feeders and detritivores feeding at 15C could be explained almost entirely by organic content of the ingested material and body size; the relation was consistent for 19 species from 3 phyla. Since ingestion rate of total dry material varied inversely with the organic content of the food, organic matter ingestion (C) was essentially a function of body size (W): C = 0.381 W0.742C = 0.381 \cdot W^{0.742} where C is mg day-1 and W is mg dry weight. These animals may maintain a rate of intake of organic matter which is independent of the organic content of the food source by: (1) Actively adjusting their feeding rates according to some perception of food quality, and/or (2) Adapting their feeding rates to different environments on an evolutionary time scale.
Article
Lugworms, Arenicola marina (L.), were found almost everywhere on the tidal flats of the Dutch Wadden Sea. Mean biomass amounted to about 5 g·m−2 ash-free dry weight, mean numerical density to 17 per m2 with only about one quarter of the animals being juveniles (about year old).Numbers of adults and total lugworm biomass showed a maximum in a zone at 1 to 4 km from the coasts, about halfway between high- and low-water mark and at intermediate silt content of the sediment. Numerical densities as well as biomass values showed a bell-shaped relationship to both silt percentages and heights in the tidal zone. Numbers of adults were high at lower tidal levels and at a wider range of silt percentages than juveniles. Individual weights of adults increased in an off-shore direction, and were highest at low intertidal levels and in sandy sediments, where food availability was below average.During their first period of burrowed life (April or May to winter) lugworms were most numerous on high grounds near the coast. They dispersed during winter at an age of 1 to year (at a mean weight of about 40 mg ADW), transported by tidal currents.During a 10 year study of Balgzand, a 50 km2 tidal flat area in the westernmost part of the Wadden Sea, lugworm numbers were found to decline at a mean annual rate of 22%. Annuel recruitment of 1 to year old juveniles to the adult stock was irregular but on average (20%) almost equal to annual mortality. After an initial decline during some years of low recruitment, total population of adults was found to be stable. Population stability will have been enhanced by a long lifespan and an inverse relationship between adult density and rate of recruitment.From data on annual elimination by mortality plus predation on regenerating tail ends, a P/B ratio of almost 0.7 could be estimated for somatic production by a stable lugworm population; to include gametic production this figure will have to be raised to about 1.0.
Article
Multivariate analyses were used to assess the independent determinants of four organochlorines (OCs) in the fat and eggs of breeding female Great Shearwaters Puffinus gravis. The amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDE, DDT, and dieldrin, in both adult fat tissue and in eggs were positively correlated. However, there was no correlation between the amounts of OCs in adults and their eggs. Positive correlations between the amounts of different OCs in adults and in eggs suggest that individual differences in non-breeding range, diet and age are determinants of pollutant levels within a species. The mass of ingested plastic was positively correlated only with PCBs, a group of chemicals commonly found in plastics. It is probable that seabirds assimilate PCBs and other toxic chemicals partly from ingested plastic particles.
Article
Lugworms (Arenicola marina) are typical marine deposit feeders (Jumars, 1993). Labile organic matter, notably bacteria, meiofauna and diatoms, is digested from the large volumes of nutritionally-poor sediment which are processed by the gut. Detritus is not evidently digested. However, it is trapped in the funnel of the burrow, and probably enhances the nutritional quality of the food by providing a substrate for bacterial growth. The worm's irrigation current is also important because, if the headshaft of the burrow is blocked so that the current no longer reaches the funnel, there is a decrease in the numbers of bacteria there.
Article
This study aimed to assess the accumulation of small plastic debris in the intertidal sediments of the world's largest ship-breaking yard at Alang-Sosiya, India. Small plastics fragments were collected by flotation and separated according to their basic polymer type under a microscope, and subsequently identified by FT-IR spectroscopy as polyurethane, nylon, polystyrene, polyester and glass wool. The morphology of these materials was also studied using a scanning electron microscope. Overall, there were on average 81 mg of small plastics fragments per kg of sediment. The described plastic fragments are believed to have resulted directly from the ship-breaking activities at the site.
Article
We investigated the plastics ingested by short-tailed shearwaters, Puffinus tenuirostris, that were accidentally caught during experimental fishing in the North Pacific Ocean in 2003 and 2005. The mean mass of plastics found in the stomach was 0.23 g per bird (n=99). Plastic mass did not correlate with body weight. Total PCB (sum of 24 congeners) concentrations in the abdominal adipose tissue of 12 birds ranged from 45 to 529 ng/g-lipid. Although total PCBs or higher-chlorinated congeners, the mass of ingested plastic correlated positively with concentrations of lower-chlorinated congeners. The effects of toxic chemicals present in plastic debris on bird physiology should be investigated.
Article
Plastic debris <1 mm (defined here as microplastic) is accumulating in marine habitats. Ingestion of microplastic provides a potential pathway for the transfer of pollutants, monomers, and plastic-additives to organisms with uncertain consequences for their health. Here, we show that microplastic contaminates the shorelines at 18 sites worldwide representing six continents from the poles to the equator, with more material in densely populated areas, but no clear relationship between the abundance of miocroplastics and the mean size-distribution of natural particulates. An important source of microplastic appears to be through sewage contaminated by fibers from washing clothes. Forensic evaluation of microplastic from sediments showed that the proportions of polyester and acrylic fibers used in clothing resembled those found in habitats that receive sewage-discharges and sewage-effluent itself. Experiments sampling wastewater from domestic washing machines demonstrated that a single garment can produce >1900 fibers per wash. This suggests that a large proportion of microplastic fibers found in the marine environment may be derived from sewage as a consequence of washing of clothes. As the human population grows and people use more synthetic textiles, contamination of habitats and animals by microplastic is likely to increase.