ArticlePDF Available

Effects of aqueous extract of Basella alba leaves on haematological and biochemical parameters in albinorats


Abstract and Figures

The effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Basella alba on haematological and biochemical parameters were studied in Wistar strain albino rats. Twenty four (24) Wistar strain albino rats were randomly distributed into four groups of six (6) rats each. Group I rats served as control and received 10 ml/kg of normal saline, while group II, III and IV received 60, 80 and 100 mg/kg of aqueous leaf extract of B. alba, respectively, for two weeks. Administration of the extract was done orally. At the end of the treatment period, haematological parameters (red blood cell count, white blood cell count, platelet count, packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentration) and biochemical parameters (alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransaminase (AST)) were determined. The results showed that B. alba significantly increased (p < 0.05, 0.01) red blood cell count, white blood cell count, packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration and platelet count. However, the extract significantly (p < 0.05, 0.01) reduced the activity of the liver enzymes such as ALP, ALT and AST. The decreases were dose dependent. In conclusion, adding B. alba leaves as part of daily diet may reduce anaemia and maintain good health.
Content may be subject to copyright.
African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 9(41), pp. 6952-6955, 11 October, 2010
Available online at
ISSN 1684–5315 ©2010 Academic Journals
Full Length Research Paper
Effects of aqueous extract of Basella alba leaves on
haematological and biochemical parameters in albino
Bamidele, O.
*, Akinnuga, A. M.
, Olorunfemi, J. O.
, Odetola, O. A.
, Oparaji, C. K.
Ezeigbo, N.
Department of Physiology, Bowen University, Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria.
Department of Nursing Science, Lead City University, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.
Department of Physiology, Madonna University, Okija, Anambra State, Nigeria.
Accepted 2 September, 2010
The effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Basella alba on haematological and biochemical parameters
were studied in Wistar strain albino rats. Twenty four (24) Wistar strain albino rats were randomly
distributed into four groups of six (6) rats each. Group I rats served as control and received 10 ml/kg of
normal saline, while group II, III and IV received 60, 80 and 100 mg/kg of aqueous leaf extract of B. alba,
respectively, for two weeks. Administration of the extract was done orally. At the end of the treatment
period, haematological parameters (red blood cell count, white blood cell count, platelet count, packed
cell volume and haemoglobin concentration) and biochemical parameters (alkaline phosphatase (ALP),
alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransaminase (AST)) were determined. The
results showed that B. alba significantly increased (p < 0.05, 0.01) red blood cell count, white blood cell
count, packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration and platelet count. However, the extract
significantly (p < 0.05, 0.01) reduced the activity of the liver enzymes such as ALP, ALT and AST. The
decreases were dose dependent. In conclusion, adding B. alba leaves as part of daily diet may reduce
anaemia and maintain good health.
Key words: Basella alba, haematological parameters, biochemical parameters, albino rats.
Basella alba (family Basellaceae) is a fast growing
vegetable, native to tropical Asia, probably originating
from India or Indonesia and extremely heat tolerant
(Grubben and Denton, 2004). It is grown throughout the
tropics as a perennial and in warmer temperate region as
an annual crop. Its thick semi-succulent heart-shaped
*Corresponding author. E-mail:
Tel: +2348067463528.
Abbreviations: ALP, Alkaline phosphatase; ALT, alanine
aminotransaminase; AST, aspartate aminotrasaminase; PCV,
packed cell volume; RBC, red blood cell; count, WBC, white
blood cell; Hb, haemoglobin; EDTA, ethylenediaminetetraacetic
leaves have a mild flavour and mucilaginous texture. It is
commonly known as Malabar, Ceylon, East-Indian, Surinam
and Chinese spinach (Facciola, 1990).
It is high in vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin B9 (folic acid),
calcium, magnesium and several vital anti-oxidants. It is
low in calories by volume and high in protein per calorie
(Duke and Ayensu, 1985). A work done in Bangladeshi
showed that the daily consumption of Indian spinach has
a positive effect on vitamin A stores in populations at high
risk of vitamin A deficiency (Haskell et al., 2004). In
addition, the cooked roots and leaves have been reported
to be used in the treatment of diarrhoea and as laxative,
respectively (Larkcom, 1991; Philips and Rix, 1995).The
flowers are used as an antidote for poisons (Duke and
Ayensu 1985). It is also a safe aperient for pregnant
women and its decoction has been used to alleviate
labour (Duke et al., 1985). Moreover, it is locally reported
to be used in the treatment of anaemia. Its extract has
demonstrated androgenic potential in adult rats and bull
Leydig cells (Moundipa et al., 2005).
In spite of its many biological uses and the fact that
several studies (Alada et al., 2004; Bolarinwa et al., 1991)
have implicated the relative importance of some animal
and vegetable protein diets in the formation and com-
position of blood, there is dearth of information encountered
in the literature on the effect of B. alba on haematological
parameters. Also, in view of the increasing use of B. alba
in several communities by traditional healers to cure
many diseases in patients without considering its adverse
effects, it is necessary to scientifically investigate its
effect on biochemical parameters. Therefore, the present
study was undertaken to investigate the effect of aqueous
extract of B. alba leaves on haematological and biochem-
ical parameters in Wistar strain albino rats.
Animal model
Wistar strain albino rats weighing between 140 180 g were used.
The rats were purchased at the animal house of the College of
Medical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The rats were
housed in wire mesh cages under standard conditions (temperature,
25 - 29°C, 12 h light and 12 h dark cycle) and fed with standard rat
pelleted diet and water was given ad libtum.
Plant materials
The fresh leaves of B. alba (Indian spinach) were procured from
Otor market in Lagos, western Nigeria. The plant materials were
identified and authenticated in the Department of Pharmacognosy,
Faculty of Pharmacy, Madonna University, Elele Campus. The
leaves were washed in tap water and shade-dried after which they
were reduced into fine powder by grinding. 100 g of the powered
leaves was stirred into 1000 ml of boiling distilled water. Boiling was
allowed to continue for 5 min. The mixture was kept off the hot plate,
for 30 min to allow it to infuse. It was then filtered using cheese
cloth. The filtrate was then concentrated using a rotary vacuum
evaporator to obtain the solid mass. The extract was then dissolved
in normal saline and used for the study.
Experimental design
Twenty four (24) Wistar strain albino rats were randomly distributed
into four groups of six (6) animals per group. Group I consists of
rats which received 10 ml/kg normal saline and served as the
control. Group II, III and IV received the aqueous extract of B. alba
leaves at doses of 60, 80 and 100 mg/kg, respectively.
Administration of the extract was done through gastric intubation
once a day for a period of 14 days. Blood samples were collected
from the animal through cardiac puncture into ethylenediami-
netetraacetic acid (EDTA) bottles after anaesthetizing the animals
with chloroform at the 14th day of the experiment. The blood
samples were divided into two: First portion was used to determine
haematological parameter, while the second portion was used to
determine biochemical parameters. The second portion of blood
was allowed to clot and then centrifuged at 150 g for 10 min. Serum
obtained was used for the assay of alkaline phosphatase (ALP),
alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotrasaminase
Bamidele et al. 6953
Blood analysis
The blood samples were analyzed to determine the haematological
parameters such as: Packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell
(RBC) count, white blood cell (WBC) count, platelet count and
haemoglobin concentration (Hb Conc.) using an automated
haematology ANALYZER KX-21N, made by sysmex Japan. The
sysmex KX-21 is an automatic multi-pair blood cell counter for in
vitro diagnostic use in clinical laboratory. It performs speedy and
accurate analysis of blood parameters and detects the abnormal
samples. The automated haematology analyzer reading correlated
well with readings by the standard manual methods (Samuel et al.,
2010). Biochemical analysis of the serum enzymes for ALT and
AST was by the method of Reitman and Frankel (1957). ALP was
assayed according to the method of Rec (1972).
Statistical analysis
All data were presented as mean ± SEM. The one way ANOVA was
used to analyze the data, followed by a post-hoc test (LSD). The
results were considered significant at p values of less than 0.05.
Haematological parameters
The results of the effects of the aqueous extract of B.
alba on red blood cell count, white blood cell count,
packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration and
platelet count are shown in Table 1. Oral administration
of the aqueous extract of B. alba for two weeks caused
gradual but significant increases in the mean RBC count
in the treated groups of rats (5.87 ± 0.04, 6.24 ± 0.34 and
8.60 ± 0.28 x 10
for groups II, III and IV,
respectively). The increases were dose dependent. There
were increases with no significant differences in the
mean total WBC count in groups II (6.89 ± 0.65 x 10
) and III (7.60 ± 0.13 x 10
) when
compared with the control (6.70 ± 0.50 x 10
whereas there was significant increase (p < 0.05) in
group IV (8.93 ± 0.26 x 10
). The mean PCV
increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the treated rats as
compared with the control group. The percentage
increases were 7, 29 and 46, percent in group II, III and
IV, respectively. The mean Hb concentration also
increased significantly (p < 0.05) in a dose dependent
fashion in the treated rats when compared with the
control group. The percentage increases were 19, 22 and
50% in group II, III and IV, respectively. The mean
platelet count in group II was not significantly different
from the control group but group III and IV showed signifi-
cant increase (p < 0.05).
Biochemical parameters
The activities of the three major marker enzymes ALP,
6954 Afr. J. Biotechnol.
Table 1. Effect of aqueous extract of B. Alba leaves on some haematological parameters.
Blood parameter
Group I
Group II
(60 mg/kg)
Group III
(80 mg/kg)
Group IV
(10 0mg/kg)
RBC (×10
4.61±0.06 5.87±0.041 6.24±0.34* 8.60±0.28**
WBC (×10
6.70±0.50 6.89±0.65 7.60±0.13 8.93±0.26*
PCV (%) 34.90±0.25 37.32±0.51* 45.10±0.38** 50.93±0.79**
Hb(g/dl) 7.80±0.25 9.30±0.51* 9.51±0.14* 11.70±0.47**
PLC (×10
199.87±2.13 198.56±2.16 205.45±0.10** 204.20±0.09*
Values are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 (n = 6).
Table 2. Effect of aqueous extract of B. alba leaves on some biochemical parameters.
parameter (µ
Group I
Group II
(60 mg/kg)
Group III
(80 mg/kg)
Group IV
(100 mg/kg)
ALAT 57.50±0.44 49.80±0.32** 52.10±0.19** 39.70±0.12**
ASAT 60.65±0.85 62.79±0.52 57.56±0.36* 41.08±0.69**
ALP 400.30±0.63 345.10±0.45** 322.40±0.72** 308.58±0.58**
Values are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 (n = 6).
ALAT = Alanine aminotransaminase; ASAT = aspartate aminotrasaminase; ALP = alkaline phosphatase.
ALT and AST were markedly affected after pre-treatment
of the rats with aqueous extract of B. alba at different
doses of 60, 80 and 100 mg/kg body weight. ALT activity
significantly decreased (p < 0.01) in the rats pre-treated
with various doses of the extract as shown in Table 2.
There was a gradual decrease in the activity (62.79 ±
0.52, 57.56 ± 0.36 and 41.08 ± 0.69 µ/l) of ALT in all the
rats pre-treated with different doses of the extract.
Groups that received 80 and 100 mg/kg body weight
showed significant decrease (p < 0.05) when compared
with the control value. The activity of ALP decreased
significantly (p < 0.01) at different doses of the extract in
the pre-treated rats (345.10 ± 0.45, 322.40 ± 0.72 and
308.58 ± 0.58µ/l) as compared with the control value
(400.30 ± 0.63 µ/l). The decrease in the activity of ALP in
the pre-treated rats was dose dependent.
The results of the study shows that, the leaf extract of B.
alba administered at the dosages used and for the period
of the experiment has positive effect on the haemopoietic
system. There was increase in the haematological para-
meters (RBC, WBC, PCV, Hb Conc. and platelet) in the
treated rats when compared with the control group.
The significant increase in the haematological indices
observed following treatment with B. alba aqueous leaf
extract might not be unrelated to its chemical composition.
The chemical composition of the leaf extract include:
Proteins, fat, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K,
vitamin B9 (folic acid), riboflavin, niacin, thiamine and
minerals such as calcium, magnesium and iron (Duke
and Ayensu, 1985; Grubben and Denton, 2004). Most of
these vitamins and minerals are well-known hematinics
and are necessary for the formation of blood cells (Ganong,
2005; Alada et al., 2004; Mitchell et al., 1976). The
observed increases in the haemoglobin concentrations
and packed cell volume in the rats treated with the
aqueous leaf extract of B. alba in this study is consistent
with earlier reports that protein-rich diets increase both
packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentrations in
human and animal studies (Alada et al., 2004; Alada, 2000;
Bolarinwa et al., 1991, Mitchell,1966).
The aqueous leaf extract of B. alba significantly
reduced the activity of the liver enzymes (ALT, AST and
ALP) in the treated rats when compared with the control
group. The effect was dose dependent. Liver enzymes
(ALT and AST) are released into the blood whenever liver
cells are damaged and enzyme activity in the plasma is
increased (Edwards et al., 1995). The fact that the
enzyme activities were reduced showed that the extract
improves hepatic functions.
Moreover, B. alba leaves are reported to contain antio-
xidant properties (Duke and Ayensu, 1985). Antioxidants
are effective scavengers of super oxide anions. They are
associated with several health benefits including their
ability to protect against oxidative damage (Olmendilla et
al., 1997). Therefore, the extract may have exhibited
hepatoprotective activity due to its antioxidant properties
which is attributable to flavonoids and carotinoids.
In conclusion, the results of this study confirmed the
use of the B. alba leaves in traditional medicine for the
treatment of anaemia. Thus, the leaves of the plant might
have a promising role in the treatment and/or prevention
of anaemia. On the other hand, the use of the leaves of
the plant at the dosages in this study may not have
deleterious effect on the body system owing to its
hepatoprotective potentials due to the presence of
Alada ARA (2000). The haematological effect of Telfairia occidentalis
diet preparation in the rat. Afr. J. Biomed. Res. 3: 185-186.
Alada ARA, Akande OO, Ajayi FF (2004). Effect of soya bean diet
preparations on some haematological and biochemical indices in the
rat. Afr. J. Biomed. Res. 7(2): 71-74.
Bolarinwa AF, Oyebola DDO, Akindeinde GB (1991). Effect of
malnutrition on basal and induced gasric acid secretion. Niger. J.
Physiol. Sci. 5(2): 144-148.
Duke JA, Ayensu ES (1985). Medicinal Plants of China Reference
Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-917256-20-4.
Edwards CRW, Bouchier IAD, Haslet C, Chilvers ER (1995). Davidson’s
Principles and Practice of Medicine, 17
edn. Churchill Livingstone,
pp. 488-490.
Facciola S (1990). Cornucopia-A source Book of Edible Plants.
Kampong Publications. ISBN 0-9628087-0-9. 2: 183-187.
Ganong WF (2005). A review of medical physiology. Appleton and
Lange; p. 496.
Grubben GJH, Denton OA (2004). Plant Resources of Tropical Africa 2.
Vegetable. PROTA Foundation, Wageningen; Backhuys, Leiden;
CTA, Wageningen. 4: 103-111.
Haskell MJ, Jamil KM, Hassan F, Peerson JM, Hassain MI, Fuchs GJ,
Brown KH (2004). Daily consumption of Indian spinach (B. alba) or
sweet potatoes has positive effect on total-body vitamin A store in
Bangladeshi men. Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
80(3): 705-714.
Larkcom J (1991). Orientatal Vegetables John Murray. ISBN 0-7195-
Bamidele et al. 6955
Mitchell HS (1966). Protein limitation and human growth. J. Am. Diet. A.
44: 165-171
Mitchell HS, Rynbergen HJ, Anderson L, Dibble MV (1976). Nutrition in
health and disease. 16 Ed. Lippincott JB. Company, Philadelphia.
Moundipa PF, Beboy NSE, Zelefack F, Ngouela S, Tsamo E, Schill W,
Monsees TK (2005). Effect of Basella alba and Hibiscus macranthus
extracts on testosterone production of adult rat and bull Leydid cells.
Asian J. Androl. 7(4): 411-417.
Olmendilla B, Granado F, Gil-Martinez E, Blanco I, Rojas-Hildago E
(1997). Reference values from retinol, tocopherol and main carote-
noids in serum of control and insulin dependent diabetic Spanish
subjects. Clin. Chem. 43: 1066-1071.
Philips R, Rix M (1995). Vegetables Macmillan Reference Books,
London. ISBN 0-33362640-0.
Rec Gscc (DGKC) (1972). Optimised standard colorimetric methods. J.
Clin. Chem. Clin. Biochem. 10: p. 182.
Reitman S, Frankel AS (1957). A colorimetric method of determination
of serum glutamic oxaloacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases.
Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 28: 53-63.
Samuel OI, Thomas N, Ernest OU, Imelda N, Elvis NS, Ifeyinwa E
(2010). Comparison of haematological parameters determined by the
Sysmex KX-21N automated haematology analyzer and the manual
counts. BMC Clin. Pathol. 10: p. 3.
... In a gathering of the populace in Bangladesh, there is a high danger of vitamin A deficiency, so among the people of Bangladesh, consistent use of essentially verdant vegetables such as Basella alba has a beneficial outcome 36 . In Focal Kenya B. alba is said to fix skin problems and looseness of the bowels 37,38 . ...
Full-text available
From the primitive era to the current generation, natural extracts or products played the most conservative therapeutic and nutritional resources. Starting from the era of folklore or ancient, mother nature has protected us from various diseases by producing various natural products having strong medicinal implications like quinine, taxol, vinblastine, etc. Among the many available sources of natural products, pharma-herb being a new member has drawn considerable attention of the researcher in order to have a new pool of products having pronounced pharmaceutical activity. Now Basella alba is one of the brightest candidates belonging to pharma-herb because of its considerably enriched pharmacologically important product stocks like vitamin C, flavonoid compounds, carotenoids, saponins as well as a large number of different minerals and numerous amino acids. This plant is a perennial vine that is often cultivated as a food crop during the cooler months. It is also able to grow very fast and can resist temperatures that are quite high. Basella alba has been referred to by a number of different names throughout history, including Indian-, Malabar-, climber-, Ceylon-, and vine-spinach. Poi is the term that the majority of people in India use when referring to it. The various natural products isolated from B. alba have significant medicinal utilization because of its antimicrobial, anti-ulcer, wound healing, antiviral, anti- inflammatory depressant, androgenic potential, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-anxiety, diuretic and antiurolithiatic activities. This review will cover a detailed journey about Basella alba L. ranging from phytochemical to toxicological, morphological, pharmacological as well as medicinal importance.
... This observation agrees with a work by Bamidele et al. (28) which shows that diabetic rats treated with Basella alba aqueous leaf extract significantly had a lower blood glucose when compared to the diabetic control group. The decrease in blood glucose level may also be due to the regeneration of beta cells of the pancreas by the presence of antioxidants (29)(30)(31) in the leaf of Justicia carnea which are known to scavenge the free radicals produced by oxidative damage in the disease state (32)(33)(34). This reduction of blood glucose level may also be due to inhibition of glucose absorption, increased sensitivity of receptors to insulin and stimulation of peripheral glucose uptake (31). ...
... It is highly abundant in tropical Africa, Malaysia, the Caribbean, Philippines and tropical South America 6 . Basella alba is also known as Indian spinach, Ceylon spinach, vine spinach and Chinese spinach 7,8 . It is widely grown in the coastal area of southern Nigeria as a vegetable for food 9 . ...
Full-text available
In the quest for natural biodegradable, non-toxic polymers for use as excipients in pharmaceutical formulations, mucilage of Basella alba L (BAM) stem was isolated and evaluated as a suspending agent in metronidazole suspensions at different concentrations (0.5% - 2% w/v) in comparison to tragacanth (TCG) and gelatin gums (GLT). The micromeritic properties of the mucilage powder were determined and the metronidazole suspension was characterized using flow rate, redispersion number, sedimentation volume, viscosity and pH. The degree of flocculation was also determined. BAM powder has good flow property with minimal swelling. The order of flow rate of metronidazole suspension was BAM=TCG>GLT while sedimentation volume ranking was TCG>BAM>GLT. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the redispersion number of BAM and TCG formulations. The viscosities of formulations containing BAM and TCG at concentrations of 0.5%-1.0% w/v were the same. The pH of the suspensions ranged from 5 to 8. The degree of flocculation was in the order GLT>BAM>TCG. From our findings, BAM can be used as an alternative suspending agent in suspension formulation.
... The rich presence of antioxidant phytochemicals within the plant material have been stressed out in more recent studies as being responsible for this beneficial attribute of Basella Alba [33,34]. The possibility of the various phytochemicals inherent in this plant scavenging and/or reducing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as already suggested [35,32,12], is further corroborated in the findings reported in this study, which indicate a generally improved health in nicotine treated rats after the administration of Basella Alba extracts. Nicotine causes multiple cellular injuries via numerous unexplained mechanisms, but surely involving increased generation of free radicals like superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide by causing disruptions in mitochondrial respiration [36]. ...
Full-text available
Abstract Background: Nicotine has been reported to exert adverse effects on insulin sensitivity, predispose individuals to metabolic syndrome, and induce decreased functionality of the pancreas. The present study evaluated the influence of methanol extract of Basella Alba leaf on glucose utilization in nicotine treated male Wistar rats. Methods: Twenty male rats, weighing 200-240g were divided into four groups of five animals each as follows; Healthy Control (H-C) rats, which were given no treatment but placebo, Nicotine Control (N-C), which received 1.0 mg/kg of nicotine, Low Dose Nicotine + Basella Alba group (LDN-Ba), which received 0.5 mg/kg nicotine and 200mg/kg of MeBa, and High Dose Nicotine + Basella Alba group (HDN-Ba) that were given 1.0 mg/kg of nicotine and 200 mg/kg of MeBa. Results: Following acute nicotine exposure, FBG levels were significantly higher (p ˂ 0.05) in NC, LDN-B and HDN-B rats when compared to H-C. Likewise, OGTT showed a significant (p ˂ 0.05) derangement in N-C and HDN-B when compared to HC and LDN-B groups. Body weight, weight and relative weight of pancreas were significantly decreased (p ˂ 0.05) in all nicotine treated groups when compared to the healthy control group. Histopathology also revealed general distortion of pancreatic histoarchitecture in the nicotine control rats. A significant decrease (p ˂ 0.05) in the blood glucose level and improved OGTT was observed in LDN-B rats after four weeks treatment with Basella Alba compared with N-C. Conclusion: The findings revealed that the dysfunction in glucose metabolism caused by nicotine toxicity is dose dependent and the administration of methanol extract of Basella Alba leaf ameliorate these effects to a greater extent in low dose than in high dose nicotine group. Keywords Methanol Extract Basella Alba Glucose Utilization Nicotine
... [53] Daily consumption of pureed leafy vegetable has a positive effect on Vitamin A stores in populations at risk of vitamin A deficiency. [54] Reported analgesic, androgenic, anticonvulsant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory activity and used in the treatment of anemia. [55,56,57,5,58] Demulcent, diuretic and laxative activities and can be used as a cooling medicine in digestive disorders. [6] The plant sap is rubbed on any part of the body affected by acne to reduce the irritation and in treating aphthae. ...
Full-text available
Basella rubra Linn. is a plant of the family Basellaceae, generally known by names such as malabar spinach, indian spinach, ceylon spinach and vine spinach. It is widely accepted as nutritional vegetable and grown generally in the tropical regions of the world. In India it is widely grown as pot herb. Different studies have proved that the plant is rich in vitamin A, vitamin C, flavonoids, saponins, carotenoids, many amino acids, organic acids, calcium and iron,. It was used to treat large number of human ailments as mentioned in various Samhitas and Nighantus. Major biological activities exhibited by Basella rubra is androgenic, antiulcer, antioxidant, cytotoxic, antibacterial activity, anti-inflammatory, central nervous system (CNS) depressant activity, nephroprotective, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antiviral, hepatoprotective, sleep inducing and wound healing properties. Besides these activities, the plant possess a valuable ethnomedicinal importance .It nourishes, makes the body stout, purifies blood, rejuvenates and acts as aphrodisiac. Adding it to regular diet would help in preventing weakness of bones, anemia, cardiovascular diseases ,cancers of colon and constipation, Traditionally, it is used in treating mouth ulcers, wound, inflammation, urticaria, anemia, malnutrition, insomnia, cracked feet, piles, bleeding disorders, cancers etc.
... On the other hand, the original, i.e. untreated MWCNTs have increased the growth and productivity of the tomato plants [17]. It is documented that CNTs increase the root growth in onion and cucumber [18]. Lin et al. have reported that carbon nanomaterial is easily uptaken and translocated in rice plants [19]. ...
Full-text available
The effect of pure multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was studied on the development and morphology of the Basella alba plant. The plants were treated with varying sonicated concentrations of MWCNTs. The parameters taken into consideration were germination percentage of seeds, protein content in the plant, estimation of chlorophyll concentration, and the effect on the soil microbial community after treatment with MWCNTs. A boost in vigour index was recorded with the 200 µg ml ⁻¹ concentration of MWCNTs. Increment in other parameters like protein content, chlorophyll concentration, and microbial community in soil samples have also been observed. All parameters showed higher efficiency in a concentration-dependent manner of MWCNTs compared to control by testing the significance of results through statistical one-way ANOVA analysis. The uptake of MWCNTs by plants was confirmed by SEM–EDX analysis of treated and control leaf tissue sections. This study concludes that MWCNTs exhibit significant growth effects with no toxicity to Basella alba . Graphical Abstract
... However, the extract considerably decreased the activity of liver enzymes like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Therefore, the consumption of B. alba leaves may help to stay healthy and reduce the risk of anemia (Bamidele et al., 2010). ...
Full-text available
Background: According to WHO statistics, cardiovascular disease are the leading causes of death in the world. One of the main factors which is causing heart failure, systolic and diastolic dysfunction, and arrhythmias is a condition named cardiac fibrosis. This condition is defined by the accumulation of fibroblast-produced ECM in myocardium layer of the heart. The excessive accumulation of ECM elements causes heart stiffness, tissue scarring, electrical conduction disruption and finally cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Objective: To describe the role of curcumin in the regulation of different signaling pathways that are involved in cardiac fibrosis. Results: Curcumin is a natural Indian medicine which currently has been declared to have therapeutic properties such as anti-oxidant and immunomodulatory activities, which prevents oxidative stress, inflammation, and mechanical stress involved in cardiac fibrosis. In this review, we havegathered several experimental studies in order to represent diverse impacts of this turmeric derivative on pathogenic factors of cardiac fibrosis. Conclusion: Curcumin will open a new way in the field of cardiovascular treatment. Keywords: ECM (Extra cellular matrix), curcumin, cardiac fibrosis, cardio protective.
... The decrease in WBC counts in the present work is in contrast to the work done by Bamidele et al. (2010) in animals exposed to aqueous extract of B. alba in which WBC was increased. This implies that the formulated nasal spray is comparable with the positive control in terms of the quantity of vascular congestion in the nasal mucosa. ...
Full-text available
Allergic rhinitis is a nasal inflammation produced by an allergic reaction to allergens that affects a significant number of Asian populations, particularly in tropical countries like the Philippines. The Philippine Bureau of Plant Industry promotes Basella alba, also known as Alugbati, which has been reported to have cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, and wound-healing properties. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of B. alba Leaf extract as a nasal spray for allergic rhinitis in Sprague Dawley rats. 27 rats were divided into three groups: the negative control, positive control, and the treatment group which received the formulated B. alba nasal spray. The inflammatory impact of white blood cells (WBC) was studied in each group. Ciliary loss, reduction in goblet cells, degree of eosinophil infiltration, and vascular congestion were graded and observed during the histological investigation. Compared to the positive control group, the Formulation group showed no significant change in the histological scores but displayed clinical significance as shown in the samples microscopically. When observing WBC count, there's a significant difference between the Formulation group and the Positive control group, posthoc analysis revealed that the Formulation group was more effective in normalizing WBC count 24 hours post provocation/administration. An acute inhalation toxicity test showed that the extract is classified as "practically non-toxic". Therefore, formulated Alugbati nasal spray is a potential alternative and is effective to use in an animal model of allergic rhinitis. Further tests such as ELISA are recommended to specifically determine the mechanism of action of the formulation.
Full-text available
Background: Nicotine is a potential cause of male infertility due to its ability to induce testicular damage. This study investigated the influence of Basella Alba (BA) on possible nicotine-induced testicular damage. Methods: Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into four random groups namely; healthy control (HC) in which rats were administered only normal saline, Nicotine control (NC) which received high dose nicotine only (1.0mg/kg), Low dose nicotine, Basella Alba treatment group (LDN + BA) given nicotine (0.5mg/kg) plus methanol extract of Basella Alba (200mg/kg) and High dose nicotine, Basella Alba treatment group (HDN + BA) in which rats received nicotine (1.0mg/kg) plus Basella Alba extract (200mg/kg). Rats were euthanized via exsanguination after five weeks of treatment and testes extracted for histological analysis. Blood samples were also analyzed for gonadal hormones. Results: There was a significant decline (p<0.05) in body weight, testicular weight, and serum testosterone but elevated follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in NC rats when compared with HC. Rats in LDN + BA and HDN + BA showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in serum testosterone and a corresponding decrease (p<0.05) in FSH and LH levels when compared to rats in NC. Additionally, testicular photomicrographs revealed significant histoarchitectural distortions in NC rats when compared to HC. These anomalies were found to be either milder or absent in LDN + BA and HDN + BA groups. Conclusions: Nicotine induces both structural and functional testicular damage that is ameliorated by Basella Alba possibly due to the high antioxidant composition.
Full-text available
Background: An inventory of the medicinal plants used by herbalists to treat various ailments in Tindiret area of Nandi County, Kenya was conducted by a team comprising of medical researchers and botanists with a view to preserve indigenous ethnobotanical knowledge and potential research and development of new drugs. Materials and Methods: Data was collected from practicing herbalists through semi-structured interviews, group discussions and observations. The types of medical conditions treated, treatment methods as well as the plants used were recorded. Results and Conclusion: A total of 50 medicinal plants belonging to 28 families used for the treatment of 32 medical conditions were recorded. The disease conditions which were treated by the highest number of plants were abdominal/colic pains with 15 different plants recorded (13%), respiratory disorders 15(13%) and infertility14 (12%). The most widely used medicinal plants were Vernonia amygdalina 7(7%), Toddalia asiatica 6(6%), Aloe kedongensis 5(5%) and Zanthoxylum gilletii 5(5%); whereas the families with the highest number of plant usage were Fabaceae 8(14%), Lamiaceae 4(8%) and Solanaceae 4(8%) plants respectively. The study documents important ethno-medical knowledge on the plants used by herbalists in Tindiret sub-county.
Full-text available
Background: Recent evidence suggests that the vitamin A equiv- alency of -carotene from plant sources is lower than previously estimated. Objective: We assessed the effect of 60 d of daily supplementation with 750g retinol equivalents (RE) of either cooked, puréed sweet potatoes; cooked, puréed Indian spinach (Basella alba); or synthetic sources of vitamin A or-carotene on total-body vitamin A stores in Bangladeshi men. Design: Total-body vitamin A stores in Bangladeshi men (n 14/group) were estimated by using the deuterated-retinol-dilution technique before and after 60 d of supplementation with either 0 g RE/d (white vegetables) or 750 g RE/d as sweet potatoes, Indian spinach, retinyl palmitate, or -carotene (RE 1g retinol or 6 g -carotene) in addition to a low-vitamin A diet providing 200g RE/d. Mean changes in vitamin A stores in the vegetable and -carotene groups were compared with the mean change in the retinyl palmitate group to estimate the relative equivalency of these vitamin A sources. Results: Overall geometric mean (SD) initial vitamin A stores were 0.108 0.067 mmol. Relative to the low-vitamin A control group, the estimated mean changes in vitamin A stores were 0.029 mmol for sweet potato (P 0.21), 0.041 mmol for Indian spinach (P 0.033), 0.065 mmol for retinyl palmitate (P 0.001), and 0.062 mmol for -carotene (P 0.002). Vitamin A equivalency factors (-carotene:retinol, wt:wt) were estimated as 13:1 for sweet po- tato, 10:1 for Indian spinach, and 6:1 for synthetic -carotene. Conclusion: Daily consumption of cooked, puréed green leafy veg- etables or sweet potatoes has a positive effect on vitamin A stores in populations at risk of vitamin A deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:705-14.
Full-text available
Effects of Emilia praetermissa leaf extract on the haematological and biochemical parameters of cold-water stress induced ulceration in albino rats were the focus of this study. Blood samples collected from stress induced ulcerated Wistar rats by cold water immersion were used to evaluate the haematological and biochemical parameters. This study was conducted using twenty rats randomly divided into four groups, Group A which was control group and three test Groups B, C and D. All three test groups were subjected to cold water induced stress ulceration. Groups B and C were treated with normal saline (10 ml/kg body weight) and E. praetermissa (500 mg/kg body weight) respectively, for seven days after stress induced ulceration while the Group D was pretreated with E. praetermissa (500 mg/kg) for fourteen days before cold water stress induced ulceration. The results showed that Stress reduced all blood parameters tested except total white blood cell and platelet counts when compared with control while E. praetermissa increased all the blood parameters tested above that of control despite the induced stress. However, the extract significantly (p < 0.05) reduced biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransaminase (AST). The results therefore suggest that E. pratermissa has haemopoietic potential, it could stimulate blood cell formation and also powerful enough to suppress effects of stress on haematological parameters in stress-ulcerated Wistar rats.
Full-text available
Background This study was designed to determine the correlation between heamatological parameters by Sysmex KX-21N automated hematology analyzer with the manual methods. Method Sixty (60) subjects were randomly selected from both apparently healthy subjects and those who have different blood disorders from the University of Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria. Three (3)mls of venous blood sample was collected aseptically from each subject into tri-potassium ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (K3EDTA) for the analysis of haematological parameters using the automated and the manual methods. Results The blood film report by the manual method showed that 50% of the subjects were normocytic-normochromic while the other 50% revealed different abnormal blood pictures. Also, there were statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) in mean cell hemoglobin concentrations (MCHC) between the two methods. Similarly, the mean (S.E) values of hemoglobin, packed cell volume, platelet and total white cell counts demonstrated statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) and correlated positively when both methods were compared. Conclusion From the present study, it can be concluded that the automated hematology analyzer readings correlated well with readings by the standard manual method, although the latter method gave additional diagnostic information on the blood pictures. While patients' care and laboratory operations could be optimized by using manual microscopic examination as a reflective substitute for automated methods, usage of automated method would ease our workload and save time for patients.
Effects of Soya bean diet preparations on the hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, total plasma protein, plasma albumin, sodium, potassium and chloride concentrations were studied in male albino rats. The animals were fed diets containing 75%, 50% and 25% Soya bean in groups II, III and IV respectively. Group I rats served as the control and were fed normal mouse cubes. There were steady but significant increases in the concentrations of hematocrit, hemoglobin, total plasma protein and plasma albumin in rats fed 25% to 75% concentration of Soya bean in the diets .Although there were significant increases in the electrolytes concentrations between the Soya bean diets and rats fed normal diet, there was no significant difference in the electrolytes concentrations of rats fed different concentrations of Soya bean. This study therefore seems to confirm the nutritional value of Soya bean in alleviating malnutrition