2009 Pandemic Influenza A Virus Subtype H1N1 Vaccination in Africa-Successes and Challenges
World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa, Brazzaville, Republic of the Congo. The Journal of Infectious Diseases
(Impact Factor: 6).
12/2012; 206 Suppl 1(suppl 1):S22-8. DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jis535
To provide vaccination against infection due to 2009 pandemic influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (A[H1N1]pdm09) to resource-constrained countries with otherwise very little access to the A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine, the World Health Organization (WHO) coordinated distribution of donated vaccine to selected countries worldwide, including those in Africa. From February through November 2010, 32.2 million doses were delivered to 34 countries in Africa. Of the 19.2 million doses delivered to countries that reported their vaccination activities to WHO, 12.2 million doses (64%) were administered. Population coverage in these countries varied from 0.4% to 11%, with a median coverage of 4%. All countries targeted pregnant women (median proportion of all vaccine doses administered [mpv], 21% [range, 4%-72%]) and healthcare workers (mpv, 9% [range, 1%-73%]). Fourteen of 19 countries targeted persons with chronic conditions (mpv, 26% [range, 5%-66%]) and 10 of 19 countries vaccinated children (mpv, 54% [range, 17%-75%]). Most vaccine was distributed after peak A(H1N1)pdm09 transmission in the region. The frequency and severity of adverse events were consistent with those recorded after other inactivated influenza vaccines. Pandemic preparedness plans will need to include strategies to ensure more-rapid procedures to identify vaccine supplies and distribute and import vaccines to countries that may bear the brunt of a future pandemic.
Available from: Jean-Michel Heraud
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ABSTRACT: Comprehensive overview of properties, replication, evolution, emergence and epidemiology of the influenzas viruses, especially those having zoonotic potential
Extensive description of the diseases, their diagnosis, prevention and control strategies of various influenza viruses
An all encompassing book on influenza viruses covering a wide spectrum of areas enriched with latest information for researchers as well as for professionals and veterinarians
This book provides salient information on all aspects of influenza/flu viruses affecting animals and humans. It specifically reviews the properties and replication of influenza viruses; their evolution and emergence; epidemiology; role of migratory birds in disease transmission; clinical signs in humans, animals, and poultry; pathogenesis and pathogenicity; public health importance and potential threats; diagnosis; prevention and control measures; and pandemic preparedness.
Influenza/flu viruses evolve continuously and jump species causing epidemics as well as pandemics in both human and animals. During the past 150 years, various strains of influenza virus like the Spanish flu, Asian flu, Hong Kong flu, bird flu, and swine flu were responsible for high mortality in humans as well as birds. High mutation rates, antigenic shifts, drifts, reassortment phenomena, and the development of antiviral drug resistance all contribute to ineffective chemotherapy and vaccines against influenza viruses. Due to their devastating nature, high zoonotic implications, and high mortality in humans and poultry, they have a severe impact on the socioeconomic status of countries. Disease awareness, rapid and accurate diagnosis, surveillance, strict biosecurity, timely adoption of appropriate preventive and control measures, and pandemic preparedness are crucial to help in decreasing virus transmission, thus reducing clinical cases, deaths, and pandemic threats
Available from: Zekiba Tarnagda
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Although influenza surveillance has recently been improved in some sub-Saharan African countries, no information is yet available from Burkina Faso.Objectives
Our study was the first to determine the prevalence of influenza viruses circulating in Burkina Faso through a sentinel surveillance system.Methods
We conducted sentinel surveillance with oropharyngeal (OP) swabs collected from outpatients (1 month to 83 years) from six sites in Bobo-Dioulasso and Ouagadougou, among patients meeting the WHO/CDC case definition for influenza-like illness (ILI; fever ≥38°C, and cough and/or sore throat in the absence of other diagnosis) from July 2010 to May 2012. Influenza viruses were detected by real-time RT-PCR using CDC primers, probes, and protocols.ResultsThe first three ILI cases were enrolled each day; of 881 outpatients with ILI enrolled and sampled, 58 (6·6%) tested positive for influenza viruses (29 influenza A and 29 influenza B). Among the influenza A viruses, 55·2% (16/29) were influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 and 44·8% (13/29) were seasonal A (H3N2). No cases of seasonal A/H1N1 were detected. Patients within 0–5 years and 6–14 years were the most affected, comprising 41·4% and 22·4% laboratory-confirmed influenza cases, respectively. Influenza infections occurred during both the dry, dusty Harmattan months from November to March and the rainy season from June to October with peaks in January and August.Conclusions
This surveillance was the first confirming the circulation of influenza A (H1N1)pdm09, A/H3N2, and influenza B viruses in humans in Burkina Faso.
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