"Breastfeeding" by Feeding Expressed Mother's Milk
Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Francisco, 3333 California Street, Box 0503, San Francisco, CA 94143-0503, USA. Electronic address: .Pediatric Clinics of North America (Impact Factor: 2.12). 02/2013; 60(1):227-46. DOI: 10.1016/j.pcl.2012.10.003
This article provides the pediatric community with a practical overview of milk expression and an update on the recent literature. Approaches for working mothers, preterm infants, critically ill infants, and mothers before lactogenesis II are presented separately, as these groups may benefit from practices tailored to individual needs.
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- "The majority (85%) of women in the United States who breastfeed their infants also provide milk through the feeding of expressed human milk (Flaherman & Lee, 2013). Women express milk for a variety of reasons including maternal infant separation due to illness, return to work, convenience, or a desire to provide human milk to their infant but not through direct breastfeeding (Flaherman & Lee, 2013). Geraghty, Sucharew, and Rasmussen (2013) published a cohort study detailing the human milk feeding and breastfeeding behaviors of 40 eligible dyads who visited the Cincinnati Children's Breastfeeding Medicine Clinic in 2008. "
ABSTRACT: The application of lactation technologies is not limited to the NICU or the hospital setting. These technologies can be implemented within the home or hospital setting to promote the use of human milk and protect the breastfeeding relationship. Through the use of breast pumps, scales, and nipple shields, women can be supported to achieve their personal breastfeeding and lactation goals.
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- "Women who entered pregnancy with hypertension, diabetes, or obesity were significantly less likely to report experiencing the BFHI-consistent hospital practices of having their baby in their arms during the first hour after birth and having hospital staff help them start breastfeeding. Therefore, hospitals and clinicians alike should pay particular attention to showing women with complex pregnancies how to breastfeed (including expressing breast milk for bottle or syringe feeding ) and supporting early breastfeeding efforts, including after cesarean delivery , . "
ABSTRACT: Background Breastfeeding is beneficial for women and infants, and medical contraindications are rare. Prenatal and labor-related complications may hinder breastfeeding, but supportive hospital practices may encourage women who intend to breastfeed. We measured the relationship between having a complex pregnancy (entering pregnancy with hypertension, diabetes, or obesity) and early infant feeding, accounting for breastfeeding intentions and supportive hospital practices. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of data from a nationally-representative survey of women who gave birth in 2011–2012 in a US hospital (N = 2400). We used logistic regression to examine the relationship between pregnancy complexity and breastfeeding. Self-reported prepregnancy diabetes or hypertension, gestational diabetes, or obesity indicated a complex pregnancy. The outcome was feeding status 1 week postpartum; any breastfeeding was evaluated among women intending to breastfeed (N = 1990), and exclusive breastfeeding among women who intended to exclusively breastfeed (N = 1418). We also tested whether breastfeeding intentions or supportive hospital practices mediated the relationship between pregnancy complexity and infant feeding status. Results More than 33% of women had a complex pregnancy; these women had 30% lower odds of intending to breastfeed (AOR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.52–0.98). Rates of intention to exclusively breastfeed were similar for women with and without complex pregnancies. Women who intended to breastfeed had similar rates of any breastfeeding 1 week postpartum regardless of pregnancy complexity, but complexity was associated with >30% lower odds of exclusive breastfeeding 1 week among women who intended to exclusively breastfeed (AOR = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.47–0.98). Supportive hospital practices were strongly associated with higher odds of any or exclusive breastfeeding 1 week postpartum (AOR = 4.03; 95% CI, 1.81–8.94; and AOR = 2.68; 95% CI, 1.70–4.23, respectively). Conclusions Improving clinical and hospital support for women with complex pregnancies may increase breastfeeding rates and the benefits of breastfeeding for women and infants.
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