Intervertebral disc degeneration in the dog. Part 1: Anatomy and physiology of the intervertebral disc and characteristics of intervertebral disc degeneration

Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Small Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Ulls väg 12, Box 7040, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden. Electronic address: .
The Veterinary Journal (Impact Factor: 1.76). 11/2012; 195(3). DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2012.10.024
Source: PubMed
Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is common in dogs and can give rise to a number of diseases, such as IVD herniation, cervical spondylomyelopathy, and degenerative lumbosacral stenosis. Although there have been many reports and reviews on the clinical aspects of canine IVD disease, few reports have discussed and reviewed the process of IVD degeneration. In this first part of a two-part review, the anatomy, physiology, histopathology, and biochemical and biomechanical characteristics of the healthy and degenerated IVD are described. In Part 2, the aspects of IVD degeneration in chondrodystrophic and non-chondrodystrophic dog breeds are discussed in depth.
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    • "Canine intervertebral disc (IVD) disease is a frequent result of IVD degeneration [1, 2]. Diagnostic imaging is a useful tool to detect degenerative changes in IVDs [3]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Canine intervertebral disc degeneration can lead to intervertebral disc disease. Mild degenerative changes in the structure of the canine intervertebral disc can be identified in magnetic resonance images, whereas these changes are not visible in computed tomographic images. Therefore, one aim of this study was to detect whether colour-coded computed tomography enhances the visibility of mild degenerative changes in the canine disc structure compared to non-contrast computed tomography. Furthermore, the study aimed to detect if intervertebral disc degeneration could be classified with a higher reliability in colour-coded images than in non-contrast images. Results Computed tomographic image studies of 144 canine intervertebral discs were coloured using three different lookup tables. Canine intervertebral disc degeneration was evaluated by three observers using a 5-grade classification system and compared to the evaluation of non-contrast CT and MRI images. A moderate to almost perfect intraobserver and a moderate to substantial interobserver agreement were found depending on the used colour code. On comparing non-contrast and colour-coded CT significant differences were found by one observer only. Significant differences in evaluation were found in grading intervertebral disc degeneration in MRI and colour-coded CT. Conclusions Intervertebral disc degeneration could not be classified with a higher reliability on colour-coded images compared to non-contrast images. Furthermore, colour-coded CT did not enhance the visibility of mild degenerative changes in disc structure compared to non-contrast CT. However, the better intraobserver agreement and the subjective impression of the observers highlighted that the usage of colour encoded CT data sets with a wide range of tonal values of few primary and secondary colours may facilitate evaluation.
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    • "In our present evaluation, intervertebral disk degeneration played a significant role in the disease process. Although canine disk degeneration can occur in any breed or mixed-breed, two breed groupings exist (Bergknut et al., 2013). In chondrodystrophic (CD) breeds, the intervertebral disk degenerates usually between 3 and 7 years of age and typically targets the cervical or thoracolumbar spine (Hansen, 1952; Olby et al., 2004; Brisson, 2010). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A mostly complete canine skeleton was excavated during rescue archaeological explorations in Domaslaw (Lower Silesia, Poland). The archaeozoological analysis revealed loss of several left maxillary incisors. Discospondylitis was observed in two adjacent lumbar vertebrae. Potential causes of the vertebral pathology are discussed. The cause of death is unknown, but sepsis should be considered. No other pathological changes or evidence of human manipulation to the skeleton were identified. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · International Journal of Paleopathology
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    • "NCs are characterized by their morphology: they are large and have cytoplasmic vesicles, the content and function of which are still debated [8]. NCs are usually found in clusters and secrete matrix rich in proteoglycan and collagen type II [2]. They have considerable regenerative potential and restorative capacity for other cells (CLCs and MSCs), which makes them an interesting focus for regenerative strategies. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pain due to spontaneous intervertebral disc (IVD) disease is common in dogs. In chondrodystrophic (CD) dogs, IVD disease typically develops in the cervical or thoracolumbar spine at about 3-7 years of age, whereas in non-chondrodystrophic (NCD) dogs, it usually develops in the caudal cervical or lumbosacral spine at about 6-8 years of age. IVD degeneration is characterized by changes in the biochemical composition and mechanical integrity of the IVD. In the degenerated IVD, the content of glycosaminoglycan (GAG, a proteoglycan side chain) decreases and that of denatured collagen increases. Dehydration leads to tearing of the annulus fibrosus (AF) and/or disc herniation, which is clinically characterized by pain and/or neurological signs. Current treatments (physiotherapy, anti-inflammatory/analgesic medication, surgery) for IVD disease may resolve neurological deficits and reduce pain (although in many cases insufficient), but do not lead to repair of the degenerated disc. For this reason, there is interest in new regenerative therapies that can repair the degenerated disc matrix, resulting in restoration of the biomechanical function of the IVD. CD dogs are considered a suitable animal model for human IVD degeneration because of their spontaneous IVD degeneration, and therefore studies investigating cell-, growth factor-, and/or gene therapy-based regenerative therapies with this model provide information relevant to both human and canine patients. The aim of this article is to review potential regenerative treatment strategies for canine IVD degeneration, with specific emphasis on cell-based strategies.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · BMC Veterinary Research
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