Article

New Insights Into the Pathogenesis of Renal Calculi

Department of Urology, University of California San Francisco, 400 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143-0738, USA. Electronic address: .
Urologic Clinics of North America (Impact Factor: 1.2). 02/2013; 40(1):1-12. DOI: 10.1016/j.ucl.2012.09.006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The pathophysiology of the various forms of urinary stone disease remains a complex topic. Epidemiologic research and the study of urine and serum chemistries have created an abundance of data to help drive the formulation of pathophysiologic theories. This article addresses the associations of urinary stone disease with hypertension, cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and other disease states. Findings regarding the impact of dietary calcium and the formation of Randall's plaques are also explored and their implications discussed. Finally, further avenues of research are explored, including genetic analyses and the use of animal models of urinary stone disease.

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    • "Exposure to oxalate, a major component of kidney stones, elicits a cascade of responses in renal epithelial cells that often leads to cell injury or death [7], [8]. Numerous studies have suggested that oxalate toxicity is accompanied by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in renal cell cultures [9], [10]. Oxalate exposure also imposes oxidative stress on renal cells by stimulating accumulation of lipid peroxides [11] while decreasing the availability of other cellular antioxidants [12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy can be a useful tool in regard to disease diagnosis and prevention. Advantage of SERS over conventional Raman spectroscopy is its significantly increased signal (up to factor of 106-108) which allows detection of trace amounts of substances in the sample. So far, this technique is successfully used for analysis of food, pieces of art and various biochemical/biomedical samples. In this work, we survey the possibility of applying SERS spectroscopy for detection of trace components in urinary deposits. Early discovery together with the identification of the exact chemical composition of urinary sediments could be crucial for taking appropriate preventive measures that inhibit kidney stone formation or growth processes. In this initial study, SERS spectra (excitation wavelength - 1064 nm) of main components of urinary deposits (calcium oxalate, uric acid, cystine, etc.) were recorded by using silver (Ag) colloid. Spectra of 10-3-10-5 M solutions were obtained. While no/small Raman signal was detected without the Ag colloid, characteristic peaks of the substances could be clearly separated in the SERS spectra. This suggests that even small amounts of the components could be detected and taken into account while determining the type of kidney stone forming in the urinary system. We found for the first time that trace amounts of components constituting urinary deposits could be detected by SERS spectroscopy. In the future study, the analysis of centrifuged urine samples will be carried out.
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