Article

Odekerken VJ, van Laar T, Staal MJ, et al. Subthalamic nucleus versus globus pallidus bilateral deep brain stimulation for advanced Parkinson's disease (NSTAPS study): a randomised controlled trial

Department of Neurology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
The Lancet Neurology (Impact Factor: 21.9). 11/2012; 12(1). DOI: 10.1016/S1474-4422(12)70264-8
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with advanced Parkinson's disease often have rapid swings between mobility and immobility, and many respond unsatisfactorily to adjustments in pharmacological treatment. We assessed whether globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) gives greater functional improvement than does subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS. METHODS: We recruited patients from five centres in the Netherlands who were aged 18 years or older, had idiopathic Parkinson's disease, and had, despite optimum pharmacological treatment, at least one of the following symptoms: severe response fluctuations, dyskinesias, painful dystonias, or bradykinesia. By use of a computer-generated randomisation sequence, we randomly assigned patients to receive either GPi DBS or STN DBS (1:1), applying a minimisation procedure according to drug use (levodopa equivalent dose <1000 mg vs ≥1000 mg) and treatment centre. Patients and study assessors (but not those who assessed adverse events) were masked to treatment allocation. We had two primary outcomes: functional health as measured by the weighted Academic Medical Center Linear Disability Scale (ALDS; weighted by time spent in the off phase and on phase) and a composite score for cognitive, mood, and behavioural effects up to 1 year after surgery. Secondary outcomes were symptom scales, activities of daily living scales, a quality-of-life questionnaire, the occurrence of adverse events, and drug use. We used the intention-to-treat principle for all analyses. This trial is registered with www.controlled-trials.com, number ISRCTN85542074. FINDINGS: Between Feb 1, 2007, and March 29, 2011, we enrolled 128 patients, assigning 65 to GPi DBS and 63 to STN DBS. We found no statistically significant difference in either of our primary outcomes: mean change in weighted ALDS (3·0 [SD 14·5] in the GPi group vs 7·7 [23·2] in the STN group; p=0·28) and the number of patients with cognitive, mood, and behavioural side-effects (36 [58%] of 62 patients in the GPi group vs 35 [56%] of 63 patients in the STN group; p=0·94). Secondary outcomes showed larger improvements in off-drug phase in the STN group compared with the GPi group in the mean change in unified Parkinson's disease rating scale motor examination scores (20·3 [16·3] vs 11·4 [16·1]; p=0·03), the mean change in ALDS scores (20·3 [27·1] vs 11·8 [18·9]; p=0·04), and medication (mean levodopa equivalent drug reduction: 546 [SD 561] vs 208 [521]; p=0·01). We recorded no difference in the occurrence of adverse events between the two groups. Other secondary endpoints showed no difference between the groups. INTERPRETATION: Although there was no difference in our primary outcomes, our findings suggest that STN could be the preferred target for DBS in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease. FUNDING: Stichting Internationaal Parkinson Fonds, Prinses Beatrix Fonds, and Parkinson Vereniging.

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    • "The application of stereotactic surgery in patients with movement disorders, epilepsy, and psychiatric disorders has substantially increased with the introduction of modern deep brain stimulation (DBS). The therapeutic effects in patients with Parkinson's disease123, tremor [4], dystonia [5,6], Tourette syndrome (TS) [7] and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) [8,9] are well established. We have learned more about the complications of DBS with the increase in the number of treated patients, and developed strategies to manage them [10,11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Deep brain stimulation is nowadays a frequently performed surgery in patients with movement disorders, intractable epilepsy, and severe psychiatric disorders. The most feared complication of this surgery is an intracerebral hemorrhage due to the electrode placement, either for intraoperative electrophysiology (microelectrode recording) and/or implantation of the final electrode (macroelectrode). Here, we have investigated the risk of developing an intracerebral hemorrhage in our cohort of deep brain stimulation patients over a period of 15 years. Patients and methods: We have collected demographic data and analyzed the effect of performing surgery with single-electrode versus multiple electrode guided DBS. The effect of using single-dose versus double-dose contrast enhanced MRI to visualize vessels for the electrode trajectory planning has been investigated as well. Results: We have found that the overall calculated risk of an intracerebral hemorrhage in our series was 1.81% per patient, 0.3% per recording electrode and 0.23% per brain insertion. While three out of four patients recovered without neurological deficits, there was one mortality in a patient with cardiovascular comorbidities. Statistical comparisons between the groups of single-electrode versus multiple electrode guided surgery and single-dose gadolinium versus double-dose contrast enhanced MRI revealed no significant differences. In addition, there was no meaningful correlation between the age at surgery and the risk of bleeding. Conclusion: We have found that the risk of developing an intracerebral hemorrhage due to deep brain stimulation surgery is low. The clinical course of the patients with an intracerebral hemorrhage was generally favorable.
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    • "Despite differences in definitions between individual research groups, the occurrence of cognitive/psychiatric side is consistently reported (Benabid et al. 2009). Case studies describe rare neuropsychiatric side effects including apathy , compulsive behavior, hypersexuality, cognitive dysfunction as well as clinical depression including suicide (Temel et al. 2005), and a recent, larger study reports emotional lability in patients receiving DBS in the STN as well as in the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) (Odekerken et al. 2013). We would like to note that a direct association between DBS surgery and an increased risk for suicide ideation and behavior has not been shown (Weintraub et al. 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is used to relieve motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. A tripartite system of STN subdivisions serving motoric, associative, and limbic functions was proposed, mainly based on tracing studies, which are limited by low numbers of observations. The evidence is compelling and raises the question as to what extent these functional zones are anatomically segregated. The majority of studies indicate that there is anatomical overlap between STN functional zones. Using ultrahigh-resolution magnetic resonance imaging techniques it is now possible to visualize the STN with high spatial resolution, and it is feasible that in the near future stereotactic guided placement of electrical stimulators aided by high-resolution imaging will allow for more specific stimulation of the STN. The neuroanatomical and functional makeup of these subdivisions and their level of overlap would benefit from clarification before serving as surgical targets. We discuss histological and imaging studies, as well as clinical observations and electrophysiological recordings in DBS patients. These studies provide evidence for a topographical organization within the STN, although it remains unclear to what extent functionally and anatomically distinct subdivisions overlap.
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    • "The STN is one of the preferred targets in deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment of PD patients, with greater clinical benefits than those obtained by stimulating other sites [Krack et al., 2000; Odekerken et al., 2013; Volkmann et al., 2004]. However, despite the significant experience accumulated on DBS in the past years, the mechanisms by which this surgical therapy improves parkinsonian symptoms are not yet fully elucidated [Chiken and Nambu, 2014]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract: Neurophysiological changes within the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits appear to be a characteristic of Parkinson’s disease (PD) pathophysiology. The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is one of the basal ganglia components showing pathological neural activity patterns in PD. In this study, perfusion imaging data, acquired noninvasively using arterial spin-labeled (ASL) perfusion MRI, were used to assess the resting state functional connectivity (FC) of the STN in 24 early-to-moderate PD patients and 34 age-matched healthy controls, to determine whether altered FC in the very low frequency range of the perfusion time signal occurs as a result of the disease. Our results showed that the healthy STN was functionally connected with other nuclei of the basal ganglia and the thalamus, as well as with discrete cortical areas including the insular cortex and the hippocampus. In PD patients, connectivity of the STN was increased with two cortical areas involved in motor and cognitive processes. These findings suggest that hyperconnectivity of the STN could underlie some of the motor and cognitive deficits often present even at early stages of the disease. The FC measures provided good discrimination between controls and patients, suggesting that ASL-derived FC metrics could be a putative PD biomarker.
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