ArticleLiterature Review

A review of chemical composition and nutritional value of wild-growing and cultivated mushrooms

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Abstract

Fruit bodies of about 200 mushroom species are consumed throughout the world, preferably as a delicacy. Knowledge of their chemical composition, nutritional value and health-promoting effects has expanded dynamically during the last few years. Dry matter (DM) is low: commonly about 100 g kg(-1) . The usual contents of protein, lipids and ash are 200-250, 20-30 and 80-120 g kg(-1) DM, respectively. Various carbohydrates form the remaining DM. Nevertheless, great variations occur both among and within species. Energy is low, usually 350-400 kcal kg(-1) of fresh fruit bodies. The nutritional contribution of mushroom protein derived from earlier data seems to be overestimated. Fat content is low with markedly prevailing in linoleic acid and oleic acid, while the proportion of n-3 fatty acids is nutritionally marginal. The main carbohydrates are chitin, glycogen, trehalose and mannitol. Information on fibre content and composition is limited. Health-promoting β-glucans are an auspicious group of polysaccharides. High potassium content is characteristic of mushrooms. Several species can accumulate very high levels of both detrimental trace elements, particularly cadmium and mercury, and radiocaesium isotopes if growing on heavily polluted substrates. Mushrooms seem to be a considerable source of ergosterol, provitamin D(2) , and phenolids with antioxidative properties. Hundreds of flavour constituents have been identified, particularly with eight-carbon aliphatic chains. Data on changes of mushroom components under various preservation conditions and culinary treatments have been fragmentary. Even more limited is knowledge of nutrient bioavailability. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

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... Some 2000 are edible, and a few hundred wild and cultivated mushrooms have long been utilised as MMs [5,20]. Nutritionally, mushrooms are low in energy and are generally a good source of macro and micronutrients and trace elements, although there is variability [21][22][23][24]. As functional foods, they are also anti-inflammatory and known to modulate gut bacteria [25]. ...
... For example, excessive sodium ions can impair the endothelial vasculature and risk hypertension, but manifestations may be ameliorated with higher potassium ion levels. Hence, mushrooms, which generally contain high potassium and low sodium may be a good nutritional source for ACE inhibition as well [1,24]. ...
... Varying results for macro and micronutrients, and of concern, possible toxic elements, were reported as well. These results seem consistent with previous findings [24]. Therefore, consuming mushrooms with the intention of deriving some health or medicinal benefit may need to consider these influences to enhance or mitigate inhibitory effects. ...
Article
Full-text available
Many mushroom species are consumed as food, while significant numbers are also utilised medicinally. Mushrooms are rich in nutrients and bioactive compounds. A growing body of in vitro, in vivo, and human research has revealed their therapeutic potentials, which include such properties as anti-pathogenic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, gut microbiota enhancement, and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 specificity. The uses of medicinal mushrooms (MMs) as extracts in nutraceuticals and other functional food and health products are burgeoning. COVID-19 presents an opportunity to consider how, and if, specific MM compounds might be utilised therapeutically to mitigate associated risk factors, reduce disease severity, and support recovery. As vaccines become a mainstay, MMs may have the potential as an adjunct therapy to enhance immunity. In the context of COVID-19, this review explores current research about MMs to identify the key properties claimed to confer health benefits. Considered also are barriers or limitations that may impact general recommendations on MMs as therapy. It is contended that the extraction method used to isolate bioactive compounds must be a primary consideration for efficacious targeting of physiological endpoints. Mushrooms commonly available for culinary use and obtainable as a dietary supplement for medicinal purposes are included in this review. Specific properties related to these mushrooms have been considered due to their potential protective and mediating effects on human exposure to the SARS CoV-2 virus and the ensuing COVID-19 disease processes.
... This contrasts with vascular plants proving mushrooms as good sources of many mineral elements (Jedidi et al., 2017;Gałgowska & Pietrzak-Fiećko, 2020). Generally, the ash content of mushrooms that provides a measure of the total amount of minerals ranges between 60 and 120 g/kg dry matter, which is somewhat higher than or comparable to those of many vegetables (Kalač, 2013). A few minerals, like potassium (K), phosphorus (P), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn), are abundantly present in mushroom fruiting bodies (Wang et al., 2017). ...
... High potassium content is characteristic of mushrooms where the amount varied from 20-40 g/kg DW, as reported by Kalač (2013). Keleş and Gençcelep (2020) reported mineral composition of 20 wild macrofungi where the amount was quite lower ranging from 5.2 g/kg to 15.75 g/kg DW. ...
... In the case of mycorrhizal species, mycelium is characterized by the dense interlacement of hyphae, high surface to volume ratio, and grow up to 50 cm deep in the soil covering an area up to 100 m 2 (Falandysz et al., 2001). Sometimes this absorbing device has a life span of more than 100 years and it is suggested that the level of elements in the fruit body significantly augments with the age of mycelium (Kalač, 2013). Besides, most of the elements in mushrooms are not evenly distributed in the whole basidiocarps. ...
Chapter
Minerals are inorganic chemicals that are essential for our proper growth and development. Deficiency of the micronutrient is a form of undernutrition that occurs when intake or absorption of the elements is too low to sustain normal physical and mental function. The situation can be ameliorated by adding mushrooms in diet being packed with a range of bio-accessible minerals and thus have immense food value. Studies suggest that they are rich sources of potassium while other major elements are present generally in the order of phosphorus> magnesium> calcium> sodium which is considered as nutritionally advantageous. Amongst the trace elements, iron is present in high concentration in edible macrofungi followed by zinc, copper, manganese and selenium. Besides Macromycetes can uptake heavy metals as well; thus proper knowledge on habitat is required during collection of wild samples. Nevertheless, such absorptive property can be used to elevate level of micronutrient in cultivated mushrooms to produce fortified food. Indeed amid COVID-19 crisis, the global market for nutrient enriched diet is in steep escalation as several minerals (Fe, Zn, Mg, Cu, Se) have been suggested to play a key role in immunity and antioxidant activity. Thus exploitation of macrofungi-derived minerals is need of the hour, as highlighted in the present review, to address micronutrient deficiencies and maintain healthy life.
... a low amount of fat (0.1−9.23%), and a relevant content of minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, iron, and zinc (5.27−37.8%). 18 They are also important sources of healthrelevant compounds such as ergosterol (protovitamin D 2 ), phenolic compounds, and terpenes/terpenoids, 19 some of which are illustrated in Figure 1. Therefore, there are ample overlooked opportunities for investing in mushrooms to develop innovative, flavorful, protein-rich foods. ...
... Similarly, mannitol is found in significant amounts in mushrooms (up to 48−64 g/100 g dry mass in Agaricus bisporus). 18 This is of great significant because, currently, the production of mannitol is problematic. Most mannitol comes from chemical synthesis using nickelassisted hydrogenation of a mixture of mannose−glucose− fructose with the undesired parallel production of large amounts of byproducts. ...
... (eryngii, ostreatus, sajor-caju), Lentinula edodes, Flammulina velutipes and contain a wide range of protein per 100 g dry mass (3.87−41.6 g), but some mushroom species such as Boletus luridis, Laccaria lacata, Russula delica, and Macroepiota mastoidea have very high protein contents (>50%). 18,128 This is impressive, given that the protein contents of common plant protein sources such as pea 129 and soybean 130 average 22% and 49% protein in dry matter, respectively. Because mushrooms' nutritional content is largely influenced by substrate, pH, water activity, temperature, and species, it may be possible to systematically manipulate mushroom protein content through the modification of production protocols. ...
Article
The interest in mushrooms as functional ingredients has increased in the past decade. Mushrooms have low fat content and high fiber and protein contents and are natural sources of valuable food molecules such as ergosterol, polyphenols, terpene and terpenoids, and mannitol and trehalose. Mushrooms have been used as ingredients in meat-and starch-based food formulations with varying degrees of success, but their technological and functional performances in food formulations are yet to be investigated and fully explored for applications directed to the emerging alternative, meat-free, clean-label marketplace. Therefore, in this review, the current scientific data regarding the attributes of mushrooms that elicit their unique functional and nutritional properties, their relevance to the food industry, and potential opportunities for developing innovative, good-tasting, protein-rich foods from mushrooms are presented and discussed.
... 45 The reason for the contradictory finding was not clear, but we speculate that it could be due to differences in the texture, chemical composition, water content, and microbial communities between truffles and mushrooms. [46][47][48] In general, truffles are typically colonized by a higher load of diverse bacterial communities than mushrooms as truffles grow underground 4-6 while mushrooms mostly grow above ground. 46,49 Reducing water activity could limit microbial growth in food products. ...
... [46][47][48] In general, truffles are typically colonized by a higher load of diverse bacterial communities than mushrooms as truffles grow underground 4-6 while mushrooms mostly grow above ground. 46,49 Reducing water activity could limit microbial growth in food products. 50 Under the same storage condition, the count of Pseudomonas spp. in the freeze-dried truffles was below the method quantification limit (<3.48 log CFU/g) during the initial 15 days of storage and was not detected (< 2.00 log CFU/g) on day 30. ...
Article
Black truffle (T. melanosporum) are usually available in a form of a whole, offcut pieces (sliced to remove defects or broken from larger truffles), or freeze‐dried (one of the preservation methods) but there is insufficient knowledge about microbial spoilage of these products. The changes in the microbiology of whole, sliced, and freeze‐dried black truffles (Tuber melanosporum) were determined in this study. All truffle samples were vacuum‐packaged and stored at 4 °C for 30 days and evaluated on day 0, 4, 8, 15 and 30. The total plate count, Pseudomonas spp. count, yeast and mould count as well as the presence of Listeria spp., Salmonella spp., and Bacillus spp. were examined. The main finding of this study was that the total microbial count, Pseudomonas spp. count, and yeasts count associated with the freeze‐dried truffles were generally lower than that of the whole and sliced truffles. Whilst mould, Listeria spp., and Salmonella spp. were not detected (< 2.00 log CFU/g), Bacillus spp. were detected at a very low count in all sample types (< 3.48 log CFU/g). Overall, the results suggest the need to establish an effective decontamination treatment before packaging and storage to delay microbial spoilage.
... observed in the crude protein content of these two species with that of A. auricula-judae (19.70 g/100 g d.w.), Pleurotus ostreatus (19.28 g/100 g d.w.) and A. bisporus (18.65 g/100 g d.w.). Our results were comparable to the previous findings on the protein contents of edible mushroom species [Kalač, 2013;Phan et al., 2012;Reis et al., 2012]. However, different researchers found differences in the protein contents based on the external growing parameters. ...
... Our results could be compared with the carbohydrate content of edible mushrooms as reported earlier [Johnsy et al., 2011;Nwanze et al., 2005]. Carbohydrates are the most abundant constituents of mushrooms, which include sugars (monosaccharides, their derivatives and oligosaccharides) as well as both reserved and construction polysaccharides [Kalač, 2013]. Compared to the small amount of reducing sugars present in mushrooms, chitin and starch constitute the major fraction of total carbohydrates [Manzi et al., 2001]. ...
Article
Full-text available
A variety of cultivated mushrooms in Northeast India are well known for their taste, nutritional and medicinal benefits. Many wild-growing mush- rooms are also consumed due to their exotic flavours and tastes; however, the scientific exploration of their nutritional and bioactive properties is still negligible. In the present study, the 32 wild edible mushroom samples of 11 species collected from different parts of Northeast India were evaluated for their proximate composition, mineral and vitamin (ascorbic acid and riboflavin) contents, antioxidant and antihaemolytic activity, and profiles of organic and phenolic acids. Lentinus sajor-caju and Lentinus squarrosulus had the highest carbohydrate content (49.80 g/100 g dry weight (d.w.) and 46.36 g/100 g d.w., respectively), crude protein content (20.72 g/100 g d.w. and 20.54 g/100 g d.w., respectively) and a considerable content of min- erals. The highest fat content was determined in Lentinus velutinus (7.17 g/100 g d.w.). Among the minerals, potassium was found as the most abundant in all the samples. The extracts of L. sajor-caju, L. squarrosulus, and Pleurotus pulmonarius were characterized by the highest antioxidant activity, while these of L. sajor-caju, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. pulmonarius and Agaricus bisporus showed the highest antihaemolytic potential. The HPLC analysis al- lowed determining the high contents of ascorbic acid and a few organic and phenolic acids such as lactic acid, gallic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and trans-cinnamic acid in the tested mushrooms. Other compounds viz. citric acid, caffeic acid, riboflavin, vanillic acid, pyruvic acid, and p-coumaric acid were detected with variations. This study established the nutritional and health benefits of wild edible mushrooms of Northeast India region for consumption as functional foods in the human diet.
... The different distribution of elements was also mentioned in the publication from Kalač [51] where he states that potassium has an uneven distribution in the fruiting bodies and its content decreases in the following direction: cap (the highest content)-stipe-sporeforming part-spores (the lowest content). In our study, comparable results were recorded where the K content was significantly higher in the cap then in the stipe. ...
... These correlation coefficients range between −1 and +1 and measure the strength of the linear relationship between the variables. The different distribution of elements was also mentioned in the publication from Kalač [51] where he states that potassium has an uneven distribution in the fruiting bodies and its content decreases in the following direction: cap (the highest content)-stipe-sporeforming part-spores (the lowest content). In our study, comparable results were recorded where the K content was significantly higher in the cap then in the stipe. ...
Article
Full-text available
The species Pleurotus ostreatus is a commercially, gastronomically, and biotechnologically important fungus. Its strain variability has been little researched. The study provides an evaluation of 59 oyster mushroom production strains in terms of the ability to accumulate selected metals in the cap and stipe. The fruiting bodies were grown under identical model conditions on straw substrate. Metal concentrations (ET-AAS) in dry fruiting bodies ranged in values 1.7–22.4 mg kg−1 for Al, 2.6–9.7 mg kg−1 Ba, 199–4560 mg kg−1 Ca, 1.7–12.0 mg kg−1 Cu, 12–120 mg kg−1 Fe, 16,000–49,500 mg kg−1 K, 876–2400 mg kg−1 Mg, 0.39–11.0 mg kg−1 Mn, 46–920 mg kg−1 Na and 11–920 mg kg−1 for Zn. More Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Zn accumulated in the cap, while in the stipe Ba was amassed. No significant difference was found between Al, Ca and Na between the accumulation in the cap and the stipe. Furthermore, the dependence of metal uptake from the substrate depending on the fortification of the substrate was confirmed. Statistically significant (p < 0.05) synergistic relationships were shown in pairs Al and Ba, Al and Fe, Ba and Na, Ba and Ca, Ca and Na, Cu and Fe, Fe and Mn, Fe and Zn, K and Mg, K and Mn, K and Zn, Mg and Mn, Mg and Na, Mg and Zn and Mn and Zn in the substrate without the addition of sodium selenate to the substrate. Altered relationships were observed after the application of sodium selenate to the substrate, synergism of Se and Ni, Se and Co and Se and Hg, Cu and Mn, Cu and Fe, Zn and Co, Zn and Ni, Zn and Hg, Mn and Fe, Mn and Cr, Co and Ni, Co and Hg, Ni and Hg, Pb and Cd. The findings of the study may help in the selection of production strains with hypercumulative properties for a particular metal and subsequent use in the addition of fortified fruiting bodies (e.g., with Zn). Based on the study the strains less sensitive to the accumulation of hazardous metals is possible to select for large-scale production, which is important from the perspective of food safety.
... [5,19]. Nutritionally, mushrooms are low in energy and are generally a good source of macro and micronutrients and trace elements, although there is variability [20][21][22][23]. As functional foods, they are also anti-inflammatory and known to modulate gut bacteria [24]. ...
... Varying results for macro and micronutrients, and of concern, possible toxic elements, were reported as well. These results seem consistent with previous findings[23]. Additionally, mathematical modelling and comprehensive data collection as well as robust studies would all benefit and strengthen the claims and thus applications. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Many mushroom species are consumed as food, while significant numbers are also utilised medicinally. Mushrooms are rich in nutrients and bioactive compounds. A growing body of in vitro, in vivo, and human research has revealed their therapeutic potentials. Some of the most notable benefits include such properties as anti-pathogenic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, gut microbiota enhancement, and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 specificity. The use of medicinal mushrooms (MMs) as extracts in nutraceuticals and other health products are burgeoning. COVID-19 presents an opportunity to consider how, and if, specific MM compounds might be utilised therapeutically to mitigate associated risk factors, reduce disease severity, and support recovery. As vaccines become a mainstay, MMs may have the potential as an adjunct therapy to enhance immunity. In the context of COVID-19, this review explores current research about MMs to identify the key properties claimed to confer health benefits. Considered also are barriers or limitations that may impact general recommendations on MMs as therapy. It is contended that the extraction method used to isolate bioactive compounds must be a primary consideration for efficacious targeting of physiological endpoints. Mushrooms commonly available for culinary use and obtainable as a dietary supplement for medicinal purposes are included in this review. Specific properties related to these mushrooms have been considered due to their potential mediating effects on human exposure to the SARS CoV-2 virus and the ensuing COVID-19 disease processes.
... The fruiting body contains two morphological parts: cap and stipe. In general, B. edulis is considered a delicacy with high-quality protein and low fat and calories (Kalač, 2013). ...
... Furthermore, cooking methods (particularly boiling) and preservation time affect the compositions and contents of amino acids (Kalač, 2013;Guo et al., 2017). Most amino acids tend to decrease after cooking due to different extents of Maillard reaction; some amino acids, such as Thr and Tyr, were not detected before treatment but were detected after cooking due to the thermal decomposition and conversion of protein (Guo et al., 2017). ...
Article
Boletus edulis is an edible mushroom with nutritious, delicacy, and pharmacological properties. It is rich in carbohydrates, proteins, minerals, and taste compounds, while low in fat and calories. Diverse bioactive compounds, including polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, and phytosterols, have been found in B. edulis. In addition, bioactive compounds and chemical extracts from B. edulis have been verified to possess constipation prevention, antioxidant, antineoplastic, anti-inflammatory, hepato-protective, antibacterial, and antiviral activities. This paper provides an overview of B. edulis research in recent two decades, emphasizing the nutrition constituents, taste and flavor components, bioactive compounds, and health-promoting effects of B. edulis. Boletus edulis appeared to have health-promoting effects that may effectively prevent or treat various chronic diseases. The potential of B. edulis as a functional food and medicine needs to be further investigated and confirmed.
... Certain edible wild mushroom species are demonstrated to have a higher content of minerals, while the commonest among them are calcium and magnesium [11][12][13]. Besides minerals, mushrooms are also an outstanding source of unsaturated fatty acids and vitamins, specifically vitamin B and vitamin C [14,15]. ...
... Process Biochemistry 121 (2022)[10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17] ...
Article
The present study aims to explore the dietary nutrient levels of the edible mushroom, A. bisporus by biochemical analysis and evaluated their medicinal value in treating the human pathogenic microorganisms and free radical scavenging effects. A. bisporus mushroom exhibits a high amount of carbohydrates (41.6 ± 0.66%) and crude proteins (39.84 ± 0.66%). The crude fibre (8.6 ± 0.42%), ash (8.23 ± 0.44%), nitrogen (protein) contents (9.1 ± 0.44%) were available at a significant level and also possessed a lesser amount of fat (1.73 ± 0.33%). The quantitative determination of mycochemicals in A. bisporus reveals the presence of flavonoids (0.783 ± 0.03 g/100 g), phenolic content (0.441 ± 0.01 g/100 g), free amino acids (0.128 ± 0.12 g/100 g), saponin (0.121 ± 0.01 g/100 g), alkaloids (0.034 ± 0.01 g/100 g), tannins (0.027 ± 0.03 g/100 g) and vitamin C (12.8 ± 0.33 mg/g). Flame photometer and Inductivity Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) study reveals the presence of minerals viz., potassium (2925.14 ± 0.67 mg/100 g), phosphorus (1230 ± 0.67 mg/100 g), magnesium (115.05 ± 0.24 mg/100 g) and calcium (107.21 ± 0.34 mg/100 g) in A. bisporus mushroom. Moreover, the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum established the presence of possible biomolecules in A. bisporus mushroom. A greater antimicrobial effect against Staphylococcus aureus (14.3 ± 0.24 mm) and Candida albicans (14.2 ± 0.12 mm) was observed compared to Streptococcus pyogenes (10.8 ± 0.12 mm), Shigella flexneri (10.8 ± 0.21 mm), Klebsiella pneumoniae (11.1 ± 0.33 mm) and Aspergillus fumigatus (11.2 ± 0.33 mm). The mushroom extract of A. bisporus have an excellent radical scavenging activity with an IC50 of 12.5 µg/mL against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. This investigation revealed that A. bisporus mushroom has great potential to be used as food supplement to fight against pathogens in the near future.
... These nutrient substances gain the shiitake mushrooms remarkable properties, such as decreasing the risk of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and cancer, supporting the human immune response, and enhancing human resistance to the common cold and other diseases [5][6][7]. Furthermore, shiitake mushrooms are highly favored by consumers worldwide owing to the unique flavor, especially in northeast Asian, and commonly serve as a delicacy on the table or used as food-flavoring materials in dishes [8,9]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aroma fingerprints and discrimination analysis of shiitake mushrooms under different drying conditions were performed by GC-IMS, GC-MS, and descriptive sensory analysis (DSA) with advanced chemometric methods. Three samples (A, B, and C) were treated with varied drying degree and rate. The sample A and C were at the same drying degree and the sample B and C were at the same drying rate. The GC-IMS volatile fingerprints, including the three-dimensional topographic map, topographic map, and gallery plot, showed that 29 compounds showed higher signal intensities in sample B. Moreover, 28 volatile compounds were identified by HS-SPME-GC-MS and only 8 compounds were ever detected by GC-IMS. The sample B not only had more varieties of volatile compounds, but also showed significant higher contents than sample A and C, especially C8 compounds (p < 0.05). Additionally, sample B showed the highest intensity in mushroom-like, chocolate-like, caramel, sweat, seasoning-like, and cooked potato-like odors by DSA. PCA, fingerprint similarity analysis (FSA) and PLSR further demonstrated that the sample B was different from sample A and C. These results revealed that samples with different drying degree were different and drying degree exerted more influence on the volatile flavor quality than the drying rate. This study will provide a foundation and establish a set of comprehensive and objective methods for further flavor analysis.
... There are over 200 species of edible and medicinal mushrooms used as functional foods in the worldwide (Kalac, 2013). These mushrooms are rich nutrients, particularly proteins, minerals, and vitamins (Reis et al., 2011;Panjikkaran and Mathew, 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Volvariella volvacea , with high commercial, nutritional and medicinal value, is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions. The effects of supplementation on mushroom yield has been studied. We showed that the optimal application of sodium acetate (NaAc) was spray application of a 0.08% concentration during the substrate mixing stage which could increase yields by up to 89.16% and enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose from the substrate. For most enzymes tested maximum activity occurred during the fruiting body growth and development stage, which led to degradation of the substrate, increasing the available nutrients for mycelial propagation and fruiting body growth and development. Meanwhile, NaAc also significantly increased the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content in the early fruiting body development stage of V. volvacea , It was observed that IAA promotes not only plant primordium differentiation; but also the primordium differentiation of edible fungi. Furthermore, treatments with three acetate salts had an increase of yield by 30.22% on average. The mechanisms by which NaAc application may improve the yield of V. volvacea are discussed.
... It is considered as a healthy food as it contains low calories, high protein, dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals (Barros et al, 2008). According to Kalac (2013), mushrooms are nutritionally desirable because of their low energy value, fiber content and high antioxidant capacity. Mushroom also contains good source of vitamin B, C and D, including niacin, riboflavin, thiamine, foliate and various minerals including potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron and copper. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Society of Krishi Vigyan has published its recent issue of the Journal of Krishi Vigyan for the benefit of the scientific community.
... While elemental content of cultivated mushrooms may be regulated by controlling the chemical composition and properties of substrate (Huang et al. 2015;Siwulski et al. 2019), composition of wild species is very unpredictable, since high concentrations of various elements, including toxics ones, may be present even in the seemingly unpolluted areas (Borovicka et al. 2005;Svoboda and Chrastný 2007). There is a significant number of literature dealing with the content of heavy metals and radionuclides in edible mushrooms (Kalač 2013;Rakić et al. 2014), as well as the risk assessment for their use (Llorente-Mirandes et al. 2016;Niedzielski et al. 2017) which indicate the importance of controlling the chemical composition of fungi as well as the need of existence of legislation which determines the permitted, safe content of metals in mushrooms intended for human consumption. Contrary to the vast knowledge about edible mushrooms, there is still a lack of published research dealing with the content of potentially hazardous elements in MMs and their nutraceutical derivatives (extracts, supplements). ...
Chapter
The aim of this chapter is to introduce the main problems in the study of wild growing medicinal mushroomMedicinal mushrooms species by presenting the research from the period 2005–2020, with special emphasis on autochthonous species of Serbia and the Balkan region. Four major problems have been discussed regarding identification of the species, their biodiversity, chemical characterization, and environmental contamination, since they represent a great source of bioactive compoundsBioactive compounds with various activities: antioxidative, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, and anti-AChE inhibition. The aim of this chapter is to introduce the main problems in the study of wild growing medicinal mushroomMedicinal mushrooms species by presenting the research from the period 2005–2020, with special emphasis on autochthonous species of Serbia and the Balkan region. Four major problems have been discussed regarding identification of the species, their biodiversity, chemical characterization, and environmental contamination, since they represent a great source of bioactive compoundsBioactive compounds with various activities: antioxidative, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, and anti-AChE inhibition. A proper taxonomic identification is the first step in the further research. The identification is difficult due to similarity of morphological characteristics, especially within species complexes such as PleurotusPleurotus and GanodermaGanoderma. Molecular identificationMolecular identification through multi-gene phylogenetic analysis helped to resolve some of these issues while full genome sequencing enabled annotation of genes, as it was done with Schizophyllum communeSchizophyllum commune (S. commune) and Hericium erinaceusHericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus). Chemical characterization of the secondary bioactive compoundsBioactive compounds mostly confirmed the existence of terpenoids, phenols, and sterols, while polysaccharidesPolysaccharides and immunomodulatory proteins including polysaccharide-peptide complexes have been identified recently. Although wild fungal strains represent powerful sources of medicinal substances, they can also pose a potential risk to human health through (hyper) accumulation of toxic elementsToxic elements (e.g. Hg, Pb, Cd, Ni, 238U, and 137Cs) from different substrates, not only in the polluted urban environments, but also in protected natural areas. Their use should be well reasoned and controlled along with their conservation and protection.
... Fungi are considered a healthy food, because they are a source of many important nutritional components, including proteins, minerals, carbohydrates, and vitamins. Additionally, the energy they provide is relatively low [6]. They also contain the bioactive compounds, including e.g., phenolics, polyketides, terpenes, terpenoids, steroids, tocopherols, carotenoids, lectins, polysaccharides, ascorbic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids, ergosterol, being even more abundant than those found in most vegetables and fruits [7,8]. ...
Article
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Mushrooms are able to accumulate toxic trace elements. This study investigates the content of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in selected species of fungi (Boletus badius, Boletus edulis, and Cantharellus cibarius) from the northeastern part of Poland and estimates their edible safety. The amount of Cd and Pb was determined by flameless atomic spectrometry using the iCE 3000 Series-Thermo. The mean content of Cd in analyzed mushrooms ranged from 0.370 to 2.151 mg/kg d.w., while Pb was found at the level of 0.243-0.424 mg/kg d.w. Boletus edulis was characterized by the highest content of Cd, whereas Cantharellus cibarius contained the biggest amount of Pb. Estimated exposure to the Cd intake expressed as percentage share in TWI (Tolerable Weekly Intake) was at the highest level in Boletus edulis (30.87%), which could be associated with the risk of excessive Cd accumulation in the body.
... Oyster mushrooms are well known as a very high nutritional/biological food that has an enhanced content of dietary fiber, amino acids, protein, vitamins, and unsaturated fatty acids (Michael et al., 2011;Kalac, 2013;Bach et al., 2017;Carrasco-González et al., 2017). The rapid increase/expansion of both cultivation/consumption of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus species) is due to their excellent taste, enhanced value in terms of nutrition and therapeutic properties. ...
Article
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Mushrooms are being extensively researched due to their nutritional value and medicinal importance. The genus Pleurotus is the second most cultivated mushroom and is known for its high nutritional value, therapeutic properties, taste, flavor, as well as their application in biotechnology and environmental study. Also, tyrosinase is prevalent in most living organisms. The enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of monophenols to ortho-quinones in a two-step reaction process. This study was aimed to assess the amino acid composition and anti-tyrosinase activity of metabolites obtained from edible Pleurotus species. Assessment of the nutritional content and inhibitory studies of mushroom tyrosinase produced from four Pleurotus strains was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The results of the study showed that seventeen different amino acids were identified in the crude and partially purified protein metabolites. Also, the crude extract metabolite had the highest quantity of amino acids than the partially purified. The highest and lowest amino acids value Glutamic acid (1343.26 µmol/mL) and valine (0.34 µmol/mL). The anti-tyrosinase inhibition studies of the four Pleurotus strains showed varying results from significantly inhibitory effects to slightly inhibitory effects on mushroom tyrosinase. The highest inhibition was 14.86% (Pleu-W), while the lowest inhibition was 51.42% (Plof-30) respectively. The high point of this study is that the Pleurotus species contains a significant number of amino acids and also, they possess good anti-tyrosinase activity. Therefore, these are a good source of nutritional and therapeutic metabolites and these can be explored further for their nutritional and medicinal importance to man.
... Mushrooms represent healthy and sustainable food products, a source of promising medicinal (antioxidant, antimicrobial, and immunomodulating) compounds and, most recently, are becoming industrial workhorses in diverse applications. The global edible mushroom market is valued over US$54 billion in 2020 and is expected to expand, as the per-capita consumption of the ;350 edible mushroom species rises (33,301). The pharmaceutical uses of mushroom fruiting bodies are outstandingly versatile, and the medicinal application of mushrooms has a long history and new applications in modern health care (302,303). ...
Article
The development of sexual fruiting bodies is one of the most complex morphogenetic processes in fungi. Mycologists have long been fascinated by the morphological and developmental diversity of fruiting bodies; however, evolutionary developmental biology of fungi still lags significantly behind that of animals or plants. Here, we summarize the current state of knowledge on fruiting bodies of mushroom-forming Basidiomycota, focusing on phylogenetic and developmental biology. Phylogenetic approaches have revealed a complex history of morphological transformations and convergence in fruiting body morphologies. Frequent transformations and convergence is characteristic of fruiting bodies in contrast to animals or plants, where main body plans are highly conserved. At the same time, insights into the genetic bases of fruiting body development have been achieved using forward and reverse genetic approaches in selected model systems. Phylogenetic and developmental studies of fruiting bodies have each yielded major advances, but they have produced largely disjunct bodies of knowledge. An integrative approach, combining phylogenetic, developmental, and functional biology, is needed to achieve a true fungal evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) synthesis for fungal fruiting bodies.
... More than 100 volatiles from TM have been reported in various studies. Among that volatiles, eight-carbon structure volatiles, such as 1-octen-3-ol, 1-octen-3-one, and 3-octanol, are considered as the dominant aroma compounds in TM. 1-octen-3-ol, regarded as mushroom like aroma compounds, together with its oxidation product, 1-octen-3-one, has been found in many edible mushrooms (including TM) with relatively high proportion (6-156 mg/kg FW) and contributed to the distinctive aroma of TM and other edible mushrooms (Kalač 2013;Sun, Zhang, and Fang 2020;Wang et al. 2014). Cho et al. (2007) not only compared the volatiles profiles among four different grades of TM from Korea, but also linked the flavor characteristics to the corresponding aromatic compounds. ...
Article
Tricholoma matsutake (TM) is a valuable edible mushroom that has attracted increasing attention due to its potential medicinal values and functional uses. However, the chemical composition and molecular mechanisms behinds TM are not specifically summarized yet. Hence, this review aims to systematically analyze the research progress on the characterization of chemical compositions and the reported health effects of TM in the last 20 years. The myochemical profiles of TM consist of proteins with amino acids, fatty acids, nucleic acids with their derivatives, polysaccharides, minerals, volatile components, phenolic compounds, and steroids. The bioactive substances in TM exert their health effects mainly by regulating body immunity and restoring the balance of the redox system. NF-κB signaling pathway and its downstream cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6 are the key molecular mechanisms. In addition, MAPK, PI3K-Akt, and JAK-STAT are also involved. NF-κB, MAPK, and PI3K-Akt are also highly related to cancer regulation and thus TM has great anticancer potential. Considering that most studies have only investigated the dosage and inhibition rate of TM on cancer cell lines, more extensive studies need to focus on the specific molecular mechanisms behind these anticancer effects in the future.
... Research on enzymes involved in mushroom cell wall degradation has been reported. The normal dry weight content of proteins, lipids, ash, and carbohydrates in F. velutipes grown in the wild are 17.9%, 18.4%, 9.4%, and 70.9%, respectively (17). Carbohydrate content includes dietary fiber, which is known to be present at a high concentration in mushrooms. ...
... As a consequence, people, especially children and women, are experiencing chronic malnutrition problems. Mushrooms could substantiate this malnutrition problemto some extent, as edible mushrooms are rich sources of protein, vitamins, minerals and also contain a number of secondary plant metabolites [1][2][3][4]. Bangladesh is an agrobased country and various agroindustries generate a large amount of lignocellulosic byproducts annually that are worthy of being transformed. Some of these byproducts are used as feeds for livestock and the compost industry, and some are still treated as waste. ...
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The objective of this study was to utilize agro-lignocellulosic wastes for growing oyster mushroom which become problematic for disposal. Pleurotus ostreatus was cultivated on five agro-industrial wastes: rice straw (RS), wheat straw (WS), corncobs (CC), saw dust and rice husk @ 3:1 (SR) and sugarcane bagasse (SB). Approximately 500 g sized polypropylene bags (20.32 × 30.48 cm) were used for each substrate. The SR significantly improved the number of fruiting body (27.80), size of the fruiting body (5.39 g), yield (115.13 g/packet), ash and shortened the days for stimulation to primordial initiation and harvest (9.2 days). The maximum percentage of visual mycelium growth with the least time (15.0 days) to complete the mycelium running was found in SB, whereas the highest biological efficiency value (56.5) was calculated in SR. The topmost value of total sugar (33.20%) and ash (10.87 g/100 g) were recorded in WS, whereas the utmost amount of protein (6.87 mg/100 g) and total polyphenolics (196.88 mg GAE/100 g) were detected from SB and SR, respectively. Overall SR gave the highest amount of the fruiting body with the topmost polyphenols and ash, moderate protein and total sugar, and secured maximum biological efficiency too. The results demonstrate that saw dust with rice husk could be used as an easy alternative substrate for oyster mushroom cultivation.
... Of the nearly 2000 edible mushroom species found in nature, only 35 are cultivated commercially. In this section, we summarize the molecular spectroscopic methods in the case of the most common cultivated and wild mushroom species (Table 5) [66]. Furthermore, there have been many studies on Ganoderma lucidum. ...
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Meat, fish, coffee, tea, mushroom, and spices are foods that have been acknowledged for their nutritional benefits but are also reportedly targets of fraud and tampering due to their economic value. Conventional methods often take precedence for monitoring these foods, but rapid advanced instruments employing molecular spectroscopic techniques are gradually claiming dominance due to their numerous advantages such as low cost, little to no sample preparation, and, above all, their ability to fingerprint and detect a deviation from quality. This review aims to provide a detailed overview of common molecular spectroscopic techniques and their use for agricultural and food quality management. Using multiple databases including ScienceDirect, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar, 171 research publications including research articles, review papers, and book chapters were thoroughly reviewed and discussed to highlight new trends, accomplishments, challenges, and benefits of using molecular spectroscopic methods for studying food matrices. It was observed that Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), Infrared spectroscopy (IR), Hyperspectral imaging (his), and Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) stand out in particular for the identification of geographical origin, compositional analysis, authentication, and the detection of adulteration of meat, fish, coffee, tea, mushroom, and spices; however, the potential of UV/Vis, 1H-NMR, and Raman spectroscopy (RS) for similar purposes is not negligible. The methods rely heavily on preprocessing and chemometric methods, but their reliance on conventional reference data which can sometimes be unreliable, for quantitative analysis, is perhaps one of their dominant challenges. Nonetheless, the emergence of handheld versions of these techniques is an area that is continuously being explored for digitalized remote analysis.
... Other surveys deal with mushroom water content in the entire fruiting body, resulting in general water content in Boletus spp. mainly between 86% and 92% (Kalač, 2013;Ouzouni and Riganakos, 2007). ...
Article
In the present work, we focused on two aspects of mercury (Hg) bioconcentration in the above-ground parts of Neoboletus luridiformis. In the first part, we monitored the bioconcentration potential of individual anatomical parts of a particular fruiting body and evaluated the obtained data by the spline interpolation method. In the second part, we focused on assessing the mercury content in 378 samples of N. luridiformis and associated samples of substrates from 38 localities with different levels of Hg content in Slovakia. From the obtained data of Hg content in samples of substrate and fungi, we evaluated ecological indicators (geoaccumulation index – Igeo, contamination factor – Cf a potential ecological risk – PER), bioconcentration indicators (bioconcentration factor – BCF; cap/stipe quotient – Qc/s) and health indicators (percentage of provisional tolerable weekly intake – % PTWI a target hazard quotient – THQ). Based on the Hg distribution results, the highest Hg content was found in the tubes & pores (3.86 mg/kg DW), followed by the flesh of cap (1.82 mg/kg DW). The lowest Hg content was in the stipe (1.23 mg/kg DW). The results of the BCF values indicate that the studied species can be included in the category of mercury accumulators. The results of the ecological indices representing the state of soil pollution pointed out that two localities (Malachov and Nižná Slaná) stood apart from all monitored localities and showed a state of an extremely disturbed environment. This fact was also reflected in the values of Hg content in the fruiting bodies of the studied mushroom species. In the case of the consumption of mushrooms from these localities, it can be stated that long-term and regular consumption could have a negative non-carcinogenic effect on the health of consumers. It was confirmed by the %PTWI (Malachov: 57.8%; Nižná Slaná: 53.2%) and THQ (Malachov: 1.11 Nižná Slaná: 1.02). The locality Čačín-Jelšovec is interesting from the bioconcentration characteristics point of view, where the level of environmental pollution was the lowest (Hg content in the soil was below the background value) compared to other localities, however, the THQ value was the highest (1.29).
... Wild edible mushrooms are extensively consumed owing to their unique and delicate flavors, abundant polysaccharides, proteins, fibers, and amino acids, and low lipid content that is good for low-calorie diets [1][2][3]. Except for the nutritional characteristics, mushrooms also contain rich bioactive compounds with medicinal properties, such with antimicrobial, antioxidant, lipid-lowering, and antitumor activity [4][5][6]. ...
Article
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The fruiting bodies or mycelia of Hericium coralloides (H. coralloides) contain many physiologically active compounds that are used to treat various diseases, including cardiovascular disorders and cancers. However, the genome of H. coralloides has not been sequenced, which hinders further investigations into aspects, such as bioactivity or evolutionary events. The present study is aimed at (i) performing de novo sequencing of the assembled genome; (ii) mapping the reads from PE400 DNA into the assembled genome; (iii) identifying the full length of all the repeated sequences; and (iv) annotating protein-coding genes using GO, eggNOG, and KEGG databases. The assembled genome comprised 5,59,05,675 bp, including 307 contigs. The mapping rate of reads obtained from PE400 DNA in the assembled genome was 92.46%. We identified 2,525 repeated sequences of 14,23,274 bp length. We predicted ncRNAs of 48,895 bp and 11,736 genes encoding proteins that were annotated in the GO, eggNOG, and KEGG databases. We are the first to sequence the entire H. coralloides genome (NCBI; Assembly: ASM367540v1), which will serve as a reference for studying the evolutionary diversification of edible and medicinal mushrooms and facilitate the application of bioactivity in H. coralloides.
... Wild-growing mushroom consumption has been preferred to cultivated species in many central and Eastern European countries. Mushroom picking in forests (especially Fagus, Carpinus, Castanea, Abies, Quercus and Pinus forests from the South Marmara Region of Turkey) as a lasting part of cultural heritage has recently become a highly valued recreational activity in these countries [4]. Some authors have reviewed the literature about the heavy metal concentration in mushrooms and have presented few data about the metal concentration in mushrooms from Russula genus [5][6]. ...
Article
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Element contents were analysed in some wild Russula Pers. taxa [R. alutacea, R. aurora, R. brun-neoviolacea, R. cyanoxantha, R. velutipes and R. vi-rescens] from South Marmara region of Turkey by ICP-AES equipment. Element uptake levels were observed at different levels in each Russula species. According to the results, the highest Cd, Cu, K, and Mn concentrations were determined as 4.12, 39.9, 39324 and, 296 mg.kg-1 in R. alutacea respectively. R. brunneoviolacea has the highest B, Cr and Ni concentrations as 26.51, 3.66 and 11.22 mg.kg-1 respectively , whereas R. cyanoxantha has the highest Fe, Mg, Na and S concentrations as 5201, 3871, 769 and 3581 mg.kg-1 respectively. Although R. virescens has only the highest Mo as 0.78 mg.kg-1 , on the other hand, R. velutipes has the highest Ca, P and Zn concentrations as 2082, 4557 and 83.2 mg.kg-1 respectively. The differences among the concentrations of elements in Russula species are statistically significant (p<0.05), while the differences among the concentration of Cd was not only statistically significant (p>0.05). In order to demonstrate possible spatial variations in element composition of Russula species multivariate analysis [both the cluster (CA) and principal components analysis (PCA)] were done. According to total element concentrations, R. alutacea, R. virescens and R. velutipes make one group while R. aurora, R. brunneoviolacea and R. cyanoxantha are in the other group.
... Apoptosis in HT29 cells by anticancer sterol isolated from Sarcodon aspratus has been demonstrated by Kobori et al. (2006) by inducing cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A expression which causes cell cycle arrest. Moreover, the essential role of diet rich in sterols has been reported to prevent cardiovascular diseases (Kalač 2013). Linoleic acid displays numerous physiological functions especially the suppression of expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and NOS2 in RAW 264.7 cells and inhibiting NO production, thus reducing inflammatory level (Saiki et al. 2017). ...
Chapter
Considerable elucidations and intensive research attempted on the immense nutritional values and effective health augmenting properties of mushrooms are dynamically extending as per present day needs. Mushrooms have been acknowledged as the treasure trove of nutrients including high quality proteins, polysaccharides, triterpenes, polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, sterols, secondary metabolites, mineral substances, and vitamins. These constituents play a significant role in significantly preventing and curing various health problems, ailments and dreaded diseases such as immunodeficiency, inflammation, cancer, hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, hypertension, fungal, bacterial, and viral infections. The present review article endeavors to provide the information and correlate the health effects with underlying biological mechanisms of mushroom nutraceuticals. It tends to be affirmed that augmentation of a dietary composition by inclusion of mushrooms possesses the potential of being a natural adjuvant for the alleviation of multiple chronic diseases.
... The kingdom Fungi constitutes a huge and overlooked source of agents with extensive health benefits. There is a vast body of evidence indicating that mushrooms demonstrate immunomodulatory, antiviral, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antitumor, antioxidant, and hypocholesterolemic effects [1][2][3][4][5]. But aside from the positive effects, they can also be toxic. ...
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Background Geopolitical and climate changes form the background of the current migration crisis. It has many faces. One of them are the tragic cases of poisoning of refugees due to eating wild forest mushrooms for socioeconomic reasons in the Western and Northern European countries. The most serious food poisonings in Europe, but not only, are caused by lamellar mushrooms, the most dangerous being Amanita phalloides . Its poisonous properties can be attributed to α-amanitin, an RNA polymerase II inhibitor. Unfortunately, as it is characterized by a delayed onset of symptoms, A. phalloides poisoning has a high risk of complications. Case presentation Our article presents a case of A. phalloides poisoning in a 28-year-old man, in which the responding medical emergency unit made errors in diagnosis and treatment. Since the correct diagnosis was made too late, the typical treatment of A. phalloides poisoning was ineffective. The patient suffered a life-threatening liver failure and needed liver transplant from a deceased donor. Conclusions Mushroom poisoning is a particularly important problem not only in countries with a mushroom picking tradition, but also—due to the inflow of refugees—in countries where mushroom poisoning was very rare until recently. In such cases it is crucial to quickly implement the correct procedure, as this can prevent the need for liver transplant or even death. This is a particularly important consideration for the first medical professionals to contact the patient, especially in cases where the patient reports mushrooms consumption and presents alarming symptoms of the gastrointestinal tract. Such situations cannot be underestimated and ignored.
... Mushrooms are recognized as an important source of biologically active compounds. So, they have several beneficial activities like antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, antitumor, antiallergic, antiatherogenic and antiinflammatory ( Manzi et al., 2001 ;Kalac, 2013 ). They are also an excellent source of bioactive components such as polyphenolics classified as free radical inhibitors ( Yahia et al., 2017 ). ...
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To explore the drying process, the effect of freeze drying and cabinet drying method on physico-chemical properties, colour parameters, bioactive compounds and structure of button mushroom were investigated. The moisture content and water activity (5.09% and 0.533) were low in freeze dried mushrooms than cabinet dried mushrooms (7.60% and 0.674), while as the crude protein (25.34%), crude fibre (12.79%), crude fat (2.03%), ash (6.88%), carbohydrate (60.67%) and energy (362.31 Kcal/100g) were found to be higher in freeze dried powders than cabinet drying with value of crude protein (24.26%), crude fibre (12.05%), crude fat (1.89), ash (5.77%), carbohydrate (60.48) and energy (355.97Kcal/100g). Freeze dried samples showed higher L* (73.39) than cabinet drying (L*= 60.32), while as the lower a* and b* of 0.89 and 10.22 respectively than cabinet drying (a* = 3.04, and b* = 12.26). XRD data showed that the crystalline size was smaller in cabinet dried button mushroom powder than freeze drying. The study also showed that freeze drying resulted in better retention compounds having total phenolic content of 20.30 mg GAE/g, DPPH scavenging activity (EC50 = 0.831 mg/ml and Reducing power assay (IC50 = 4.062 mg/ml) in freeze dried samples than cabinet drying with total phenolic content (17.06 mg GAE/g), DPPH scavenging activity (EC50 = 0.694 mg/ml and Reducing power assay (IC50 = 3.986 mg/ml). Thus, freeze drying can be considered as a suitable drying method for white button mushroom.
... These observations suggest that the tested living mycelium has the capability to neutralize the potassium hydroxide and is likely accumulating K ? within its tissues, as supported by previous research [51,52]. The mode of action of KOH neutralization could be K ? ...
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Innovative sustainable products can contribute to slowing climate change while simultaneously driving economic growth. In this study, we describe a ‘green’ technology to produce a porous, lightweight cellulose-mycelium foam (CMF) in which fungal mycelium is grown for applications such as filtration, packaging, and bioremediation. Fluorescent microscopy revealed incomplete fiber degradation after 25 days of fungal growth, and that mycelium grew along fibers and within the pores of the CMF. The physio-mechanical properties of the CMF were investigated via compressibility, thermogravimetric analysis, and dry and wet tensile strength for samples grown for 0, 15, and 25 days. Thermal stability increased with mycelium growth, showing extrapolated onset temperatures of 227.5 °C, 312.7 °C, and 325.5 °C for 0, 15, and 25 days, respectively. Tensile strength and compressibility were notably improved with mycelial growth. CMF permeability, filtration efficiency, and pressure drop were tested, and we observed a decrease in permeability with mycelium growth in foam fiber, and hydraulic filtration efficiency measured 99.9% for particles sized 20 µm or larger. Living CMF neutralized potassium hydroxide leaks from alkaline batteries, decreasing pH from 12 to 6 over a 60-day period. These results demonstrate a wide range of material improvements, showing promise for practical filtration, thermal insulation, and bioremediation applications while being both sustainable and biodegradable.
... cn). There are about 3000 main edible fungi species (Kalač, 2013). China is the main producer of cultivated edible mushrooms with about 967 species, which is considered as almost 50% of the culturable edible mushroom species worldwide (Fig. 1). ...
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China is one of the largest producers and exporters of wild edible fungi in the world. Cultivation mushroom production value ranks within the top five after grain, vegetable, fruit, and edible oil plantation, greater than sugar, cotton, and tobacco business. More than 40 new varieties of high market value mushrooms from our group were highlighted in this article. Mushroom cultivations have a high impact on China’s poverty alleviation program, with earnings at least ten times higher than rice and corn. The products were exported to 137 countries and regions, mainly to Japan, South Korea, ASEAN, the USA, and the European Union, among these, Japan is the biggest import market for cultivated mushrooms from China. Rapid development in the market and an increased demand for edible fungi generally enhance the economy of domestic edible fungi. We are the leading research group in logical farm design that is HACCP-certified to reduce the cost of investment for agriculture, thus broadening the consumption market of edible mushrooms and forming a demand-oriented leading industry for the promotion of human health. The enterprise needs to re-examine the operation plan and the strategic thinking to improve the fundamental drivers based on the available resources of the locality. Mushrooms growing intergrate with upgraded technologies and equipment to become smart agriculture which have smart production and intelligent factories. The purpose of suitable products will not change: delicious, nutritious, healthy, and modern. Key points • Cultivation mushroom production value ranks within the top five after grain, vegetable, fruit, and edible oil plantation, greater than sugar, cotton, and tobacco business. • Mushroom cultivations have a high impact on China’s poverty alleviation program, with earnings at least ten times higher than rice and corn. • The development of transportation and industrialization of mushrooms facilitate the modernization of mushroom industry in China.
... Flammulina produced up to 15% of world's edible mushroom production (Royse et al., 2017). Among this genus, F. velutipes (golden needle mushroom or enokitake) is a widely cultivated edible mushroom, and it has numerous medicinal properties (Zimmermanovà et al., 2001;Kalač, 2012;Zhang et al., 2018). Volvariella volvacea (paddy straw mushroom), is considered as one of the easiest mushrooms to be cultivated. ...
Chapter
Among several thousand macrofungi species on the planet, only several are industrially cultivated worldwide. Medicinal and edible mushrooms represent two most important groups of macrofungi. Mushrooms are used in the human diet for centuries, due to their high nutritional value. They are well known as valuable source of proteins, and are widely used as a meat substitute. Additionally, the differences in amino acids composition of proteins between different mushrooms contributes to the unique flavour of mushrooms and mushroom-derived products. The presence of components such as polysaccharides, polysaccharopeptides, proteoglucans, vitamins, polyphenols and others, which are responsible for their bioactive properties, classifies a number of mushrooms as medicinal. This chapter gives the overview of mushrooms’ chemical composition, the effect of their application on different processes of beverages production and the impact on sensorial characteristics or bioactivity of mushroom beverages. When applied in fermentation process, mushrooms influence the metabolism of microorganisms involved. Through the enzymatic activity they act on the elimination of antinutritional components or have a contribution to the production of high ethanol concentrations in beverages, as well as influence on unique flavour development. Production of mushroom beverages is an opportunity for mushrooms and beverages producers to create an innovative and sensory pleasant product that will satisfy consumers needs for improving the quality of life trough good nutrition and beneficial effects on human health. The significance of functional beverages consumption lies in their potential to reduce health-care expenses through the strategy of public health protection. To date, mushrooms were applied in various types of beverages on a laboratory scale, influencing their production, quality and bioactivity. The fact that the global production of edible and medicinal mushrooms and their economic value is constantly increasing, can be used to develop industrial scale systems for mushroom beverages that will increase the market value of these products, as well.
... Ergosterol is one of the major sterols produced by mushrooms and has shown important antioxidant properties (Guillamon et al., 2010). It also plays an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (Kalac, 2013). They are detected as tocopherols and considered as effective as well as novel natural antioxidants and have major biological activities for the protection against microbial and cardiovascular diseases and degenerative malfunctions (Heleno et al., 2012a(Heleno et al., , 2015bJaworska et al., 2015). ...
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Background: Mushrooms exist as an integral and vital component of the ecosystem and are very precious fungi. Mushrooms have been traditionally used in herbal medicines for many centuries. Scope and approach: There are a variety of medicinal mushrooms mentioned in the current work such as Agaricus, Amanita, Calocybe, Cantharellus, Cordyceps, Coprinus, Cortinarius, Ganoderma, Grifola, Huitlacoche, Hydnum, Lentinus, Morchella, Pleurotus, Rigidoporus, Tremella, Trametes sp., etc., which play a vital role in various diseases because of several metabolic components and nutritional values. Medicinal mushrooms can be identified morphologically on the basis of their size, color (white, black, yellow, brown, cream, pink and purple-brown, etc.), chemical reactions, consistency of the stalk and cap, mode of attachment of the gills to the stalk, and spore color and mass, and further identified at a molecular level by Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of gene sequencing. There are also other methods that have recently begun to be used for the identification of mushrooms such as high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), microscopy, thin-layer chromatography (TLC), DNA sequencing, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), chemical finger printing, ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LCMS-TOF) and high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). Lately, the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technique is also used for the identification of fungi. Key finding and conclusion: Medicinal mushrooms possess various biological activities like anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, anti-tumor, anti-viral, anti-parasitic, anti-microbial, hepatoprotective, anti-HIV, anti-diabetic, and many others that will be mentioned in this article. This manuscript will provide future direction, action mechanisms, applications, and the recent collective information of medicinal mushrooms. In addition to many unknown metabolites and patented active metabolites are also included.
Article
The present study sought to investigate the levels of multi-pesticide residues in highly consumed edible fungi in China's western regions. A total of 354 edible fungi samples were collected from the local markets, and the concentrations of 53 pesticides in these samples were determined through high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometer (HPLC/MS/MS). Carbendazim, acephate, procymidone, prochloraz, aldicarb sulfone,etc. were found to be the primary pesticides in the edible fungi samples. Carbendazim had the highest detection rate (70.9%), followed by acephate (13.0%) and procymidone (7.3%), and the detection concentrations were 0.0002–2.7316 mg/kg, 0.0248–0.4985 mg/kg, 0.1807–0.3928 mg/kg, respectively. Nearly 52 (14.7%) edible fungi samples were free of pesticide residues, while the remaining contained one or more pesticide residues. In terms of safety index and risk coefficient, the safety status of edible fungi is acceptable. This study will provide insights into the current contamination status in the key agricultural areas in China and develop food safety regulations to control the excessive use of some pesticides on edible fungi.
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Macrophages are some of the most important immune cells in the organism and are responsible for creating an inflammatory immune response in order to inhibit the passage of microscopic foreign bodies into the blood stream. Sometimes, their activation can be responsible for chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma, tuberculosis, hepatitis, sinusitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and viral infections. Prolonged inflammation can damage the organs or may lead to death in serious conditions. In the present study, RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 20 ng/mL) and simultaneously treated with 20 µg/mL of natural-based formulation (NBF), mushroom–cannabidiol extract). Pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and other inflammatory markers were analyzed. The elevations in the presence of interleukin-6 (IL-6), cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2), C-C motif ligand-5 (CCL5), and nitrite response, following exposure to LPS, were completely inhibited by NBF administration. IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) release were inhibited by 3.9-fold and 1.5-fold, respectively. No toxic effect of NBF, as assessed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, was observed. Treatment of the cells with NBF significantly increased the mRNA levels of TLR2, and TLR4, but not NF-κB. Thus, it appears that the NBF possesses anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects which can attenuate the release of pro-inflammatory markers. NBF may be a candidate for the treatment of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases and deserves further investigation.
Chapter
Apposite energy is required for body activity. Energy is derived from the oxidation of various biomolecules like carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. These bio-molecules in the proper amount are essential for the structural and functional activities of any living being. Certain vitamins and enzymes are also needed for the maintenance of biochemical processes. Our daily food is the major source of these biomolecules. From the last few decades, researchers have placed giant effort into searching for a food material that can provide nearly all the essential components required to maintain the energy need and consequently, balancing the body's homeostasis. Mushrooms have the potential to address the above-raised issues. Besides their pleasant flavor and culinary value, mushrooms are an important source of biomolecules that include large macromolecules (protein, carbohydrate, lipid, and nucleic acid) as well as small molecules (primary metabolites, secondary metabolites, and natural products). This chapter discusses the bioactive compounds in edible mushroom and their activities.
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Mushrooms have been long accomplished for their medicinal properties and bioactivity. The ancients benefitted from it, even before they knew that there was more to mushrooms than just the culinary aspect. This review addresses the benefits of mushrooms and specifically dwells on the positive attributes of mushroom polysaccharides. Compared to mushroom research, mushroom polysaccharide-based reports were observed to be significantly less frequent. This review highlights the antioxidant properties and mechanisms as well as consolidates the various antioxidant applications of mushroom polysaccharides. The biological activities of mushroom polysaccharides are also briefly discussed. The antiviral properties of mushrooms and their polysaccharides have been reviewed and presented. The lacunae in implementation of the antiviral benefits into antiCOVID-19 pursuits has been highlighted. The need for expansion and extrapolation of the knowns of mushrooms to extend into the unknown is emphasized.
Article
The impact of heat pump dehumidifier drying (HPD) on the sensory qualities of shiitake mushroom was comprehensively evaluated in comparison with hot air drying (HAD) and vacuum freeze drying (VFD). The data showed that HPD substantially improved the characteristic flavors (volatile sulfide levels and equivalent umami concentration) of dried mushrooms by partially inhibiting enzymatic and Maillard reactions. The rehydration, shrinkage, and microstructural characteristics of HPD mushrooms were intermediate between VFD and HAD mushrooms. Results of sensory quality analysis indicated that HPD mushrooms outperformed HAD and VFD mushrooms in terms of overall quality. Additionally, HPD (0.85 kWh kg⁻¹) had significantly (P < 0.05) lower energy consumption than HAD (2.65 kWh kg⁻¹) and VFD (6.67 kWh kg⁻¹). It can be concluded that HPD is a commercially attractive low-energy technique for the production of high sensory caliber dried shiitake mushrooms.
Article
Production of plants and mushrooms in substrate based partly on anaerobic digestate from biogas production (30%) and peat (70%) was studied in experiments performed using oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) and basil (Ocimum basilicum). Biogas digestate was included in order to decrease use of peat and fertilizer. In separate experiments, combined greenhouse production of mushrooms and plants in fresh substrate, mushroom production in bags of fresh substrate or spent substrate from plant production, and plant production in spent substrate from mushroom production were studied. In terms of plant yield, positive impacts of combined culture were observed, with significantly higher yield of basil when mushroom spawn was added to fresh substrate at a concentration of 2% (p = 0.04). Increasing the concentration to 10%, which was sufficient for fruiting body formation in parallel with plant production, did not increase basil yield compared with the control. When fresh substrate was partly replaced with spent substrate from mushroom production, significantly higher yield of basil was obtained (p = 0.001). Mushroom production had an impact on the nutritional composition of the substrate, resulting in changes in nitrogen dynamics, a significant decrease in phosphorus concentration by 14% (p = 0.001), and a change in extractable concentrations of five of 10 elements studied. In terms of mushroom yield, the impacts of combined production with plants were generally negative.
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Lentinula is a wood-inhabiting agaric mushroom genus in Omphalotaceae. The genus comprises eight species, several of which are edible and highly prized. Lentinula edodes, commonly known as Shiitake, is one of the most cultivated species worldwide and considered as a traditional delicacy in Southeast Asia. With proven medicinal properties, the market value of L. edodes is expected to reach $ 447.7 million in 5 years' time. In this paper, we review the nutritional content, nutraceutical properties, cultivation methods, and economic importance of Lentinula.
Chapter
For centuries mushrooms have been served on Polish tables, including Carpathian tables. At the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, 22 species of edible mushrooms were collected in the area of Gorlice and Biecz (Poland), including Morchella spp., Agaricus spp., Boletus spp., Leccinum spp., Russula spp. (truffles), Suillus spp., Lactarius spp., and Paxillus involutus. Among the species that were collected were those consumed as raw (Lactarius volemus) or after processing, as well as those that were used for medicinal purposes or in the household, for example, to repel insects. Also, nowadays mushrooms are eaten as raw (sprinkled with salt), fried on the oven stove lid or in a pan, pickled and dried (an addition to dishes), and as tinctures (Fomitopsis betulina). One of the old methods of preserving mushrooms is lactic acid fermentation. The Boletus edulis, Leccinum spp., Suillus spp., Xerocomus sp., Lactarius deliciosus, and Tricholoma equestre were the main species used for this.
Article
The use of agro‐industrial waste as substrates for mushroom cultivation is considered a promising management strategy for reducing and valorising these wastes, simultaneously reducing the cost of mushroom cultivation. In this study, oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus were cultivated on twelve substrates composed of either tea waste, lime sawdust, alder sawdust, hornbeam sawdust/shaving, wheat stalk‐straw, wheat bran or their composite to determine the proximate composition and accumulation of thirteen elements in their fruiting bodies. The proximate composition of P. ostreatus did not show a significant difference, regardless of the employed substrate. (one‐way manova; F(66, 107) = 1.329, Wilk’s λ = 0.041, P > 0.05). However, their chemical element contents show a statistically significant difference (one‐way manova; F(132, 418) = 32.163, Wilk’s λ = 0.000, P < 0.05). These results were supported by discriminant function and principal component analyses. The highest mean concentrations of six of twelve elements (i.e., Ca, Mg, Na, Zn, Cd and Cr) were recorded in P. ostreatus cultivated on the lime‐sawdust substrate. Three health indices viz., estimated daily intake, target hazard quotient (THQ) and total THQ were applied to determine the risk to human health via the consumption of P. ostreatus, suggesting that they are safe for human consumption. This study evaluated the effects of 12 different substrates composed of agro‐industrial waste on the physicochemical properties of oyster mushrooms.
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The demand for low-salt foods is increasing due to their health benefits. Umami is known to enhance salty, and a large amount of umami components have been identified in edible fungi. 5'-nucleotides and umami amino acids from nine species of edible fungi were quantified. The equal umami concentration (EUC) in nine edible fungi was within the range of 37.7–1317.72 g MSG/100 g, and umami intensity as determined by electronic tongue and sensory evaluation was within the range of 11.22–13.53 and 2.85–5.55, respectively. Antler fungus had the highest umami intensity. Umami amino acids and nucleotides could increase salty intensity of NaCl at medium and high concentrations. The enzymatic hydrolysate of Antler fungus at higher concentrations could more effectively enhance salty taste of NaCl at lower concentration. This synergistic effect between umami and salty indicates that Antler fungus can potentially be used as an ingredient in low-salt foods.
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Using mushroom to enhance meaty flavor is a common culinary practice; however, nutrition and taste studies associated with amino acid changes during mushroom cooking are limited, and mushroom aroma's enhancement of meaty flavor has not been verified. This study aimed to 1) investigate free amino acid profile changes in raw, sautéed, and roasted portobello and shiitake, and 2) investigate if certain volatiles from mushroom culinary preparation could increase meaty flavor. A total of 23 amino acids, including all 9 essential, were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. Both cooking methods caused significant (p ≤ 0.05) free amino acid loss, while mushroom variety significantly impacted most amino acid contents. The following 8 solutions were served to 82 participants: a blank (basic taste ingredients), a control (blank with meaty flavor), and three aroma blocks (control with mushroom-like, roasted, and grilled flavors) at two intensity levels. The control solution showed significantly higher umami taste than the blank. Compared to the control and blank, the grilled aroma significantly increased meaty flavor intensity and acceptance, overall acceptance, and umami taste; while the roasted and mushroom-like aroma blocks did not show meaty flavor enhancement. Meaty flavor was mainly driven by salty, umami, and sweet tastes as well as thickness mouthfeel. This study demonstrates how culinary application impacts free amino acid content in mushroom and how meaty flavor can be enhanced by aroma compounds derived from non-animal sources.
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Mushrooms are among the few natural products that have been relied upon for prophylactic and therapeutic applications in human diseases. They have been referred to as forest gems since they can be picked in the wild or better domesticated for appropriate use. Several scientific studies have been conducted to establish claimed potentials or further probe new areas into which mushrooms can find application. Many disciplines, including mycology, microbiology, physiology, chemistry, genetics, and medicine, among others, conduct research on mushrooms. These enable broad and in-depth studies of mushrooms, to include in vitro and in vivo demonstrations of their bioactivity, structural characterization, and isolation of bioactive components. This chapter highlights the bioactive composition of mushrooms by relating structure to bioactivity and demonstrating therapeutic effects on some human diseases using existing literature. The potentials of mushrooms or their products for the treatment or management of diseases, such as tropical illnesses and COVID-19 pandemic, among other issues, have been discussed. Chemistry of bioactive compounds, structure–activity relationships, patents, and analyses of data obtained have been reported and studied for interpretation of results.
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The utilization of biological systems has been receiving considerable attention in the past couple of decades in the development of bio-based functional materials. This has been largely inspired by the use of green, biodegradable, and environmentally sustainable materials for the development of new functional biomaterials. The utilization of renewable resources for the production of materials introduces fast-growing and biodegradable fungal mycelium-derived materials for various applications. Mycelium secretes enzymes and decomposes the substrate to take nutrients for growth and make an interwoven three-dimensional network. The elastic, porous, stiff, and dense mycelia are rich in antioxidants, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory compounds. The properties of mycelium-derived materials are greatly dependent upon the feeding substrate, fungus type, and processing conditions. Both pure mycelial materials and their composites secure an important position in the race of utilization of renewable resources for material synthesis. This chapter summarizes the utilization of mycelium-based materials for numerous applications like cosmetics, medicine, textile, construction, packaging, and the food industry. It also describes the potential of mycelial-derived materials as an alternative to the traditional insulators, packaging materials, and bovine leather. It further explains the importance of mycelium-based functional foods, cosmetics, and medicines.
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Lentinula edodes (shiitake) is an edible mushroom that contains many constituents and β‐glucan is considered a major polysaccharide. This study, therefore, aimed to characterize β‐glucan and evaluate its activities. Fresh fruit bodies of L. edodes were used for β‐glucan extraction and followed by analyses via Fourier transform infrared, Nuclear magnetic resonance, and High Performance Liquid Chromatography confirming its characteristic structure. For evaluating biological activities of β‐glucan, different concentrations (0.1‒3.5 mg ml‐1) were assessed. The optimal dose was 3.5 mg ml‐1 that showed the highest scavenging radical ability (75.3%) confirms antioxidant activity, strong inhibition of the peroxyl radical (80.9%) to inhibit lipid peroxidation, elevation the inhibition percentage of both α‐amylase (73.4%) and α‐glucosidase (70.3%) indicates the antidiabetic properties, and highest AFB1 reduction (88%) which ensured the aflatoxin‐detoxifying ability. In addition, antifungal activity of β‐glucan was evaluated to inhibit sporulation process in Aspergillus niger and recorded with minimum inhibitory concentration of 2.5 mg ml‐1 and minimum fungicidal concentration of 3 mg ml‐1. In a dose‐dependent manner, higher concentration of β‐glucan affects viability of tumor cells concomitant induces potent anti‐cancer immune responses and inhibited the activity of topoisomerase I which are considered an important target for cancer chemotherapy. Therefore, L. edodes‐β‐glucan has the potential to act as a suggestive agent for antioxidant, antidiabetic, antifungal activity, and aflatoxin detoxification.
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Background & Aims Edible mushrooms can be referred to as a “super food” and are recommended as a valuable constituent of the daily diet. Animal studies have suggested that mushroom intake can increase muscle endurance due to its abundant nutrients, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, no studies have explored the association between edible mushrooms consumption and muscle strength in the general population. We aimed to investigate the association of edible mushrooms consumption with handgrip strength (HGS) among Chinese adults. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed with 32,308 adults (17,290 men), in Tianjin, China. Mushrooms consumption was assessed via a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Handgrip strength was measured using a handheld digital dynamometer. Analysis of covariance were used to evaluate the association between edible mushrooms consumption and handgrip strength. Results After adjusting potential confounding factors [age, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol-consumption status, education levels, employment status, household income, physical activity, family history of diseases (cardiovascular disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes), metabolic syndromes, total energy intake, and dietary pattern], the least square means (95% confidence intervals) of HGS across consumption of edible mushrooms in males were 42.3 (41.0, 43.6) kg for ≤1 time/week, 43.4 (42.1, 44.6) kg for 2–3 times/week and 43.2 (41.9, 44.4) kg for ≥4 times/week (P for trend <0.001). In females, least square means were 25.1 (24.0, 26.2) kg for ≤1 time/week, 25.7 (24.7, 26.8) kg for 2–3 times/week and 25.7 (24.7, 26.8) kg for ≥4 times/week (P for trend <0.001). Similar associations were also observed for weight-adjusted HGS. Conclusions The study firstly revealed a positive association between edible mushrooms consumption and handgrip strength in both males and females. Further studies are needed to explore the casual relationship. Trial registered UMIN Clinical Trials Registry. Reg No UMIN000027174. Trial Registration website https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr_e/ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000031137.
Chapter
For millennia, edible mushrooms have been used as a common diet for mankind based on their nutritional importance and medicinal benefits. Edible mushrooms are a rich source of carbohydrates (sucrose, xylose, rhamnose, mannose, and fructose), amino acids (glutamic acid, aspartic acid, glutamate, methionine, and cysteine), proteins, fatty acids (linoleic acid, stearic acid, palmitic acid, adrenic acid, and nervonic acid), vitamins (folate, riboflavin, ascorbic acid niacin, thiamine, ergocalciferol, and cyanocobalamine) mineral contents (Ca, Mg, K, P, Na, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Mo) and phenolic compounds (gallic acid, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and pyrogallol) that control and ameliorate multiple functions of the human body and participate for maintaining the good health by reducing the occurrence of several chronic diseases. Bioactive polysaccharides, peptides, polyphenols, and dietary fibers extracted from mushroom mycelia have health-promoting properties including a number of medicinal benefits such as anticancerous properties, antihypertensive activity, protection against DNA damage, cardiovascular effects, neurodegenerative disorders, and improvement in innate immunity. In developing countries, the utilization of mushrooms for therapeutic applications is being implemented as a boon for promoting human health and natural dietary supplements. Recently, different pharmaceutical companies and food industries have taken initial steps for patenting the medicinal value of edible mushrooms based on their antioxidant, anticancer, hypolipidemic, hypotensive, and immunomodulatory effects. The immense role of nutritional components and bioactive molecules of edible mushrooms in correlation with health problems has become a burning task in modern nutraceutical therapy. Hence, the present article deals with up-to-date knowledge of edible mushrooms as a nutritional adjuvant with emphasis on profound biological properties and potential mechanisms of action to prevent different health diseases.
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The nutritional characteristics and taste of some edible fungus powders were scientifically evaluated and compared. Five common edible fungus powders were used as test materials (Agrocybe chaxinggu edible fungus powder, Pleurotus citrinopileatus edible fungus powder, Flammulina velutipes edible fungus powder, Lentinus edodes edible fungus powder, and Hericium erinaceus edible fungus powder). The hydrolyzed amino acid and free amino acid content were measured by an automatic amino acid analyzer, and the ratios of hydrolyzed amino acid and free amino acid components and the taste characteristics of these eatables were systematically compared. The results showed that the total amount of hydrolyzed amino acids contained in the 5 edible fungus powders was between 2.583 and 14.656 g/100 g. The total amount of free amino acids contained in the 5 edible fungus powders was between 0.550 and 2.612 g/100 g. Comparative analysis of the mass fractions and composition of amino acids indicated that Pleurotus citrinopileatus edible fungus powder best met the ideal protein standard. The taste characteristics of protein were evaluated by calculating the taste active value (TAV) of taste-producing free amino acids. The most significant TAV values of the 5 edible fungus powders appeared in glutamic acid, and this amino acid is an umami amino acid. Principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that four principal components could reflect all the information on the free amino acids with a total cumulative variance contribution rate of 100%, and three principal components could reflect most of the information on the hydrolyzed amino acids with a total cumulative variance contribution rate of 99.143%, which could represent the main trends of free amino acids and hydrolyzed acids in edible fungus powder. The comprehensive evaluation model was established, and the comprehensive score indicated that Agrocybe chaxinggu edible fungus powder had the best comprehensive amino acid quality.
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The purposes of this study were to determine the crude protein content of mushrooms, as well as the amounts of water soluble nitrogen, trichloro acetic acid soluble nitrogen and phosphotungstic acid soluble nitrogen. Thirty wild edible mushrooms commonly collected in region of Erzurum in Turkey were analyzed for nitrogen contents, crude protein, water soluble-nitrogen (WSN), trichloro acetic acid-soluble nitrogen (TCA-SN) and phosphotungstic acid-soluble nitrogen (PTA-SN). The macronutrient profile in general revealed that the wild mushrooms were rich sources of protein. The investigated mushroom samples contained relatively high total protein content (18.32-64.70 %, based on dry weight). The highest protein concentration were found in Polyporus squamosus (64.70 %,based on dry weight). The highest values of nitrogen fractions was determined as follows: water soluble nitrogen (WSN/TN %) in Marasmius oreades (88.02 %), trichloro acetic acid-soluble nitrogen (TCA-SN/TN %) in Marasmius oreades (78.40 %), phosphotungstic acid-soluble nitrogen (PTA-SN/TN %) Boletus chrysenteron (50.16 %). The average values of total nitrogen, crude protein, water soluble nitrogen, trichloro acetic acid soluble nitrogen and phosphotungstic acid soluble nitrogen of musroom samples were found (5.68, 35.54, 63.45, 53.27 and 31.98 %), respectively. Mushrooms may be a valuable protein supplement for human diets although they are generally preferred for their flavour and taste. Most of the studies on mushroom protein fractions are to be limited on certain mushroom species.
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This review surveys the literature dealing with the structure of pigments produced by fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota and also covers their significant colourless precursors that are arranged according to their biochemical origin to the shikimate, polyketide and terpenoid derived compounds. The main groups of pigments and their leucoforms include simple benzoquinones, terphenylquinones, pulvinic acids, and derived products, anthraquinones, terpenoid quinones, benzotropolones, compounds of fatty acid origin and nitrogen-containing pigments (betalains and other alkaloids). Out of three orders proposed, the concern is only focused on the orders Agaricales and Boletales and the taxonomic groups (incertae sedis) Cantharellales, Hymenochaetales, Polyporales, Russulales, and Telephorales that cover most of the so called higher fungi often referred to as mushrooms. Included are only the European species that have generated scientific interest due to their attractive colours, taxonomic importance and distinct biological activity.
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In this study, chemical compositions and antioxidant activities of 16 wild edible mushrooms (Agrocybe cylindracea, Amanita ceciliae, Armittaria mellea, Boletus reticulatus, Cantharellus cibarius, Chlorophyllum rhacodes, Coprinus comatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius deliciosus, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, Rhizopogon roseolus, Russula anthracina, Suillus collinitus and Tricholoma myomyces) were investigated. Antioxidant properties of methanol extracts were studied by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method. Among the mushroom extract Amanita ceciliae and Pleurotus ostreatus (96.16 %) showed the most potent radical scavenging activities at 4.51 and 2.72 mg mL -1, respectively. The lowest scavenging activity was exhibited by C. rhacodes (70.46%) at 2.35 mg mL -1.
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The nutritive value of Pleurotus eryngii var. eryngii grown on various agro-wastes was determined. Dry matter, moisture, crude ash, protein, fat and organic matter were 91.1–92.8, 7.2–8.9, 4.8–6.7, 13.6–29.9, 0.3–2.9 and 85.1–87.4% dry weight, respectively. Crude ash, protein and fat contents varied significantly, the lowest protein content was obtained with wheat straw (13.6%), whereas the highest was obtained in the mixture of wheat-soybean straw (1:1) + 20% rice bran (29.9%). Minimum fat level was 0.3% in wheat straw (WS) and maximum was 2.9% obtained in wheat straw- soybean straw (WS-SS) (1:1). There were no significant differences in dry matter, moisture and organic matter content for P. eryngii var. ferulae grown on different agricultural wastes. The difference between the obtained values may be due to the biological structure of substrates and additive material. In order to enrich the value of protein in species of mushroom growth in culture, a 1:1 ratio of the compost should be used.
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Maintenance of equilibrium between free radical production and antioxidant defences (enzymatic and non enzymatic) is an essential condition for normal organism functioning. When this equilibrium has a tendency for the production of free radicals we say that the organism is in oxidative stress. In this situation, excess free radicals may damage cellular lipids, proteins and DNA, affecting normal function and leading to various diseases. In aerobic organisms, the free radicals are constantly produced during the normal cellular metabolism, mainly in the form of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS). Exposition of the organism to free radicals has led to the development of endogenous defence mechanisms to eliminate them. These defences were the response of evolution to the inevitability of ROS production in aerobic conditions. Natural products with antioxidant activity may help the endogenous defence system. In this perspective the antioxidants present in the diet assume a major importance as possible protector agents reducing oxidative damage. Particularly, the antioxidant properties of wild mushrooms have been extensively studied by our research group and by others, and many antioxidant compounds extracted from these sources have been identified, such as phenolic compounds, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, and carotenoids. We will review the compounds identified so far in mushrooms, as well as the mechanism of action involved in their antioxidant properties. Wild mushrooms might be used directly in diet and promote health, taking advantage of the additive and synergistic effects of all the bioactive compounds present.
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The edible mushrooms have different valuable chemical properties (proteins, minerals, aromatic compounds, low lipid and energy contents, etc.) but there are practically no data about the iodine content. The aim of this work was to produce new data on the iodine content of the common edible mushrooms. The inorganic iodine contents of different wild growing (n=49) and cultivated (n=30) mushroom samples were analysed. A partly modified spectrophotometric method was used for the iodine determination in triplicate. The average iodine contents of the wild growing and the cultivated species and samples were 284 (+/-211) and 148 (+/-86) mu g kg(-1) d.m., respectively; these data do not differ significantly. The type of nutrition for the mushrooms seems to be the most important factor affecting the iodine level. The lowest values were identified in edible, wood decaying mushrooms. The analysed cultivated taxa (varieties of Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinula edodes) do not have significantly different iodine level, however, significantly lower iodine contents were found in mushroom samples produced in Germany than in samples cultivated in Hungary. The inorganic iodine level of edible (wild growing and cultivated) mushrooms is low. The lowest concentrations were identified in the wood-decaying species compared to the mycorrhizal ones. The calculated daily iodine intake of humans by mushrooms only accounts for 4-5% of the daily requirement.
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In the past decades many papers were published on the nutritional effect and bioactive components of edible mushrooms. The fungi are able to accumulate secondary metabolites, for example, phenolic compounds, polyketides, terpenes, and steroids. In case of mushrooms the button mushrooms are preferred in the Eastern-European region. Therefore white and cream type button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and different A. subrufescens (syn. A. blazei) cultivars were cropped, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP) were measured in two years of experiments. To develop the description method of mushroom products, software-supported profi le analysis was applied to characterize them. The aim of the research was to compare the sensory profi les of the samples, and to find those characteristics, they actually differ in.
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The nutritive value of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kumm., Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer, and Agaricus bisporus (Large) Sign. was determined. Dry matter, moisture, crude ash, protein, fat, cellulose, organic matter, and nitrogen-free extract were 89.7%-90.3%, 9., and 26.7%-36.8% of dry weight, respectively. Mineral element contents were 14.1-45.6 g K kg −1 , 0.2-1.2 g Ca kg −1 , 0.4-1.9 g Mg kg −1 , and 0.2-0.9 g Na kg −1 as macronutrients, and 176.5-838.0 mg Fe kg −1 , 35.0-46.0 mg Zn kg −1 , 4.8-65.4 mg Mn kg −1 , 6.5-21.5 mg Cu kg −1 , 0.0-11.5 mg Cr kg −1 , and 0.0-1.65 mg Cd kg −1 as micronutrients (dry wt). Furthermore, toxic elements, such as Pb, Ni, and Co, were not detected in any of the 3 species of mushroom. Yenen yabani ve kültür mantarların besin değerleri Özet: Bu çalışmada, Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kumm., Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer ve Agaricus bisporus (Large) Sign. 'in besin değerleri saptandı. Kuru madde, nem, ham kül, protein, yağ, selüloz, organik madde ve azotsuz öz madde miktarı sırasıyla; % 89,7-90,3, % 9,7-10,0, % 6,0-13,7, % 27,8-41,6, % 0,5-1,3, % 10,0-16,2, % 76,0-84,0 ve % 26,7-36,8 olarak gösterildi. Mineral element içerikleri; 14,1-45,6 K, 0,2-1,2 Ca, 0,4-1,9 Mg, 0,2-0,9 Na gibi makro elementler (g kg −1); 176,5-838,0 Fe, 35,0-46,0 Zn, 4,8-65,4 Mn, 6,5-21,5 Cu, 0,0-11,5 Cr ve 0,0-1,65 Cd gibi mikro elementler (mg kg −1) olarak belirlendi. Ayrıca, tüm mantar türlerinde Pb, Ni ve Co gibi toksik elementler ise saptanmadı.
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A simple method for determination of common inorganic anions in mushroom samples has been developed by using suppressed ion chromatography with a pH detection unit. The detection unit which was constructed in such a way that practically no additional dispersion occurred consisted of a flow-through quinhydrone pH sensor and a small reference electrode. Chromatographic separation was performed in the order F−, Cl−, NO2−, Br−, PO43−, ClO3−, NO3−, and SO42−, at room temperature by using Ion Pac AS 9-HC anion exchange column. Anion extracts from dried mushroom samples at room temperature were homogenized and filtered before injection. Under optimized analytical conditions, the detection limits of the method were between 2 × 10−6 and 3 × 10−4 M, depending on the anion studied. The results showed that the concentrations of fluoride and bromide in all mushroom samples were below their limit of detection. Nitrite was found to be the lowest abundant ion, while the most abundant ion was sulfate in all the mushroom samples studied.
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Considering the growing interest for mushrooms and the demand search of natural antioxidants sources, the aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant properties of two edible widely used Boletus species, Boletus edulis, and Boletus auranticus, collected from Istra region in Croatia in late summer 2007. To evaluate the antioxidant properties and content of antioxidant compounds, scavenging capacity on DPPH˙, OH˙, and O2˙− radicals, reducing power and capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation has been investigated. It is determined that content of total phenols (41.82 ± 0.08mg gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry extract) was higher for B. edulis. Using high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detector analysis, the main antioxidant compound, variegatic acid, has been detected and quantified. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate assay was used as a preliminary free radical–scavenging evaluation. By this assay, it has been found that B. edulis dry mushroom extract exhibits 50% of inhibition value at the extract concentration of 0.016 ± 0.0003mg/ml. The extracts were capable of reducing iron(III) and, thus, are capable of donating electrons. Using electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trapping and spin-probing techniques, activity against relevant reactive species, ˙OH and O2˙− radical, was analyzed for both mushroom extracts. Both investigated extracts are determined as good inhibitors for ˙OH radical reduction, and both exhibited significant capacity for scavenging O2˙− radical and for that could help to prevent or meliorate oxidative damage. Only B. edulis extract prevents lipid peroxidation. Investigated mushroom extracts could represent easily accessible natural antioxidant resource.
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Eight-carbon volatiles are ubiquitous among fungi and characteristic of the fungal aroma. They are the product of the oxidation and cleavage of the fatty acid linoleic acid and are classified as oxylipins, molecules taking part in a wide range of biological processes. Their involvement in the fungal aroma, interactions with pests and pathogens, and reproductive events are reviewed here, as well as the enzymic systems involved in their biosynthesis. © 2006 The Mycological Society of Japan and Springer-Verlag Tokyo.
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The content of eight biologically active biogenic amines and polyamines were determined in fruiting bodies of 17 species of wild-growing edible mushrooms picked during 3 consecutive years. An analytical procedure, using freeze-dried samples, derivatisation with dansyl chloride and HPLC quantification had to be adapted in its extraction step due to the slimy character of the analysed mushrooms. No histamine and cadaverine were determined. Tyramine and tryptamine occurred at very low levels, usually up to 5mgkg−1 fresh matter, whilst phenylethylamine contents varied widely from an undetectable level to 38mgkg−1. Putrescine was the amine of the highest content, sometimes exceeding 150mgkg−1 fresh matter, mainly in species of the family Boletaceae. The contents of spermidine were considerably higher than those of spermine, usually at levels of tens mgkg−1 fresh matter and sporadically above 100mgkg−1. Thus, mushrooms are raw food materials with very high spermidine content. The highest spermidine levels occurred in spore-forming parts of fruiting bodies. In Xerocomus badius, statistically significant effects of the year of harvest, age and parts of the fruiting body and of their interactions on the contents of phenylethylamine, putrescine and spermidine were found.
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The aim of this research was to use the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) profiling method coupled with chemometric tools to profile mechanically damaged and undamaged mushrooms during storage and to identify specific metabolites that may be used as markers of damage. Mushrooms grown under controlled conditions were bruise damaged by vibration to simulate damage during normal transportation. Three damage levels were evaluated; undamaged, damaged for 20min and damaged for 40min and two time levels studied; day zero and day one after storage at 4ºC. Applying this technique over 100 metabolites were identified, quantified and compiled in a library. Random forest classification models were used to predict damage in mushrooms producing models with error rates of >10% using cap and stipe tissue. Fatty acids were found to be the most important group of metabolites for predicting damage in mushrooms. PLS models were also developed producing models with low error rates. With a view to exploring biosynthetic links between metabolites, a pairwise correlation analysis was performed for all polar and non-polar metabolites. The appearance of high correlation between linoleic acid and pentadecanoic acid in the non-polar phase of damaged mushrooms indicated the switching on of a metabolic pathway when a mushroom is damaged. KeywordsGC/MS–Metabolic profiling–Mushrooms–Damage–Chemometrics
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Wild growing mushrooms are widely consumed as a delicacy in several European countries, at level up to several kg per year per capita. Activity concentrations of the natural isotope 40K are usually 800-1,500 Bq kg-1 dry matter (DM). Other natural radionuclides with leading 210Pb and 210Po are of lower importance. Activities of 137Cs from nuclear weapons testing below 1,000 Bq kg-1 DM were commonly reported until 1986. The situation changed dramatically after the accident of Chernobyl nuclear power station in 1986. Activities up to over 100,000 Bq kg-1 DM of 137Cs and to a lesser extent of 134Cs were observed in some edible species in the following years. Commonly, mycorrhizal species accumulate radiocesium more than species with saprotrophic or parasitic nutritional strategy. Xerocomus badius, X. chrysenteron, Suillus variegatus, Rozites caperata, Laccaria amethystina and Hydnum repandum belong among the radiocesium highly accumulating and widely consumed species. Activity concentrations have been affected by several environmental factors, such as rate of soil contamination by the Chernobyl fallout, the depth from which mycelium takes nutrients and time since the accident. Most of the 137Cs in forest soils appear to be available for uptake by mushrooms until now. A considerable consumption of accumulating species collected from the sites heavily contaminated in 1986 can be still of a health concern. The contamination can be reduced by soaking or cooking of dried or frozen mushroom slices. Until now, meat of wild boars eating some mushroom species from heavily contaminated areas can highly surpass statutory limit for 137Cs.
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The present work determined the effect of the method of preservation (freezing or canning) on amino acid content in Agaricus bisporus, Boletus edulis and Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms. Before being preserved, mushrooms were blanched in a solution containing citric, lactic and I.-ascorbic acids. Expressing the results in 100 g fresh matter, mushroom species was a more significant factor than product type in determining differences in the levels of individual endogenous and exogenous amino acids; however, when the results were converted to 100 g protein, both factors were significant. In 100 g fresh matter, B. edulis contained 2-80% and 3-268% more endogenous and exogenous amino acids than A. bisporus and P streams respectively. The main differences between frozen and canned mushrooms were in the levels of alanine, arginine, proline, cysteine, methionine and tyrosine. Converted to 100 g of protein, significant differences between the products mainly concerned levels of asparagine, arginine, glycine, glutamine, leucine, lysine, phenylalanine and valine. Compared with FAO/WHO patterns, limiting amino acids were found only in frozen (leucine) and canned (lysine) B. edulis. CS index values were generally lower for frozen than for canned mushrooms.
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Wild growing mushrooms have been a popular delicacy in many countries. Some species, mainly from genera Agaricus, Macrolepiota, Lepista and Calocybe accumulate high levels of cadmium and mercury even in unpolluted and mildly polluted areas. The concentrations of both metals and also of lead increase considerably in the heavily polluted sites, such as in the vicinity of metal smelters. The usual concentrations of the three deleterious metals are presented in tables for 25 species consumed within Europe. A brief overview of 12 other metals in mushrooms is also given. Present knowledge of metal speciation in mushrooms is limited as is knowledge of their bioavailability in man. Thus, consumption of the accumulating species should be restricted. Semimetals selenium, arsenic and antimony do not occur in undesirable levels. The cultivated species, especially the common mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) contain only low levels of the trace elements. Very scarce information is available on metal losses during preservation and culinary treatment of mushrooms.
Article
Truffle, belonging to Tuber genera, is a nutritious and sterol-rich edible fungus, and sterol is a potential health beneficial compound. A comparison of Tuber sterol composition indicates that the total sterol contents in the fermentation mycelia (i.e., 10.5 mg g−1) (n = 3) were approximately 3.2–5.6 times higher than that of the fruiting bodies (p < 0.05) with the addition of soybean flour into the basal fermentation media. Moreover, the phytosterol profile of fermentation mycelia could be significantly improved by adding soybean flour into the fermentation media. After the addition of soybean flour, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol appeared in the fermentation mycelia and the contents of total phytosterols (2279 μg g−1) (n = 3), brassicasterol (943 μg g−1) (n = 3), and campesterol (418 μg g−1) (n = 3) were all increased significantly (p < 0.05). Moreover, the total contents of sterols and phytosterols in the fermentation mycelia cultured in the soybean media were much higher than those in the fruiting bodies (i.e., 1883–3240 and 479–1832 μg g−1, respectively) (n = 3, p < 0.05). This work confirms the potentiality of Tuber fermentation mycelia as the alternative resource for its fruiting bodies from the viewpoint of sterols production.
Article
The profiles of free amino acids and 5′-nucleotides were first compared between Tuber fermentation mycelia and natural fruiting bodies. A total of 20 free amino acids and five 5′-nucleotides were identified in the Tuber fermentation mycelia and natural fruiting bodies. Not only the total contents of the free amino acids and 5′-nucleotides, but also the contents of umami amino acids and flavour 5′-nucleotides in the fermentation mycelia were higher than those in the fruiting bodies. By the addition of soybean flour in the fermentation media, the flavour 5′-nucleotides content in the fermentation mycelia was significantly increased, and the equivalent umami concentration of the fermentation mycelia (i.e., 608.07 g/100 g) was approximately 38.1–93.4 times higher than those of the fruiting bodies. From the viewpoint of umami taste, this work confirms the potentiality of Tuber fermentation mycelia as the alternative resource for its fruiting bodies.
Article
Consumption of wild growing mushrooms has been preferred to eating of cultivated fungi in many countries of central and Eastern Europe. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the nutritional value of wild growing mushrooms is limited. The present study reports the effects of trophism on mushrooms nutritional and nutraceutical potential. In vitro antioxidant properties of five saprotrophic (Calvatia utriformis, Clitopilus prunulus, Lycoperdon echinatum, Lyophyllum decastes, and Macrolepiota excoriata) and five mycorrhizal (Boletus erythropus, Boletus fragrans, Hygrophorus pustulatus, Russula cyanoxantha, and Russula olivacea) wild edible mushrooms were accessed and compared to individual compounds identified by chromatographic techniques. Mycorrhizal species revealed higher sugars concentration (16–42g/100g dw) than the saprotrophic mushrooms (0.4–15g/100g). Furthermore, fructose was found only in mycorrhizal species (0.2–2g/100g). The saprotrophic L. decastes, and the mycorrhizal species B. erythropus and B. fragrans gave the highest antioxidant potential, mainly due to the contribution of polar antioxidants such as phenolics and sugars. The bioactive compounds found in wild mushrooms give scientific evidence to traditional edible and medicinal uses of these species.
Article
This review is to provide an update in the recent truffle research with particular emphasis on the chemical properties (nutritional and aromatic profile) and their potential biological activities such as antioxidant, antiviral, anti-microbial, hepatoprotective, anti-mutagenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-tuberculoid. In addition, some of the diversification patterns (e.g., biogeography, cultivar, and morphology) and preservation of truffles are briefly introduced. A few snapshot summary tables are also incorporated to give further detailed guidance for each section, spanning in particular the findings in the last ten years (2000–2010). It is quite clear that further scientific studies need to pay greater attention on how to incorporate these biochemical and biological properties into the value-added truffles and truffle related products.
Article
The contents of nonhallucinogenic indole compounds were determined in methanol extracts from fruiting bodies of four common edible European species of higher fungi representing the most popular taxon Basidiomycota: Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange), Cantharellus cibarius Fr., Lactarius deliciosus (L. Fr.) S.F. Gray and Leccinum rufum (Schaef.) Kreisel. Amongst eleven compounds under analysis, 6–7 metabolites, distinct in different species, were identified in the extracts of fruiting bodies. Serotonin and melatonin were the only common compounds to all species. The contents of the analyzed compounds were diverse, ranging from 0.01 to almost 40mg/100g d.w. The contents of tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan, tryptamine and melatonin were low (below 1.40mg/100g d.w.). Noteworthy, the serotonin contents were very high in all species under study and amounted to 5.21, 29.61, 18.42 and 31.71mg/100g d.w., respectively. Moreover, the fruiting bodies of these species contained indoleacetic acid (max. 2.04mg/100g d.w.) and tryptophan degradation products: kynureine sulfate (max. 39.20mg/100g d.w.) and kynurenic acid (6.21mg/100g d.w.).
Article
In European countries, the edible mushrooms from the Boletus genus are the most frequently harvested of all the forest species gathered in the wild. Their popularity is mainly due to their sensory qualities, in particular aroma, taste and texture. In the present work, a targeted metabolites analysis was performed in six wild Boletus species. The analysis of primary metabolites revealed proteins, carbohydrates, fatty acids, mainly linoleic acid, sugars, mainly mannitol and trehalose, and vitamins (tocopherols and ascorbic acid). Secondary metabolites, such as phenolic acids, were also identified and quantified, and correlated to Boletus antioxidant properties including free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition. As a source of these important metabolites, the edible Boletus spp. could be directly used in the human diet as health foods, taking advantage on the synergistic and/or additive effects of all the antioxidants present, while inedible species could represent a source of extractable phenolic compounds to be used as additives in the food industry or as components in pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations.
Article
Lentinan, a β-(1 → 3)-d-glucan isolated from a common edible mushroom, Lentinus edodes, is known as a biologically active macromolecules with very strong host-mediated anti-cancer activity, via activation of the human immune system. However, its widespread medicinal application is hindered by some technical difficulties in its extraction and purification, as well as a lack of thorough understanding of the structure-and-function relationship of this polysaccharide. This review aims at highlighting the different areas of research conducted on lentinan in the past 40 years, including its extraction and purification processes, the analysis of structure, the determination of its chain conformation and conformation transition in solution, as well as its rheological properties and bioactivities especially on anti-cancer treatment. About 156 literatures were cited to summarize the advancement of lentinan in the review paper.
Article
Methanolic extracts of processed fruiting bodies of six edible mushroom species (Basidiomycota)–Armillariamellea, Boletus badius, Boletus edulis, Cantharelluscibarius, Lactariusdeliciosuscollected from natural habitats and Pleurotusostreatusofcommercial origin –were analysed for the presence of non-hallucinogenic indole compounds. Thermal processing was designed in such a way that it mimicked conditions used for cooking of mushroom dishes, since only a narrow group of mushrooms can be eaten raw, while indole compounds are thermolabile. All processed extracts were shown to contain L-tryptophan (upto 8.92 mg/100 g dw). The contents of the remaining compounds,5-methyltryptophan,tryptamine, melatonin, indoleacetonitrile and indole, varied in different species (from 0.71 to 6.55 mg/100 g dw).Extract of processed Cantharelluscibariusfruiting bodies contained L-tryptophan, 5-methyltryptophan,tryptamine, melatonin, indoleacetonitrile and indole (1.96–4.94 mg/100 g dw) whereas L-tryptophan (2.78 mg/100 g dw) and tryptamine (2.77 mg/100 g dw) were the only indole compounds identified in the processed fruiting bodies of Armillariamellea.
Article
Mushroom β-glucans are known for their activity as biological response modifiers and anticarcinogenic agents. β-1,3-1,6 Branched glucans with a triple helix tertiary structure are recognised as the most potent ones. In the present work, a colorimetric method for β-1,3-1,6-glucan quantification based on the dye Congo red is introduced. This method is specific for β-glucans with a triple helix. The β-1,3-1,6-glucan content of mycelia and fruiting bodies from various mushrooms was determined and compared with the total β-1,3-glucan content, measured by a fluorimetric method. The results show equal amounts of β-1,3-1,6- and total β-1,3-glucans in the analysed species but obvious differences between mycelia and fruiting bodies. On the average, 3% of mycelia and 8% of fruiting body dry mass consist of β-1,3-1,6-glucans. The average percentage of β-1,3-1,6-glucans in the total β-1,3-glucan content differs between mycelia (46%) and fruiting bodies (87%).
Article
Enrichment of vitamin D2 in Agaricus bisporus white button mushroom (WBM) using continuous UV light needs a longer exposure time, which can lead to discoloration. Using a Xenon pulsed UV light source, the yield of vitamin D2 was evaluated in freshly harvested button mushrooms and mushroom slices after exposure to 2.5, 3, 6 and 9 pulses of UV light at an average dose of 1.150 J/cm2 energy per pulse. Increase in vitamin D2 content was proportionate to the number of pulses of UV light. There was no difference in the vitamin D2 content of mushrooms between 200 g and 500 g punnets for the corresponding number of pulses (737 ± 81, 847 ± 38, 1148 ± 182, 1611 ± 444% versus 747 ± 48, 911 ± 35, 1307 ± 109, 2028 ± 181% Daily Value/serving, respectively; P > 0.05). Mushrooms in the top layer showed significantly higher amounts of vitamin D2 content than those in the bottom layer of a 500 g punnet (657 ± 22, 796 ± 76, 1433 ± 138, 1878 ± 178% versus 129 ± 60, 237 ± 117, 403 ± 35, 830 ± 257% DV/serving, respectively; P < 0.01). A single layer of sliced mushrooms (∼5 mm thick) showed higher amounts of vitamin D2 content than sliced mushrooms packaged together after pulsed UV light exposure (7882 ± 1074, 6867 ± 944, 10,826 ± 472, 13,001 ± 1635% versus 1221 ± 281, 1293 ± 210, 1598 ± 207, 2018 ± 459% DV/serving, respectively; P < 0.001). Discoloration of whole or sliced mushrooms was not observed. Thus, pulsed UV light provides a highly effective method for increasing vitamin D2 levels in A. bisporus white button mushroom.
Article
Mushrooms have been valued as highly tasty/nutritional foods and as a source of compounds with medicinal properties. The huge mushrooms reservoir of Northeast Portugal must be chemically and nutritionally characterized for the benefit of the local populations and for the genetic conservation of wild macrofungi. Herein, a chemical, nutritional and bioactive inventory of potentially interesting species (and not yet characterized in the literature) from different habitats (Castanea sativa, Pinus sp., Quercus sp., fields and mixed stands) was performed. Besides macronutrients with a well-balanced proportion, the studied wild mushrooms also have important micronutrients (vitamins) and non-nutrients (phenolics) with bioactive properties such as antioxidant potential. Furthermore, being a source of important antioxidants the wild species, mainly Suillus variegatus (Pinus sp. habitat), Boletus armeniacus (C. sativa habitat), Clavariadelphus pistillaris (Quercus sp. habitat), Agaricus lutosus (fields) and Bovista aestivalis (mixed stands), can be used in human diet as nutraceuticals and/or functional foods maintaining and promoting health, longevity and life quality.Highlights► A chemical and nutritional inventory of Portuguese wild mushrooms was performed. ► Wild mushrooms from different habitats are nutritionally well-balanced foods. ► Mushrooms have micronutrients and non-nutrients with antioxidant properties. ► Wild mushrooms can be used in diet as nutraceuticals and/or functional foods.
Article
The effect of different cooking methods on the flavour of mushroom soup was assessed. The results indicated that the levels of free amino acids and 5’-nucleotides in the microwaved mushroom soup were (P < 0.05) higher than those in boiled and autoclaved mushroom soup. The number of volatile compounds identified in the boiled mushroom soup was (P < 0.05) higher than those in autoclaved and microwaved mushroom soup. The main aroma-active compounds found in mushroom soup were 1-octen-3-one (mushroom-like), 3-octen-2-one (cooked mushroom-like), 2,6-dimethyl pyrazine (roast nut), benzeneacetaldehyde (floral), dihydro-5-methyl-2(3H)-furanone (sweet) and some unknown compounds with popcorn and sauce flavour. In addition, boiled, autoclaved and microwaved mushroom soup possessed thirteen, ten and nine aroma-active compounds (with flavour dilution factors > 1), respectively. Thus the flavour of mushroom soup is dependent on the cooking methods as proved by gas chromatography and olfactometry analysis.