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Cannabis indica was collected from five different localities of Pakistan and analyzed for medicinally active compounds by GC-MS. The biologically active chemical compounds amongst the naturally occurring cannabinoids are delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) which were present in all samples in high percentage. The highest percentage of THC present was 23.84% and that of CBD was 54.48%. Other canabinoids quantified were: delta 9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), cannabivarin (CBV), cannabichromene (CBC), cannabipinol (CBP), cannabigerl (CBG), hexahydrocannabinol (HHCBN), cannabinol (CBN). The main objective of the study was to investigate biologically active compounds of Cannabis sp. from various localities. Results from the study proved that Cannabis is not meant only for its recreational purposes but the presence of biologically active medicinal compounds in high concentrations make it a valuable source to be used in herbal preparation for different ailments. INTRODUCTION the p lants [8,9]. Approximately 61 cannabinoids are
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World Applied Sciences Journal 19 (7): 918-923, 2012
ISSN 1818-4952
© IDOSI Publications, 2012
DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wasj.2012.19.07.1922
Corresponding Author: Dr. Muhammad Nasimullah Qureshi, Department of Chemistry,
Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Pakistan. Tel: +92-937-929122.
Estimation of Biologically Active Cannabinoids in Cannabis indica by
Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)
Muhammad Nasimullah Qureshi, Farina Kanwal,
1,2 2
Muhammad Siddique, Inayat-ur-Rahman and Muhammad Akram
2 2 2
Department of Chemistry, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Pakistan
Medicinal Botanic Centre, PCSIR Laboratories Complex Peshawar-25120, Pakistan
Abstract: Cannabis indica was collected from five different localities of Pakistan and analyzed for medicinally
active compounds by GC-MS. The biologically active chemical compounds amongst the naturally occurring
cannabinoids are delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) which were present in all samples
in high percentage. The highest percentage of THC present was 23.84% and that of CBD was 54.48%. Other
canabinoids quantified were: delta 9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), cannabivarin (CBV), cannabichromene
(CBC), cannabipinol (CBP), cannabigerl (CBG), hexahydrocannabinol (HHCBN), cannabinol (CBN). The main
objective of the study was to investigate biologically active compounds of Cannabis sp. from various localities.
Results from the study proved that Cannabis is not meant only for its recreational purposes but the presence
of biologically active medicinal compounds in high concentrations make it a valuable source to be used in
herbal preparation for different ailments.
Key words: Cannabis indica % GC-MS % Cannabinoids
INTRODUCTION the plants [8,9]. Approximately 61 cannabinoids are
Cannabis have a long history, dating back severalproducts or artifacts [10,11]. The most active chemical
thousand years when plant was first discovered and usedcompound of naturally occurring cannabinoids is delta 9-
by Indian and Chinese civilization for recreational,tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). It was isolated and
medicinal, religious and industrial purposes [1,2]. It issynthesized in 1964 and is clearly the most
among the very oldest of economic plants, providing fiber pharmacologically active [12]. Some of its analogues are:
for the manufacture of textile and ropes, [3] and for drugcannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN) and cannabigerol
resin [4]. Medicinal properties of the plants were(CBG) etc. Cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD) are
recognized in China 2700 years ago for the relief of pain,the aromatic derivatives of THC. These compounds have
muscular spasms, convulsions, epilepsy, asthma andbeen isolated from different cannabis species [13].
rheumatism [5]. An Irish surgeon O’ShaughnessyDespite all its medicinal properties, Cannabis faced
introduced cannabis to Europe in 1842 after observing its an onslaught of prohibitive legislation in the early
therapeutic use [6]. His studies showed the efficacy oftwentieth century, leading to its elimination from
Cannabis as a muscle relaxant, anti-convulsant, anti-pharmacies across the globe. It was banned due to its
emetic and analgesic. However, similar to other herbal increasing use as recreational Cannabis among the youth.
preparations, its potency was unreliable, contributingAn emphasis on the negative aspect of Cannabis as a
to decline of its therapeutic use. recreational drug, mainly based on unauthorized use of
The chemistry of the Cannabis is quite complex andsmoked herb of indifferent quality, has made it difficult to
the isolation and extractions of the active ingredients areachieve an objective risk benefit analysis [14]. However,
difficult even today [7]. Cannabinoids are terpenophenolic in 1986 in USA tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main
compounds unique to Cannabis. They are produced byconstituent of Cannabis, was licensed as an anti-emetic
glandular trichomes that occur on most aerial surfaces ofdrug in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.
known to exist, although some of these are breakdown
World Appl. Sci. J., 19 (7): 918-923, 2012
In addition, in clinical studies THC has shown significant Instrumentation: A gas chromatograph from Shimadzu
stimulation of appetite and increase of body weight in HIV hyphenated to a mass spectrometer QP 2010 plus
positive and cancer patients. As this plant is abundantly(Tokyo, Japan) equipped with an auto-sampler (AOC-20S)
available in Pakistan, the present study is aimed toand auto-injector (AOC-20i) was used. Helium was used
analyze the species of Cannabis indigenous to Pakistan,as carrier gas. All chromatographic separations were
especially Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa for its most importantperformed on a capillary column (DB-5ms; Technokroma)
class of natural phytocannabinoids i.e. THC, CBD andhaving specifications: length; 30 m, i.d.; 0.25 mm,
CBN. Cannabis species found in North West region ofthickness; 0.25 µm. Other GC-MS conditions are: ion
Pakistan are high in THC contents with a widely varyingsource temperature (EI); 280 °C, interface temperature;
ratio of cannabidiol content. In reference to the content of 280°C, solvent cut time; 2 min. 1 µL of sample and
THC and CBD, it is possible to distinguish between drugstandard were injected into the GC column. Injector
hemp and fiber hemp. The phenotypes of Cannabis aretemperature was 300°C and Injector was operated in split
characterized by the ratio of THC and CBD. For drugmode. The column temperature program started at 100 °C
hemp this ratio is greater than 1.0 and for fiber hemp it isfor 2 min and changed to 300°C at the rate of 10°C/min.
less than 1.0. So by calculating the Cannabis phenotypeThe temperature was hold for 10 minutes. Total elution
ratio fiber and drug hemp can be differentiated. time was 42 minutes. MS scanning was performed from
Experimental the supplier was used to control the system and to
Extraction: Five samples of Cannabis resin were collectedacquire the data. Identification of the compounds was
from Teerah Valley of Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa, Pakistancarried out by comparing the mass spectra obtained with
and authenticated at the herbarium of PCSIR Laboratories those of standard mass spectra from the NIST library
Complex Peshawar. 10 g resin from each sample was(NIST 05).
ground and extracted with 200 ml of n-hexane under
reflux maintaining the temperature between 40-50°C for RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
75 minutes. The extract was then evaporated under
vacuum and stored in refrigerator. There are wide variations in the relative amounts of
GC-MS Analysis of Extract considered responsible for these variations. These
Sample Preparation: From the above extract 0.2 g sampleinclude the genetic characteristics, environment, maturity,
was taken and stirred in 15 ml of n-hexane. 30 ml ofsex, part of harvested plant and the time which has
acetonitrile saturated with n-hexane was added and mixed elapsed between harvesting and chemical analysis, as well
in separating funnel. Acetonitrile layer was collected andas the conditions of storage of the plant. The chemical
600 ml of aqueous solution containing 2% NaCl and 100composition of different parts of the plant also varies.
ml of n-hexane was added. The mixture was thoroughlyIn present study plant resins were collected because
mixed and organic layer was collected. Water dropsdelta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol is found in plant’s flowering
present in organic layer were removed by the addition ofor fruit tops, leaves and resin. It has been reported that
anhydrous Na SO and solution was filtered andCannabis resin has a higher THC contents than rest of
2 4
evaporated to dryness. The residue was reconstituted inthe plant material.[16] Table 1 shows percentage
1 ml of cyclohexane. Solution was filtered and 1 µl of the concentrations of different canabinoids found in five
filtrate was injected into the GC-MS. samples of Canabis indica collected from various points
m/z 85 to m/z 380. GC-MS solutions software provided by
cannabinoids in Cannabis [15]. Many factors have been
Table 1: Percentage concentration of different canabinoids in Canabis indica from various localities
CN-1 1 month 2.03 0.72 53.41 - - 0.36 0.52 23.84 16.51 0.76
CN-2 6 month 1.65 0.65 54.48 1.29 -0.32 0.47 23.60 16.89 0.74
CN-3 1 year 1.44 0.65 49.18 4.51 1.84 0.70 0.28 24.27 15.07 0.80
CN-4 2.5 years 0.11 5.14 39.98 - - - 0.12 2.29 52.0 1.36
CN-5 4 years 0.03 1.92 26.60 1.77 1.59 0.11 0.82 1.03 67.40 2.57
World Appl. Sci. J., 19 (7): 918-923, 2012
Fig. 1: Continued
World Appl. Sci. J., 19 (7): 918-923, 2012
Fig. 1: GC chromatograms of canabinoids quantified in Canabis indica
while chromatograms obtained from GC-MS analyses ofincreases with the aging of the sample [19]. Our results
Canabis indica are shown in the figure 1. The highestshow the same trend as sample 1 which is the fresh
percentage of THC is 23.84% in CN-1 while CN-5 showssample analyzed with in a month, delivered highest
lowest percentage i.e.1.03%.There are several reasons concentration of THC and lowest concentration of CBN
for this variation. THC is usually present in Cannabiswhile sample 5 (analyzed after 4 years) as its THC
plant as a mixture of monocarboxylic acids, which iscontents are lowest and CBN contents are highest.
readily and efficiently decarboxylated upon heating [17].Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) on storage gives rise to
THC decomposes when exposed to air, heat and light.cannabivarin (CBV) [20]. These two products CBN and
Storage conditions of plant material are also veryCBV are present in high concentration in old samples and
important because THC binds readily to glass and plastic, are in low concentration in fresh samples.
reducing recoveries during analysis [18]. Besides theseCannabidiol CBD is an anti psychotic cannabinoid
the other important reason is that with the passage of found in hemp plant. It is a major constituent of the plant,
time, THC content in plant material gradually decreases as representing up to 40% in its extracts [21]. In table sample
a result of oxidation to cannabinol (CBN). Cannabinol isI show percentage of CBD as 53.41% while lowest
a chemical degradation product and its relative abundance percentage is present in sample 5 i.e.26.60%. Cannabidiol
World Appl. Sci. J., 19 (7): 918-923, 2012
is not psychoactive and was thought not to affectACKNOWLEDGEMENT
the.psychoactivity of THC [22]. However recent
evidence shows that users of cannabis with a highThis research was supposrted and financed by the
CBD/THC ratio were less likely to experiencePCSIR Laboratories Complex, Peshawar.
schizophrenia like symptoms [23]. It has been studied that
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... Thus, acidic and neutral phytocannabinoids are not distinguishable, but rather the result is the sum of neutral cannabinoid present in the extract and neutral cannabinoid generated during decarboxylation. The issue is of no concern for studies aiming to quantify total THC (∆ 9 -THC and ∆ 9 -THCA) levels, as it is the case with most of the GC-based studies included in this review without prior derivatization [9,17,18,45,[47][48][49]52,54,56,58,59,63,67,[72][73][74][75][76]79,81,82,85,86,89,93,96,98,[101][102][103]105,108,115,[121][122][123][124]128,138,139,141,148,150,152,[154][155][156][157][158][159][160] (Table S1). However, derivatization is of great importance for studies aiming more thorough phytocannabinoid profiling. ...
... They contain aromatic, alkyl and alcohol moieties; it is expected that the proportion of phenyl groups in mixed dimethylpolysiloxane-silphenylene or mixed dimethylpolysiloxane-dimethyl-dimephenyl stationary phases to have an impact on their chromatographic separation. Wide employed thin-filmed capillary columns with non-polar stationary phases are used, such as 5%-diphenyl-dimethylpolysiloxane columns, including HP-5 (for FID) or HP-5MS (for MS) [50,52,57,58,62,70,85,89,91,94,101,103,104,126,133,141,142,154,156], DB-5MS [9,99,108,128,151,163,164], Rxi-5MS [73], Mega-5MS [146], BP-5 [45], RTX-5 [94,161], MDN-5S [91], SE-52 [128], ZB-5 [95], Zebron ZB-5HT Inferno [102] and SLB-5MS [152]. 100% dimethylpolysiloxane columns, such as HP-1 [10,109,112,165], SPB-1 [85], OV-1 [74] and DB-1 [17,23,75,77,84,144,148] are preferred for more successful separation of CBC and CBD, apart from all other phytocannabinoids, or are used only for separation of CBC and CBD [10,109,112]. ...
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Cannabis is gaining increasing attention due to the high pharmacological potential and updated legislation authorizing multiple uses. The development of time- and cost-efficient analytical methods is of crucial importance for phytocannabinoid profiling. This review aims to capture the versatility of analytical methods for phytocannabinoid profiling of cannabis and cannabis-based products in the past four decades (1980–2021). The thorough overview of more than 220 scientific papers reporting different analytical techniques for phytocannabinoid profiling points out their respective advantages and drawbacks in terms of their complexity, duration, selectivity, sensitivity and robustness for their specific application, along with the most widely used sample preparation strategies. In particular, chromatographic and spectroscopic methods, are presented and discussed. Acquired knowledge of phytocannabinoid profile became extremely relevant and further enhanced chemotaxonomic classification, cultivation set-ups examination, association of medical and adverse health effects with potency and/or interplay of certain phytocannabinoids and other active constituents, quality control (QC), and stability studies, as well as development and harmonization of global quality standards. Further improvement in phytocannabinoid profiling should be focused on untargeted analysis using orthogonal analytical methods, which, joined with cheminformatics approaches for compound identification and MSLs, would lead to the identification of a multitude of new phytocannabinoids.
... The isoTHC-type metabolites can be generated in the laboratory from CBD, but the most likely biosynthetic source is an oxidative cyclization catalyzed by a cannabinoid synthase, possibly as a byproduct, but further research is needed to address the issue of specificity of these enzymes (Appendino et al. 2011). The simplest HHC-type metabolite, with a non-functionalized terpenoid moiety, is hexahydrocannabinol (90) (Qureshi et al. 2012). Singly hydroxylated terpenoid moieties are found in 9ahydroxyhexahydrocannabinol (91), 10a-hydroxyhexahydrocannabinol (92), 10b-hydroxyhexahydrocannabinol (93), and 10aRhydroxyhexahydrocannabinol (94) (Ahmed et al. 2015). ...
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Following decades of tight restrictions, recent legislative adjustments have decriminalized the use of products derived from cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) in many countries and jurisdictions. This has led to a renewed interest in better understanding the chemical basis of physiological effects attributed to cannabis use. The present review article summarizes our current knowledge regarding the 130 structures of cannabinoids that have been characterized from cannabis extracts to date. We are also providing information on the methods employed for structure determination to help the reader assess the quality of the original structural assignments. Cannabinoid chemical diversity is discussed in the context of current knowledge regarding the enzymes involved in cannabinoid biosynthesis. We briefly assess to what extent cannabinoid levels are determined by the genotype of a given chemovar and discuss the limits of enzymatic control over the cannabinoid profile.
... GC-MS analysis of COE revealed that CBD (59.1%) is the major identified cannabinoid followed by THC (20.2%). These results are in line with previous report which showed high percentage of CBD (54.48%) and THC (23.84%) present in several Cannabis indica samples collected from different localities in Pakistan (Qureshi et al., 2012). Cannabis sativa samples obtained from four different regions of Pakistan revealed that CBD content varied between 58 and 64% while THC ranged between 9 and 14% (Tayyab and Shahwar, 2015). ...
Ethnopharmacological relevance Cannabis sativa L. is an aromatic annual herb belonging to the family Cannabaceae and it is widely distributed worldwide. Cultivation, selling, and consumption of cannabis and cannabis related products, regardless of its use, was prohibited in Lebanon until April 22, 2020. Nevertheless, cannabis oil has been traditionally used unlawfully for many years in Lebanon to treat diseases such as arthritis, diabetes, cancer and few neurological disorders. Aim of the study The present study aims to evaluate the phytochemical and anti-inflammatory properties of a cannabis oil preparation that is analogous to the illegally used cannabis oil in Lebanon. Materials and methods Dried Cannabis flowers were extracted with ethanol without any purification procedures to simulate the extracts sold by underground dealers in Lebanon. GC/MS was performed to identify chemical components of the cannabis oil extract (COE). In vivo anti-inflammatory effect of COE was evaluated by using carageenan- and formalin-induced paw edema rat models. TNF-α production were determined by using LPS-activated rat monocytes. Anti-inflammatory markers were quantified using western blot. Results Chemical analysis of COE revealed that cannabidiol (CBD; 59.1%) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; 20.2%) were found to be the most abundant cannabinoids.Various monoterpenes (α-Pinene, Camphene, β-Myrecene and D-Limonene) and sesquiterpenes (β-Caryophyllene, α-Bergamotene, α-Humelene, Humulene epoxide II, and Caryophyllene oxide) were identified in the extract. Results showed that COE markedly suppressed the release of TNF-α in LPS-stimulated rat monocytes. Western blot analysis revealed that COE significantly inhibited LPS-induced COX-2 and i-NOS protein expressions and blocked the phosphorylation of MAPKs, specifically that of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK. COE displayed a significant inhibition of paw edema in both rat models. Histopathological examination revealed that COE reduced inflammation and edema in chronic paw edema model. Conclusion The current findings demonstrate that COE possesses remarkable in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory activities which support the traditional use of the Lebanese cannabis oil extract in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases including arthritis.
... To manage the system and to attain the data, an integrated GC-MS software was used. From NIST library, recognition of chemical compounds was carried out by comparing the acquired mass spectra with mass spectra of standards (28). For three to five days, the tested fungal strains were cultured on SDA (Sabouraud's dextrose agar) plates maintained at 28°C. ...
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The current study investigated the chemical constituents, antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of essential oil of Mentha piperita L. The oil was extracted by hydro-steam distillation process and the chemical composition was characterized by using a hyphenated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analytical technique. The agar well diffusion method was used for the determination of antimicrobial activities. The antioxidant activity was measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Different chemical constituents were scrutinized from the essential oil of M. piperita leaves, which include p-mentha-6,8-dien-2-one (46.434%), p-menthan-3-ol (25.749%), borneol (8.865%), d-limonene (5.516%), 2-isopropylidenecyclohexanone (4.838%), 7-oxabicyclo [4.1.0] heptan-2-one-6-methyl-3-(1-methylethyl) (2.039%). The screened peppermint oil revealed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against different pathogenic microorganisms. The essential oil of M. piperita leaves showed highest zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus (17 ± 0.61 mm), Escherichia coli (17 ± 0.87 mm) and Aspergillus niger (16 ± 0.37 mm). The efficient scavenging of free radicals (83 ± 0.43% at 50 gL-1) revealed the antioxidant propensity of the isolated essential oil. These results concluded that the essential oil of M. piperita has beneficial chemical constituents and possess prominent antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities.
... Medicinal plants have been in use for their therapeutically active compounds against different diseases (Qureshi et al., 2012a;Qureshi et al., 2011a;Qureshi et al., 2013;Qureshi et al., 2012b;Qureshi et al., 2011b;Sultana et al., 2008;ur Rahman et al., 2012). Essential oils are natural water immiscible liquids found in various parts of plants. ...
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Essential oil extracted from the fresh leaves of Thuja occidentalis were evaluated for its chemical composition employing GC-MS. Total of twenty nine components were identified and determined quantitatively using the area normalization procedure. Alpha-pinene and (+)-4-carene were found in high amount with a percentage concentration of 54.78 and 11.28 respectively. Other compounds which yielded appreciable amounts are: alpha-cedrol (6.87%), terpinolene (5.88%), p-menth-1-en-8-ol acetate (5.21%), beta-myrcene (4.04%), beta-pinene (2.26%), germacrene D (1.72%), sabinene (1.65%) and D-Limonene (1.62%).
... Medicinal herbs and herbal products have been of considerable vitality for their various biologically and pharmacologically important chemicals (Qureshi et al., 2012a;Qureshi et al., 2011a;Qureshi et al., 2013;Qureshi et al., 2014a;Qureshi et al., 2014b;Qureshi et al., 2012b;Qureshi et al., 2011b). Flavonoids are products of secondary metabolism and are polyphenolic in their chemical structure. ...
Flavonoids have been of considerable importance and interest because of their medicinal activity. Responding to their numerous health benefits, a comparative study on the quantitative determination of total polyphenolic compounds and flavonoids was carried out in Achillea millefolium and Equisetum arvense. Total polyphenolic compounds were quantified by Folin-Ciocalteau method using different solvents in order to prove their extraction efficiency. Focus within total polyphenolic quantification study was placed on the traditional reflux and solvents used were: water, 100% acetone, 100% ethanol, 80% ethanol, 50% methanol and 70% methanol. In order to make flavonoids free from glycosidic moiety for quantification, hydrolysis was performed in 50% MeOH at 90°C using 6 M HCl concentration. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) in gradient elution mode at 50°C using Hypersil BDS (RP-18) column was employed for the separation of flavonoids. Mobile phase used consisted of different combinations of water-methanol-tetrahydrofuran-phosphoric acid. Flavonoids quantified were luteolin, quercetin, apigenin, isorhamnetin and kaempferol.
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Pharmaceutical industry requires reliable and less time consuming procedures for the quality control analysis of raw materials and finished products. The study was focused on thin layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography (GC) and matrix free material enhanced laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (mf-MELDI-MS). Standards and microwave assisted water extracts from Achillea milleffolium (herb), Althaea officinalis (roots), Equisetum arvense (herb), Juglans regia (leaves), Matricaria chamomella (flowers) and Taraxacum officinale (herb) were the samples used for this study. The presence of mono- (fructose and glucose) and disaccharide (sucrose) in all the plants under study was proved through the TLC analysis. These results were confirmed by the Mf-MELDI-MS experiments. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) confirmed the data obtained via TLC and mf-MELDI-MS, delivering additionally quantified values, but needed a long time. A carbohydrate of higher oligomerization degree could not be found. Among the six plants, glucose was found in highest concentration in Taraxacum officinale. Fructose is present in appreciable quantity in Matricaria chamomella while Althaea officinalis has the highest amount of sucrose among the plants under study.
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Cannabis is one of the oldest and most commonly abused drugs in the world. Recently, tremendous advances have been made in our understanding of the endogenous cannabinoid system with the identification of cannabinoid receptors, cannabinoid receptor antagonists, endogenous neurotransmitters, metabolic enzymes, and reuptake mechanisms. These advances have helped us to elucidate the mechanisms of action of cannabis and the side effects and toxicities associated with its use. In addition, potential therapeutic applications are being investigated for the use of smoked cannabis and synthetic THC (dronabinol). Most workplace, military, and criminal justice positive urine drug tests are due to the use of cannabis. In addition, alternative matrices, including saliva, sweat, and hair, are being utilized for monitoring cannabis use in treatment, employment, and criminal justice settings. Experimental laboratory studies have identified cognitive, physiological, and psychomotor effects following cannabis. Epidemiological studies reveal that cannabis is the most common illicit drug world-wide in impaired drivers, and in motor vehicle injuries and fatalities. Driving simulator studies also indicate performance impairment following cannabis use; however, the results of open-and closed-road driving studies and of culpability studies do not consistently document increased driving risk. Clearly a combination of ethanol and cannabis use significantly increases risks. This article reviews the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cannabis and places special emphasis on the effects of cannabis on complex tasks such as driving and flying.
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. A central tenet underlying the use of botanical remedies is that herbs contain many active ingredients. Primary active ingredients may be enhanced by secondary compounds, which act in beneficial syn-ergy. Other herbal constituents may mitigate the side effects of dominant active ingredients. We reviewed the literature concerning medical can-nabis and its primary active ingredient, ∆ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Good evidence shows that secondary compounds in cannabis may enhance the beneficial effects of THC. Other cannabinoid and non-cannabinoid compounds in herbal cannabis or its extracts may reduce THC-induced anxiety, cholinergic deficits, and immunosuppression. Cannabis terpenoids and flavonoids may also increase cerebral blood flow, enhance cortical activity, kill respiratory pathogens, and provide anti-inflammatory activ-ity. [Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: and: Cannabis Therapeutics in HIV/AIDS (ed: Ethan Russo) The Haworth Integrative Healing Press, an imprint of The Haworth Press, Inc., 2001, pp. 103-132. Single or multiple copies of this arti-cle are available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service [1-800-342-9678, 9:00 a.m. -5:00 p.m. (EST). E-mail address:].
Nine strains of Cannabis sativa L. (marijuana) were grown for research by the University of Mississippi. The seeds for these strains were obtained from Iowa, Minnesota, Mexico, Turkey, Italy, France, and Sweden. The cannabinoid content was determined using GLC, and the material was divided into two chemical phenotypes according to cannabinoid content. These phenotype categories are used to differentiate between drug-type and fiber-type Cannabis sativa. In addition, the ( - )-δ9−trans-tetrahydrocannabinol content was determined for both male and female plants, various plant parts, and a Turkish variety during various stages in its growth.
Cannabis is often regarded as a substance alien to British culture until the 1960s, at which supposed point of introduction it functioned as a marker of subversion. In fact cannabis was used as a medicinal herb by the Anglo-Saxons, and highly valued during the Tudor and Stuart periods. It remained in the British Materia medica through the 18th and 19th centuries, being well regarded by orthodox doctors. However, the type of cannabis grown in England was probably less rich in psychotropic cannabinoids than plants grown in the East.
A pathway is proposed for the decomposition of Δ9-tetrahydroeannabinol (I) and its Δ8-isomer (IX) with the eventual formation of cannabinol (II) through epoxy and hydroxylated intermediates.