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Heterosexuality, Homosexuality, and Erotic Age Preference

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Heterosexual and homosexual males who erotically preferred physically mature partners were compared with respect to the erotic impact of the nonpreferred age groups (of the preferred gender) and the nonpreferred gender. Erotic impact was assessed by phallometric test of erotic gender and age preferences. This measures penile volume changes during the presentation of potentially erotic stimuli. Homosexual males who pre-ferred physically mature partners responded no more to male children than heterosexual males who preferred physically mature partners responded to female children. Although heterosexual males showed a (slight) erotic aversion to the male stimuli, and homosexual males did not show an aversion to the female stimuli, this difference was minimal. KEY WORDS: penile responses, homosexuality, heterosexuality, age preference (I) The Erotic Impact of the Nonpreferred Age Group of the Preferred Gender An earlier study assessed the incidence of male sex offenders against female children vs. such offenders against male children (Freund, Heasman, Racansky, & Glancy, 1984). Approximately one-third of these individuals had victimized boys and two-thirds had victimized girls. This finding is consistent with the proportions reported in two earlier studies (Gebhard, Gagnon, Pomeroy, & Christenson, 1965; Mohr, Turner, & Jerry, 1974), Also, in a recent literature search (Cameron, 1985) which examined 17 more studies on sex offenders against children, the ratio of victimized female to male children was approximately 2:1. Interestingly, this ratio differs substantially from the ratio of gynephiles (men who erotically prefer physically mature females) to androphiles (men who erotically prefer physically mature males), which is at least 20 to 1 (Gebhard, 1972; Hirschfeld, 1920; Kinsey, Pomeroy, & Martin, 1948; Whitam, 1983).
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Heterosexuality,
homosexuality, and erotic
age preference
Kurt Freund M.D., D.Sc. a , Robin Watson B.Sc. b
& Douglas Rienzo B.Sc. b
a Department of Behavioural Sexology, Clarke
Institute of Psychiatry, 250 College Street,
Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8, Canada
b Department of Behavioural Sexology, Clarke
Institute of Psychiatry,
Available online: 11 Jan 2010
To cite this article: Kurt Freund M.D., D.Sc., Robin Watson B.Sc. & Douglas Rienzo
B.Sc. (1989): Heterosexuality, homosexuality, and erotic age preference, Journal
of Sex Research, 26:1, 107-117
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The Journal of Sex Research Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 107-117 February, 1989
Heterosexuality, Homosexuality, and
Erotic Age Preference
KURT FREUND, M.D., D.Sc. ROBIN WATSON, B.Sc.
DOUGLAS RIENZO, B.Sc.
Department of Behavioural Sexology, Clarke Institute of Psychiatry
Heterosexual and homosexual males who erotically preferred physically
mature partners were compared with respect to the erotic impact of the
nonpreferred age groups (of the preferred gender) and the nonpreferred
gender. Erotic impact was assessed by phallometric test of erotic gender
and age preferences. This measures penile volume changes during the
presentation of potentially erotic stimuli. Homosexual males who pre-
ferred physically mature partners responded no more to male children
than heterosexual males who preferred physically mature partners
responded to female children. Although heterosexual males showed a
(slight) erotic aversion to the male stimuli, and homosexual males did
not show an aversion to the female stimuli, this difference was minimal.
KEY WORDS: penile responses, homosexuality, heterosexuality, age
preference
(I) The Erotic Impact of the Nonpreferred
Age Group of the Preferred Gender
An earlier study assessed the incidence of male sex offenders against
female children vs. such offenders against male children (Freund,
Heasman, Racansky, & Glancy, 1984). Approximately one-third of
these individuals had victimized boys and two-thirds had victimized
girls.
This finding is consistent with the proportions reported in two
earlier studies (Gebhard, Gagnon, Pomeroy, & Christenson, 1965;
Mohr, Turner, & Jerry, 1974). Also, in a recent literature search
(Cameron, 1985) which examined 17 more studies on sex offenders
against children, the ratio of victimized female to male children was
approximately 2:1. Interestingly, this ratio differs substantially from
the ratio of gynephiles (men who erotically prefer physically mature
females) to androphiles (men who erotically prefer physically mature
males),
which is at least 20 to 1 (Gebhard, 1972; Hirschfeld, 1920;
Kinsey, Pomeroy, & Martin, 1948; Whitam, 1983).
The authors wish to thank Cathy Spegg, B.S., M.B.A., of the Computer Services
Department at the Clarke Institute for her assistance with data organization and
statistical advice.
Requests for reprints should be sent to Dr. Kurt Freund, Department of Behavioural
Sexology, Clarke Institute of Psychiatry, 250 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada,
M5T 1R8.107
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108 FREUND, WATSON, AND RIENZO
Such issues led to two systematic investigations of the erotic appeal
of children for males who erotically prefer physically mature persons.
In both investigations, the phallometric arousal test of gender and age
preferences was used. This test assesses erotic preferences by
measurement of penile volume changes during the presentation of
visual and auditory stimuli representing various gender-age categories
(Freund, 1963, 1967; Freund, Diamant, & Pinkava, 1958).
The first study (Freund, McKnight, Langevin, & Cibiri, 1972)
assessed the erotic value of minors for gynephiles. The results indi-
cated that for a substantial proportion of gynephiles the erotic impact
of pubescent girls is quite strong, and that the female child also has
significant, albeit weak, erotic arousal potential.
The second study (Freund, Langevin, Cibiri, & Zajac, 1973) com-
pared gynephiles and androphiles on the erotic impact of children,
pubescents, and adults of the preferred as well as of the nonpreferred
gender. There were no differences between the two subject groups in
respect to responses to adults, pubescents, and to 6- to 8-year-old
children; however, responses of gynephiles to 8- to 11-year-old female
children turned out to be larger than responses of androphiles to male
children of that age. While this difference was significant, it was very
small.
Unfortunately, in these earlier studies there were no neutral stimuli.
Thus,
comparison of gynephiles and androphiles (on responses to
potentially erotic stimulus categories) rests on the assumption that
these groups did not differ in penile responses to neutral stimuli. How-
ever, if this assumption is incorrect, the small difference between the
groups' responses to children of the preferred gender would not be
reliable. Therefore, the present study re-investigated this issue (with
new groups of gynephiles and androphiles), using a new version of the
phallometric test of age and gender preferences (Freund & Blanchard,
in press) and a stimulus set which included neutral stimuli
(landscapes).
(II) The Erotic Impact of the Nonpreferred Gender
In contrast to gynephiles, a substantial number of androphiles claim
to be "bisexuals" and are often in heterosexual marriages. However,
Krafft-Ebing (1986/1965), Hirschfeld (1920), and Kronfeld (1923)
believe that self-labelled bisexuals are really androphiles. Consequent-
ly, an earlier study (Freund, Scher, Chan, & Ben-Aron, 1982) tested
this hypothesis by comparing self-labelled bisexuals with androphiles
who did not claim to be bisexuals (using both self-report scales and the
phallometric test). The outcome supported the hypothesis of the
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EROTIC AGE PREFERENCE 109
above-noted authors: while the self-professed bisexuals differed signifi-
cantly from the androphiles who did not claim to be bisexual on the
self-report scales, there was no such difference between the two groups
on phallometrically indicated bisexuality.
The demonstration that self-professed bisexuals are really andro-
philes, however, does not rule out the possibility that androphiles in
general may be more bisexual (i.e., demonstrate less erotic gender dif-
ferentiation) than gynephiles. This possibility could not be sufficiently
investigated by the study mentioned above (Freund et al., 1973)
because of the absence of neutral stimuli. That is, the inclusion of
neutral stimuli makes it possible to determine a baseline level, above
which erotic arousal may be said to be occurring and below which
erotic aversion may be said to be occurring. The results of the earlier
investigation could only demonstrate that neither gynephiles nor
androphiles have any gross aversion to the nonpreferred gender. A
more precise comparison of gynephiles and androphiles was the task of
the present study.
Method
Subjects
Two groups of paid volunteers, one gynephilic, the other androphilic,
and a group of (gynephilic) sex offenders against physically mature
females (without any offenses against minors) were selected by com-
puter program from the data bank of phallometric test results of the
sexology department of a psychiatric teaching hospital. All subjects
had undergone the most recent version of the phallometric test
(Freund & Blanchard, in press). The gynephilic volunteers were
recruited from a government placement office for the unemployed, and
the androphilic volunteers were recruited by an advertisement posted
in a gay bookstore. The sex offenders against physically mature
females consisted of patients with various expressions of a courtship
disorder (Freund, Scher, & Hucker, 1983), such as voyeurism, exhibi-
tionism, etc., who had never been charged with rape, and of men who
had been charged with rape. They were referred by psychiatrists
examining them on court order or at the request of the offenders'
lawyers.1
1Every subject was told prior to the first test session that the test would measure his
erotic preferences and that he could withdraw from the test at any time. Also, subjects
were shown the volume sensor and told that blood circulation in their penis would be
measured. Additionally, volunteers were informed that the test result would remain
anonymous, and the offenders were told that the results would be reported to the
referring physician. After answering the subject's pertinent questions, a consent form
was given for signing.
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110 FREUND, WATSON, AND RIENZO
Those among the gynephilic volunteers and the sex offenders
against women whose test outcome was interpreted (by a computer
program) as indicating androphilia were excluded from the study as
were androphilic volunteers who were erroneously diagnosed as gyne-
philes. Individuals whose results showed signs of faking (Freund, Wat-
son, & Rienzo, 1988) were not included in the present investigation.2 Of
the remaining individuals, single test sessions were discarded if the
protocol indicated that a technical error had occurred or if the overall
test response for that session was insufficient as indicated by the "out-
put index" (see below).
The phallometric test was administered in two sessions. Table 1
shows number, mean age, and median education for each group. The
two sessions differ in respect to these numbers because (a) only valid
test sessions were included, and (b) when this test version was intro-
duced, we experimented initially with the number of times the dif-
ferent stimulus categories were presented. Results of subjects who
received only one test session in its final version were included only for
that session and not for the other in which the preliminary version was
used (in Table 1 these cases are listed as "Not given").
Procedure
Description of the test. Both phallometric test sessions included
pictures of nude physically mature and physically immature females
and males, successively presented one at a time on a screen and accom-
panied by taped narratives. A break separated the two sessions to
minimize fatigue effects (as had also been intended with the variation
of types of stimulus presentation—see below). In Session One, each of
27 trials lasted 28 seconds and consisted of two consecutive movie
strips each showing a different person of the same gender-age category
walking towards the viewer. In Session Two, each of 25 trials lasted 54
seconds during which slides of 3 nude persons were shown successively
such that 3 screens simultaneously showed a front view, a rear view,
and the genital region. In the course of a trial, no one screen showed
the same type of view (front, rear, genital region) twice. The narratives
accompanying Session One described the persons on the screen
engaging in neutral activities, such as swimming. In Session Two, the
narratives described imaginary sexual interaction between the tested
subject and the person on the screen.
2The signs of faking are: (a) a characteristic pattern of intentional movements in the
response records; (b) the highest mean response in either of the two test sessions or the
second highest mean response in the first session to neutral stimuli; and (c) the second
highest mean response (in either test session) to a stimulus category of the gender
opposite to the gender of the stimulus category most responded to, provided that at
least one of the two categories is of physically mature persons and that the difference
between the two means is not larger than 0.5 z-scores (see "Measurement").
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EROTIC AGE PREFERENCE 111
Table 1
Group Characteristics of Gynephiles and Androphiles
Session I
N
Mean age
S.D. age
Median Education
Session II
N
Mean age
S.D. age
Median Education
Single sessions not used
Session I
Invalid
Not given
Session II
Invalid
Not given
Gyne Off
36
27.0
6.8
8 < Ed < 12
44
28.0
7.0
8 < Ed < 12
13
0
4
1
GyneVol
56
25.6
6.4
Ed = 12
78
26.4
6.8
Ed = 12
11
17
2
4
Andro Vol
28
26.7
5.2
Ed = 12
36
27.2
5.4
Ed = 12
4
6
0
2
Note. Gyne Off = gynephilic offenders, Gyne Vol = gynephilic volunteers, Andro
Vol = androphilic volunteers, Ed = educational level, 8 < Ed < 12 = more than 8
grades completed but less than 12, Ed = 12 = 12 grades completed. Single sessions not
used indicates the number of subjects in each group who provided only one usable test
session: Invalid = session not usable because of insufficient response (Low O.I.) or
technical error; Not given = preliminary version of the session administered, therefore
not used in the comparisons.
When the phallometric test of gender-age preference is administered
at the start of each session (after attachment of the volume sensor), the
subject is involved in a conversation on neutral topics until penile
volume does not diminish any more. After each trial, there is a waiting
period until penile volume returns to and oscillates around the baseline
level before commencement of the next trial. Subjects are monitored
with a low light-level video camera to ensure that they are attending to
the visual stimuli. Nine categories of stimuli were presented in Session
One,
including 4 age categories for each of the two genders and also
one category of sexually neutral movie clips. The 4 age categories
were: children of ages 5 to 8 and 8 to 11, pubescents of ages 12 to 15,
and physically mature persons. Stimuli were presented in 3 successive
blocks each consisting of 9 trials, one trial for each of the gender-age
categories and one for the sexually neutral category (landscapes), in
fixed random order. In Session Two, 4 gender-age categories, as well as
a category of neutral slides (also landscapes), were presented in 5 suc-
cessive blocks analogous to those in Session One. The younger
category of children and the pubescents were not included in Session
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112 FREUND, WATSON, AND RIENZO
Two.
Session One was preceded by three habituation trials, Session
Two by two.
Measurement. For each trial, penile volume changes (in mL) were
measured in two ways: D-type scores, the largest deviation from initial
value, and A-type scores, the area under the plotted response curve.
The raw D-type scores were converted into standard scores, derived
from each subject's own D-type data only, for each session separately,
and the same operation was carried out with his A-type scores. These
D-type and A-type standard scores were subsequently combined
according to the formula (z + z )/2.
To avoid inclusion of test sessions in which there was virtually no
response to the stimuli, each subject's overall level of responding was
expressed for each session as an output index (hereafter O.I., Freund,
Chan, & Coulthard, 1979; Freund & Blanchard, in press). This was the
mean of the 3 highest responses in raw D-scores, responses to neutrals
excluded. O.I. for Session One had to be at least 0.5 mL, while a
minimum of 1.0 mL was necessary in Session Two.'
For each gender-age category, a one-way ANOVA was carried out,
with groups as the independent variable and combined z-scores as the
dependent variable. Differences between pairs of groups were assessed
by Scheffe test.
Results
In neither of the test sessions was there a significant difference
between the groups in respect to O.I. (one-way ANOVA for Session
One:
F < 1; d.f.: 2, 117; p = 0.66; for Session Two: F < 1; d.f.: 2, 155;
p = 0.76). There was also no significant difference between the groups
when all those subjects were included in this comparison who had been
excluded only because of low O.I.
Tables 2 and 3 show the mean response of each group to each of the
age categories of the preferred gender, minus the group's mean
response to neturals (both in z-scores). Tables 4 and 5 show the same
3Diagnostic indicators. Diagnostic indicators were used in the present study to iden-
tify (and exclude) those individuals who had claimed to be gynephilic but were diag-
nosed as androphilic or who had claimed to be androphilic and were diagnosed as
gynephilic. These indicators include a gender preference index (greatest mean response
in z-scores to any age category of females minus greatest mean response to any age
category of males) and two age preference indices, one for the diagnosis of pedophilia,
the other for the diagnosis of homosexual hebephilia. The pedophilia index is the mean
response to the category of physically mature males or females, whichever is larger,
minus the mean response to any of the gender-age categories of children, whichever is
largest. The homosexual hebephilia index is the mean response to physically mature
females or males, whichever is greater, minus the mean response to male pubescents
(this version of the test does not diagnose heterosexual hebephilia). Information about
cutting scores and further details of the diagnostic process are contained in Freund and
Blanchard (in press).
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EROTIC AGE PREFERENCE113
Table 2
Relativized Penile Response to the Preferred Gender Session I
Age Category
6-8
M
S.E.
8-11
M
S.E.
12-15
M
S.E.
Adult
M
S.E.
Gyne Off
-.0028a
(.0973)
.3811a
(.1128)
.7533a
(.1048)
1.7497a
(.1239)
Subject Group
GyneVol
.0966a
(.0627)
,5102a
(.0863)
.6920a
(.0838)
1.7241a
(.1063)
Andro Vol
-.0586a
(.0849)
.2239a
(.0932)
.9164a
(.1607)
1.5611a
(.1739)
ANOVA+
F = 1.01
p = 0.37
F = 2.00
p = 0.14
F = 1.01
p = 0.37
F < 1
p = 0.61
Note. The first number in each cell indicates the given group's mean response (M) to the
category in question minus its mean response to the sexually neutral category. The
second number in the cell (in round brackets) indicates the standard error of this rela-
tivized mean
{S.E.).
Gyne Off = gynephilic offenders. Gyne Vol = gynephilic volun-
teers.
Andro Vol = androphilic volunteers.
+df = (2,117) in every case.
Within each age category, means having the same subscript are not significantly dif-
ferent at p < 0.05 according to the Scheffe test.
Table 3
Relativized Penile Response to the Preferred Gender Session II
Subject Group
Age Category
8-11
M
S.E.
Adult
M
S.E.
Gyne Off
.8880a
(.1113)
1.9055a
(.0925)
Gyne Vol
.9558a
(.0824)
1.8786a
(.0627)
Andro Vol
.7125a
(.1299)
1.7192a
(.1207)
AN0VA+
F = 1.32
p = 0.27
F = 1.09
p = 0.34
Note. The first number in each cell indicates the given group's mean response (Af) to the
category in question minus its mean response to the sexually neutral category. The
second number in the cell (in round brackets) indicates the standard error of this rela-
tivized mean
(S.E.).
Gyne Off = gynephilic offenders. Gyne Vol = gynephilic volun-
teers.
Andro Vol = androphilic volunteers.
+df = (2,155) in every case.
Within each age category, means having the same subscript are not significantly dif-
ferent atp < 0.05 according to the Scheffe test.
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114FREUND, WATSON, AND RIENZO
Table 4
Relativized Penile Response to the Nonpreferred Gender
Session I
Age Category
6-8
M
S.E.
8-10
M
S.E.
12-15
M
S.E.
Adult
M
S.E.
GyneOff
-.5283a
(.0741)
-.4117a
(.0929)
-.3633a
(.1048)
-.3144a
(.0770)
Subject Group
GyneVol
-3491a,b
(.0774)
-•2418a,b
(.0791)
-.1095ab
(.0876)
-.2813a
(.0936)
Andro Vol
-.1100b
(.1007)
.0593b
(.0882)
.0879b
(.1002)
.1332
(.1295)
ANOVA+
F = 4.88
p = 0.01
F = 5.73
p = 0.00
F = 4.28
p = 0.02
F = 4.90
p = 0.01
Note. The first number in each cell indicates the given group's mean response (Af) to the
category in question minus its mean response to the sexually neutral category. The
second number in the cell (in round brackets) indicates the standard error of this rela-
tivized mean
(S.E.).
Gyne Off = gynephilic offenders. Gyne Vol = gynephilic volun-
teers.
Andro Vol = androphilic volunteers.
+df = (2,117) in every case.
Within each age category, means having the same subscript are not significantly dif-
ferent atp < 0.05 according to the Scheffe test.
Table 5
Relativized Penile Response to the Nonpreferred Gender Session II
Age Category
8-11
M
S.E.
Adult
M
S.E.
Gyne Off
.2020a
(.0783)
.0111a
(.0692)
Subject Group
Gyne Vol
.1913a
(.0657)
.0242a
(.0657)
Andro Vol
.2956a
(.0978)
•2394a
(.0905)
ANOVA+
F < 1
p = 0.64
F = 2.31
p = 0.10
Note. The first number in each cell indicates the given group's mean response (Af) to the
category in question minus its mean response to the sexually neutral category. The
second number in the cell (in round brackets) indicates the standard error of this rela-
tivized mean
{S.E.).
Gyne Off = gynephilic offenders. Gyne Vol = gynephilic volun-
teers.
Andro Vol = androphilic volunteers.
+df = (2,155) in every case.
Within each age category, means having the same subscript are not significantly dif-
ferent at p < 0.05 according to the Scheffe test.
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EROTIC AGE PREFERENCE 115
relativised mean scores for each of the age categories of the non-
preferred gender.
Tables 2 and 3 demonstrate that for none of the age categories of the
preferred gender did the three groups differ from each other in respect
to the difference between the mean penile response to that category
and the mean penile response to neutrals.
The androphiles, however, differed significantly from both gyne-
philic groups in respect to responses to mature persons of the non-
preferred gender (see Tables 4 and 5). The androphiles responded more
to physically mature females than the gynephiles responded to
physically mature males. The response of the gynephiles to physically
mature males was less than that to neutrals, indicating aversion,
whereas the response of androphiles to physically mature females was
positive.
In respect to the remaining age categories of the nonpreferred
gender, the androphiles differed significantly only from the sex
offenders against adult females, with the androphiles responding
relatively more than the sex offenders. The Scheffe test did not
differentiate in any category between the gynephilic volunteers and
either of the two remaining groups.
Discussion
The results of the present study suggest that the erotic attractive-
ness of male children (or pubescents) for androphiles is not greater
than the erotic attractiveness of female children (or pubescents) to
gynephiles. Thus, there must be another reason for the finding that the
proportion of sex offenders against male children among homosexual
men is substantially larger than the proportion of sex offenders
against female children among heterosexual men (Cameron, 1985).
Perhaps, the negative result of the present study supports an alterna-
tive hypothesis which focuses on homosexual pedophilia instead of
androphilia, namely, that the development of pedophilia is more close-
ly linked with homosexuality than with heterosexuality (Freund et al.,
1984).
However, since this explanation is still speculative, research
needs to continue in this direction. From a more practical point of
view, the negative finding in the comparison of gynephiles and andro-
philes (in respect to attractiveness of children of the preferred sex)
indicates a reformulation of notions about sexual offenses against
children. For example, those who blame androphiles for the relatively
larger incidence of sexual offenses against male children, compared to
the incidence of sexual offenses against female children, must come up
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116 FREUND, WATSON,
AND
RIENZO
with
a
reasonable explanation
of
why
these offenses
are not
actually
perpetuated
by
pedophiles.
Both gynephilic groups showed
an
erotic aversion
to
males
of all
ages,
whereas androphiles showed
an
erotic aversion only
to the
youngest
age
group
of
females.
The
interpretation that this
is a
cultural phenomenon
is
supported
by the
fact that only
the
(gyne-
philic)
sex
offenders, who probably tried their best
to
have
a
favorable
test outcome, attained
a
convincing degree
of
aversion, responding
less
to
every
age
category
of
males than
to
neutrals when compared
to
androphiles' responses
to
females.
The
gynephilic volunteers,
on the
other hand, differed significantly
in
this direction from
the
androphilic
volunteers only with regard
to
responses
to
adults,
and not
with
regard
to
the
remaining age-categories. This difference
may
therefore
be
due
to
cultural taboos.
Finally,
the
question
may be
asked
to
what degree
the
phallometric
method
is
pertinent
in
this kind
of
analysis.
The
answer
is
that there
have been numerous studies
on
phallometric differentiation between
heterosexual pedophiles, homosexual pedophiles, gynephiles,
and
androphiles (most
of
which
are
listed
in
Freund & Blanchard,
in
press).
These studies show that only rarely
are sex
offenders against male
children diagnosed
as
androphiles
and
that
the
phallometric diagnosis
of gynephilic
and
androphilic volunteers almost always corresponds
to
their claimed erotic preference.
References
CAMERON,
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... genital responses of both androphilic (i.e., sexually attracted to men) and gynephilic (i.e., sexually attracted to women) men tend to be elicited by gender/sex cues that correspond with stated sexual preferences and interests (e.g., Blanchard, Klassen, Dickey, Kuban, & Blak, 2001 ;Freund, Watson, & Rienzo, 1989 ;Lykins et al., 2010 ;Rieger, Chivers, & Bailey, 2005;Rosenthal, Sylva, Safron, & Bailey, 2012 ;Sakheim, Barlow, Beck, & Abrahamson, 1985 ). Relative to men, the genital responses of androphilic women demonstrate much lower gender/sex cue-specifi city (e.g., Chivers et al., 2004 ;Chivers, Seto, & Blanchard, 2007 ;Laan, Sonderman, & Janssen, 1996;Peterson, Janssen, & Laan, 2010 ;Suschinsky et al., 2009 ; reviewed by Chivers, 2017 ;Lalumière, Sawatsky, Dawson, & Suschinsky, 2020). In fact, androphilic women consistently show comparable genital response magnitudes to depictions of sexual activity involving men or women (e.g., Chivers et al., 2004Chivers et al., , 2007Suschinsky et al., 2009 ) and this is despite variation in self-reported sexual arousal to male versus female sexual cues (e.g., Bossio, Suschinsky, Puts, & Chivers, 2014 ;Chivers et al., 2004Chivers et al., , 2007Chivers et al., , 2014Chivers & Timmers, 2012 ;Suschinsky et al., 2009 ). ...
Article
Women’s genital responses measured with a vaginal photoplethysmograph (VPP) demonstrate relatively low cue-specificity for gender/sex cues—the difference in genital responses between sexual stimuli with male or female content is relatively small compared to that of men. Cue-specificity for gender/sex cues is particularly low for androphilic women. It is common practice to compare responses to sexual stimuli (typically 60–120 s film clips) using a mean or peak (highest) value. This approach overlooks the continuous and dynamic nature of sexual responding during a stimulus. Recent results suggest that cue-specificity of genital response may increase throughout the duration of a sexual stimulus. We tested this possibility in a sample of 18 androphilic women. Sexual stimuli consisted of 240 s audiovisual film clips depicting male and/or female partnered sex or solitary masturbation. Gender/sex cue-specificity, assessed using VPP, did not vary across time: The degree of cue-specificity and the magnitude of genital response were established by approximately 60–90 s and were consistent throughout the stimulus duration. Low cue-specificity for genital response was observed despite variation in self-reported sexual arousal across stimulus categories. The findings are discussed within the context of initial- and later-occurring aspects of the sexual response, according to the information processing model of sexual arousal. The results also suggest that 90–120 s stimuli are of sufficient duration to capture vaginal photoplethysmographic responses to audiovisual stimuli in sexual psychophysiological research.
... Physiological sexual arousal to erotic stimuli can be assessed in laboratory settings as an indicator of male sexual orientation. Heterosexual and homosexual men typically show specific sexual arousal patterns, with most heterosexual men being exclusively aroused to females and most homosexual men being exclusively aroused to males (Bailey, 2009;Freund, 1963;Freund, Watson, & Rienzo, 1989;Rieger et al., 2015). However, unlike for most heterosexual or homosexual men, the genital arousal patterns of bisexual-identified men do not necessarily match their sexual self-identities (Bailey, 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Some research suggests that bisexual-identified men show bisexual genital arousal, whereas other research indicates monosexual arousal: they are aroused to one sex only. These seemingly contradictory findings may be due to the type of men identifying as bisexual and the performed analyses. We examined whether both bisexual and monosexual arousal patterns could co-occur within the same sample. 114 men of different sexual orientations viewed erotic videos of males or females while their penile circumference was measured. On average, bisexual-identified men were more aroused to males than females, and especially if they identified as “bisexual leaning gay.” However, also on average, bisexual men showed bisexual arousal, and especially if they were “bisexual leaning straight”. Furthermore, there was more variability in the arousal patterns of bisexual-identified men, compared with other men. Based on their physiological sexual arousal, bisexual men appear to be a more diverse group than men who identified as heterosexual or homosexual.
... According to the studies cited in Blanchard et al. (2000), 2-4% of male teleiophiles prefer men while 25-40% of male pedophiles prefer boys. Such proportions are very similar to the ones reported in previous reviews (Freund, Heasman, Racansky, & Glancy, 1984;Freund, Watson, & Rienzo, 1989). Therefore, it appears possible that the statistically significant effect size found by McPhail and Cantor (2015) could be explained, in whole or in part, by the greater proportion of homosexuals among pedophiles. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Scientific literature holds a large array of studies on pedophilia, which is the marked and persistent sexual attraction towards prepubescent children, and many of these studies tested various hypotheses in order to gain a general picture of pedophiles as a population. In this regard, a number of differences have been observed between pedophiles and controls, which lead to the identification of specific characteristics for which pedophiles appear to distinguish themselves. However, an important limitation of these studies is their almost systematic use of forensic and clinical samples. Indeed, there is little to suggest that such samples are representative of the general pedophile population. This extensive use of forensic and clinical samples in studies on pedophiles is especially problematic considering that the conclusions of such studies are often generalised to all pedophiles. As many studies have found that pedophiles from forensic and clinical samples display multiple differences when compared to controls, we decided to assess five of these differences in order to determine if these results would be replicated within a community sample of pedophiles. We compared a community sample of 190 male pedophiles with a control group composed of 151males from the general population, examining differences in their depressive symptoms, self-esteem, psychopathic traits, height, and handedness. All participants were recruited on the internet and filled an online questionnaire. Data were tested based on three different levels of analysis, each assessing a particular division of participants regarding their sexual orientation. Differences between pedophiles and controls were not statistically significant for depressive symptoms, self-esteem, height, and handedness. Difference between pedophiles and controls reached statistical significance for psychopathic traits, with pedophiles displaying fewer psychopathic traits compared to controls. These results contradict the findings of the large majority of studies using forensic and clinical samples of pedophiles. An analysis of the data controlling for age, race, country of residence, and sexual gender-orientation did not substantially change the overall pattern of results, except that the difference between the two groups for psychopathic traits was now only significant for one of the three levels of analysis. Our results therefore suggest that pedophiles from forensic and clinical samples are different from those in community samples and that generalizing the conclusions drawn from forensic and clinical samples to all pedophiles is an important methodological and conceptual bias.
... There is a well-replicated gender difference in cues that elicit sexual arousal: Gender cues are relevant for men's sexual arousal (e.g., Chivers, Seto, & Blanchard, 2007;Freund, 1963Freund, , 1967Freund, Watson, & Rienzo, 1989) but are not always meaningfully related to women's sexual arousal responses (see Chivers, 2017). More specifically, gynephilic (i.e., sexually attracted to women) and androphi- lic (i.e., sexually attracted to men) men exhibit a gender- specific pattern of sexual response, such that they demon- strate greatest genital and self-reported sexual arousal to sexual stimuli (audio, visual, and audiovisual) featuring their preferred relative to their nonpreferred gender (e.g., Chivers et al., 2007;Spape, Timmers, Yoon, Ponseti, & Chivers, 2014). ...
Article
Sexual desire may be “responsive,” emerging from sexual arousal to sexually competent cues. Cues that elicit sexual arousal and desire differ, however, by gender and direction of sexual attractions. Further, relationship context cues are thought to be important for responsive desire, but this has not been tested directly. The current study examined gynephilic men’s (n = 27) and exclusively (n = 23) and predominantly (n = 17) androphilic women’s dyadic and solitary responsive sexual desire, as well as genital and self-reported arousal, to audio narratives varying by gender (male, female) of the sexual partner and relationship context (stranger, friend, long-term relationship). Consistent with previous literature, gynephilic men’s solitary and dyadic desire were gender-specific (greater to female than to male sexual partners). Exclusively androphilic women’s dyadic desire differentiated less to cues of gender than gynephilic men’s, and their solitary desire did not differentiate by gender cues at all, replicating previous research. Androphilic women with some gynephilia reported a gender-nonspecific pattern of dyadic and solitary desire (i.e., responsive desire to both male and female narratives). No effect of relationship context was found for any groups. Results suggest that responsive sexual desire may be more closely associated with self-reported than genital arousal patterns.
... Women's genital responses have low cue-specificity (e.g., Chivers & Bailey, 2005;Chivers, Rieger, Latty, & Bailey, 2004;Chivers, Seto, & Blanchard, 2007;Peterson, Janssen, & Laan, 2010;Suschinsky, Lalumière, & Chivers, 2009), especially relative to men, whose genital responses consistently demonstrate high cue-specificity for gender, age, and sexual activity (e.g., Blanchard, Klassen, Dickey, Kuban, & Blak, 2001;Freund, Watson, & Rienzo, 1989;Lykins et al., 2010;Rosenthal, Sylva, Safron, & Bailey, 2012;Sakheim, Barlow, Beck, & Abrahamson, 1985). One explanation for low cue-specificity in women is the preparation hypothesis (Suschinsky & Lalumière, 2011), which proposes that women's indiscriminate and seemingly automatic genital responses to any sexual cue functions to prepare the relevant organs for impending sexual activities, thereby preventing injury (also see Chivers, 2005;Laan, 1994;Laan & Janssen, 2007;Suschinsky et al., 2009). ...
Article
Women's genital responses are sensitive to the presence and intensity of sexual cues, yet some stimulus features (e.g., male vs. female actors, consensual vs. non-consensual interactions) have little influence on the magnitude of response–a phenomenon called low cue-specificity. Genital responses are typically assessed using vaginal photoplethysmography, a measure of vaginal vasocongestion, itself a precursor to lubrication. One explanation for low cue-specificity is the preparation hypothesis: Women genitally respond to almost all sexual cues because lubrication functions to protect genital organs from potential injury should vaginal penetration occur. In order to test the preparation hypothesis, both vaginal vasocongestion and introital lubrication were assessed in a sample of 20 women in response to sexually explicit films. While patterns of vasocongestion were consistent with low cue-specificity for gender cues and type of sexual activity, lubrication was specific to women's most preferred sexual stimulus categories. These results are inconsistent with the preparation hypothesis.
... An idea sometimes related to homosexual recruitment is that homosexual men are especially likely to molest children. The main data leading some (e.g., Dailey, 2002) to this conclusion show that about one-third of child molestation victims are male (Freund, Watson, & Rienzo, 1989). Homosexual men comprise a much smaller percentage of the population, perhaps 3%. ...
Article
Marked differences have been found in men’s and women’s sexual response patterns, contingent upon their sexual orientation; androphilic (attracted to men) and gynephilic (attracted to women) men demonstrate greatest genital and self-reported arousal to their preferred stimulus type (a “gender-specific” response), whereas androphilic women do not, and findings for gynephilic women have been mixed. While there have been many investigations into gynephilic men’s and androphilic women’s (i.e., heterosexual men/women) sexual response, there has been less investigation into the specificity of sexual response of androphilic men and gynephilic women. Given the complex nature of sexual stimuli that are used in sexual response research, it is often unclear to what extent contextual cues (e.g., cues other than the sexual actor’s primary and secondary sex characteristics, such as physical attractiveness, sexual activity, etc.) influence participants’ sexual response patterns. As such, the current study examined genital, discrete self-reported, and continuous self-reported responses of androphilic men ( n = 22) and gynephilic women ( n = 10) to prepotent sexual features (stimuli thought to elicit automatic sexual arousal: erect penises and exposed vulvas), non-prepotent sexual features (flaccid penises and pubic triangles) and neutral stimuli (clothed men and women). Both samples exhibited a gender-specific pattern of genital, self-reported, and continuous self-reported sexual arousal. Similarly, all measures of sexual arousal were generally found to be greatest to “prepotent” sexual cues. Implications for understanding gender specificity of sexual response are discussed.
Thesis
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ABSTRACT This thesis discusses the issue of sexuality and reproductive rights. It examines Lesbian, Gay, Bi-sexual and Transsexual (LGBT) Rights but concentrates on homosexual rights (otherwise known as gay rights) particularly as it relates to human rights and discusses agitations raised. It analyses the impact of morality/religion as the supposed main opponent/ deterrent of the gay movement and seeks to find out if opposition to the movement can be confidently sustained outside the tenets of religion. This thesis recommends the way forward in the treatment of ‘gay rights’ and concludes by asserting that indeed outside of religion, there are arguments that can confidently be employed to truncate the stance of the gay movement.
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This study argues that institutional psychiatry's pathologizing stance on homosexuality persisted after 1973, when the American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. It persisted not only through the well-known diagnoses of "ego-dystonic homosexuality" and "gender identity disorder of childhood," but also through case studies published in four editions of the DSM Casebooks (1981, 1989, 1994, 2002), the APA publications advertised as a "learning companion to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual." These publications contained harmful and false homosexual stereotypes, associating gay men with child abuse, violence, and sexual sadism; associating homosexuality with mental disturbance while failing to similarly mark heterosexuality or bisexuality; associating psychopathology with gay social contexts while failing to similarly mark non-gay social contexts. This study provides evidence that the DSM Casebooks portrayed homosexual women and bisexuals as invisible, and homosexual men as narcissistic, predatory, and dangerous.
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While much research provides evidence that gay men and lesbians are discriminated against in the U.S. labor force, the contexts in which such bias is enhanced or reduced, or the mechanisms behind it, are harder to pinpoint. This article puts forth that occupational context—and specifically, the stereotypes about gay men and lesbians evoked by certain occupational contexts—plays an important role in shaping bias against gay men and lesbians in the labor force. I argue that people are implicitly guided by cultural stereotypes about gay men and lesbians, which affects perceptions about whether they are suitable for specific occupations. This leads to penalties for being openly gay or lesbian in some occupational scenarios, but may lead to less or no penalties in others. This theory is tested empirically using a list experiment, a methodological technique designed to reduce or eliminate social desirability bias in responses. Results suggest that bias against gay men and lesbians is not standard across all occupations or subgroups of gay employees, but rather, is shaped by important contextual factors that can activate certain stereotypes about gay and lesbian individuals.
Article
In the context of a search for testable etiological theories of pedophilia, the relationship of pedophilia to partner sex preference was investigated. The proportional prevalences of gynephilia and androphilia were compared with the proportional prevalences of sexual offenders victimizing female children and of such offenders against male children. Since pedophilia either does not exist at all in women, or is extremely rare, only men were included in the study. We derived the proportional prevalence of androphilia from a review of the main pertinent studies, including Gebhard's reassessment of the study by Kinsey et al. particularly of the section on gynephilia vs. androphilia. The numbers of heterosexual vs. homosexual offenders against children were derived from the studies by Mohr et al., by Gebhard et al., and from a group of 457 sex offenders against children seen in the course of several years at the Department of Behavioural Sexology of the Clarke Institute of Psychiatry. There was a large difference between the proportion of prevalences of heterosexual vs. homosexual offenders against children on the one hand and the proportional prevalences of gynephilia vs. androphilia, on the other. This difference suggests that the development of erotically preferred partner sex and partner age are not independent of each other and that in pedophilia, the development of heterosexuality or homosexuality is brought about by factors different from those operative in the development of androphilia or gynephilia.
Article
The first part of the study tested the validity of the conjecture that three particular patterns, occurring in phallometric results, are signs of feigning. In all three cases the outcome supported this conjecture. Part Two showed that feigning a spurious preference for sex (gender) of partner is more difficult than feigning a spurious preference in respect to partner age, and that the degree of difficulty of the latter depends on whether or not the S was already familiar with the phallometric test, and on the version of the phallometric test for age preference and sex preference used.
Article
Penile volume reactions of homosexual and heterosexual males were compared, using slides of nudes of both sexes at various ages and slides of bland sexually neutral pictures. With the exception of the larger responses of the heterosexual controls to children of their preferred sex, the responses of the two groups to the various sex-age categories were comparable (no significant differences). With both groups, the responses to the various age categories of the non-preferred sex were indiscriminable from those to the neutral pictures. In a further experiment, six stimulus categories of slides were exposed: (1) pictures of skin afflictions from a dermatological textbook, (2 and 3) two categories of neutral slides, (4) nude pubescents, and (5) nude adults of the non-preferred sex. Before exposure of these slides, subjects were prearoused with slides of adult nudes of their preferred sex. With both groups the pictures of skin afflictions produced significantly more penile detumescence than the remaining stimulus categories. Pictures of persons of the non-preferred sex and the neutral slides were not significantly different. The heterosexual controls rated the pictures of skin conditions as more disgusting than those of males, and the latter in turn as more disgusting than neutral pictures. The homosexual males rated the skin afflictions as more disgusting than all the other pictures, but there was no significant difference in their verbal rating of female pictures and neutral slides. The studies did not support the hypothesis that homosexuality is a neurotic symptom.
Article
The phallometric method of assessing erotic value of presented stimuli has two main tasks, one is in the breaking down of complex (potentially) sexual stimuli into components, the other is in diagnosing anomalous erotic preferences in ‘Nonadmitters’, i.e. in persons whose behaviour would imply there is such an anomaly, but who deny its presence. Differentiation between Admitters and Nonadmitters was attained by two verbal Admitter scales. Comparison of the scores on these scales with results of phallometric assessment showed (by mutual validation) that the phallometric method diagnoses Admitters more accurately than Nonadmitters. After that, the validity was tested of a new mode of the phallometric method, designed for diagnosing pedo- or hebephilia in Nonadmitters. In cases of homosexual pedophilia or hebephilia (but not in the heterosexual cases) the new Nonadmitter mode was superior to the Standard procedure.
Article
We investigated the sensitivity of our phallometric test for pedophilia (and hebephilia). An initial sample of subjects included 47 men accused of sexual offenses against minors and 26 control subjects-men accused of offenses against adult women (exhibitionism, rape, or sexually sadistic activity). A second sample included 107 offenders against minors and 30 control subjects. In both samples, the offenders against minors were further classified according to the targets of their sexual offenses (girls, boys, or both) and according to the extent to which they admitted an erotic preference for the immature physique. Computerized diagnostic rules were developed with the first sample and cross-validated with the second. The sensitivity of the test in detecting pedophilia or hebephilia in complete nonadmitters is probably greater than or equal to 55% but is certainly less than 100%. Its specificity appears to be over 95%.