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The Status of Strategic Planning in Portuguese Higher Education Institutions: Trappings or Substance?

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  • CIPES- Centre For Research In Higher Education Policies

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Economic, regulatory and social pressures are challenging higher education institutions (HEIs) in the 21st century. Strategic planning is a frequently used method for implementing appropriate institutional responses to changing internal and external conditions. The degree to which strategic planning is being utilized is an important predictor of institutional vitality and prosperity. This article draws on a national study recently conducted on strategic planning throughout Portuguese HEIs. Participants came from public and private universities, polytechnic institutes and other establishments. Data included interviews, an extensive survey and documentary evidence. Research indicates many institutions are engaged in a process of planning to various degrees, and many of those that are not, wish to integrate it into their policy development arsenal. However, claims of strategic planning implementation are tempered by data from the study, which analyzed how far key factors in strategic planning had been addressed by the institutions examined. Accordingly, the number of institutions that can legitimately be classified as strategic planners is incongruent with the self-reported findings of the data. A critical discussion from both institutional and system perspectives are brought to bear on the findings.Higher Education Policy (2004) 17, 383–404. doi:10.1057/palgrave.hep.8300064
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... and the work ofMachadoa, Farhangmehrb and Taylor (2004) andAl-Ahlsheik and Al-Shaebi (2015) to explore the influence of several aspects in or outside the university on the strategic management process. Accordingly, there are four types of the influencing factors on strategic management implementation; organizational and managerial, communication, employees' qualifications/behavior. ...
... Obviously, it can be said that Arab universities do need autonomy to efficiently improve their performance and enhance their position in international higher education arena.Further, this research explores the influencing factors on strategic management practices in Arab universities. Specifically, the author investigated the four types of the factors(Machadoa, Farhangmehrb and Taylor, 2004;Al-Ahlsheik and Al-Shaebi, 2015); organizational and managerial, communication, employees' qualifications/behavior. ...
Conference Paper
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Universities today are increasingly competing for international students, research/consulting grants and government funds. However, in most North African/Arab countries, the universities are operating under the command of the Ministry of Higher Education and fully funded by governments. Accordingly, the governments in such countries have full control on the universities’ strategic decisions. Fortunately, this situation, recently, has been changed due to several economic, political and social factors. Recently, Arab universities have worked to be converted to a national academic institution with autonomy in their strategies and administration. This new situation requires, obviously, reviewing their current strategies and identities/brands. Utilising literature on Arab universities and the outcomes from interviews with academic staff, this paper critically evaluates the models of strategic planning that Arab universities adopt and, ultimately, posits that the development of new, and more relevant strategic planning model is now an imperative that Arab universities can no longer ignore.
... . (Meesilapavikkai, 2000, Machadoa et al, 2004, Driscoll, 2010, Kwiek, (2003, OCED, 2002, Sadlak, 2000, Castells, 2001 . (Rowely et al., 1997) (Manning, 1991) . ...
... (England-Siegerdt, 2006) . (Hrebiniak, 2008) ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺳﻌود‬ ‫اﻟﺟﺎﻣﻌﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﺗﯾﺟﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺗر‬ ‫ط‬ ‫اﻟﺗﺧط‬ ‫ﻣﻌوﻗﺎت‬ ٧ ‫وف‬ ‫ﺟﯾر‬ (Gurkov, 2009) (Yaakub et al., 2005) (Machadoa, et al., 2004) Feldman and March, 1981, Rawely et al., 1997, Shulok and) Harrison, 1998, Steeples, 1997, Hunt et al., 1997, Schmiditlein, 1995, Meesilapavikkai, 2000 ...
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هدفت هذه الدراسة للتعرف على معوقات التخطيط الاستراتيجي بالجامعات السعودية والوقوف على مدى توافق أو تباين آراء القيادات الجامعية نحو تلك المعوقات. وتنبع أهميتها من أهمية الموضوع الذي تتناوله في ظل اهتمام الجامعات السعودية ووزارة التعليم العالي بعملية التخطيط الاستراتيجي.
... Contudo, a estrutura organizacional de uma IES é geralmente bifurcada entre as componentes académicas e administrativas, sendo a "liberdade académica" um dos fortes valores de componente académica pois é a que não pode tolerar qualquer interferência de fontes exteriores pelo que a pressão de fatores como a estabilidade cria uma situação única no ensino superior (Messah & Mucai, 2011). No entanto, apesar da sua importância teórica, desde uma perspetiva empírica descobriu-se que os processos de desenho e implementação de uma estratégia nas universidades apresentam falências significativas e requerem ser melhoradas com vista a alcançar um alto nível de desempenho nas IES (Machado, Farhangmehr & Taylor 2004;John Taylor, 2007;Rodríguez-Ponce & Pedraja--Rejas, 2013). ...
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... In addition to the lack of understanding of strategies for internal branding, there is a related challenge regarding the dominant, one-sided perspective on university branding. Most studies draw from a rationalistic perspective emphasizing top-down implementation of university brands, in line with the broader perspective in the literature on strategic change in higher education (for example, Lillis & Lynch, 2014;Machado, Farhangmehr, & Taylor, 2004). Our second objective is to introduce an alternative perspective that emphasizes a combination of top-down and bottom-up processes underlying strategic change in higher education, and university branding in particular (see also Bleiklie, Enders, & Lepori, 2017). ...
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... As acknowledged by Perkmann et al. (2013) the involvement of universities in technology transfer has often been at the initiative of policy makers though, as Hewitt-Dundas (2012) discovered in the UK, its effectiveness is often variable, especially when applied uniformly. Apart from the fact that universities often have different technology transfer strategies requiring different support structures and incentive mechanisms (Phan and Siegal 2006;Perkmann et al. 2013), it is contended here that the Egyptian policies are addressing the symptoms rather than the cause of the problem-the trappings rather than the substance (De Lourdes Machado et al. 2004). ...
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... Since then, scholars on the topic have emphasized the relationships between MS content (Cochran & David, 1986), overall objectives (Firmin & Gilson, 2010), institutional status (i.e., private or public) (Morphew & Hartley, 2006) and external factors (e.g., private sector or community) (Seeber, Barberio, Huisman & Mampaey, 2017). Hence, strategic planning and MS development process has a direct and strong influence on institutional policies for internal or external purposes, strategic programs, operational goals, and performance indicators (de Lourdes Machado, Farhangmehr & Taylor, 2004). ...
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... In addition, the literature does not identify a standardized methodology that determines the effectiveness of strategic planning or institutional learning strategies[40], and unfortunately when the strategic plan is already established, many HEIs fail to execute it[41]. Hence, the degree to which strategic planning is used is important for institutional success[42]. However, to achieve this success, the support of academic departments is necessary[43]. ...
Chapter
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Universities, as educational institutions, play a vital role in the development and improvement of the society, contributing to the welfare of citizens. Considering the social responsibility of Universities with a large number of stakeholders (students, institutions, Government, employees, companies, local community, etc.) this chapter aims to examine how these institutions establish the mission, objectives and strategic actions oriented at meeting these expectations. In this line, University in its daily management is also considered a corporate entity, which set up strategic plans and practices, an essential process to achieve its success in the long term. The chapter explores the necessary steps for adjusting these strategic plans to the new challenge of introducing a socially responsible orientation in their management.
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In this chapter, the mission statement is conceptualized as mission, vision, and value statements. These statements are the building blocks and reflect the ultimate distillation of strategic activity. This chapter explains the role of vision, mission, and value statements in planning for organizational excellence. The chapter outlines the quality management system, the importance of defining an effective mission statement, the key requirements for a compelling mission statement, and the reasons why mission statements fail. The chapter concludes with a strong affirmation on the need to develop a precise and comprehensive mission statement and align all business processes to achieve the mission statement.
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In Egypt, the Government has recognized the need for innovation and has introduced measures to encourage its universities to engage in technology transfer. However, policy measures have not been especially effective. The purpose of this chapter is to understand the factors impeding its adoption and make more effective policy recommendations. The study adopted a four-phase investigative strategy whereby each phase contributes to a greater understanding of the technology transfer effectiveness in Egypt. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.
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