Article

An adolescent’s subjective experience of mindfulness

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Abstract

An adolescent's subjective experiences of mindfulness were explored in a single case study of a 17-year-old female. Data were created by means of 'mindfulness sessions', unstructured interviews, creative expression, journals and field notes. The data were analysed and interpreted using a combination of typological and interpretive analysis strategies. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework of mindfulness derived by the main author from the literature review. Five themes emerged from the data in relation to the conceptual framework applied, namely present-centered awareness and attention, attitude and heart qualities, self-regulation, universalism and mindlessness. Overall findings suggest firstly that the participant subjectively experienced mindfulness as being predominantly task-oriented. Secondly, it appears that the participant experienced personal growth and development in terms of her understanding and practice of mindfulness. These findings could make a potential contribution towards qualitative research on mindfulness, and research on how mindfulness could possibly apply to an adolescent. Studies have shown mindfulness to be a potentially promising intervention and quality to be cultivated in the development of well-being. The study is thus significant in the context of positive psychology and a move towards more holistic health and well-being.

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... Dellbridge and Lubbe [21] conducted a single-participant case study involving observation of MT sessions, interviews, diaries and artistic expression by a 17-year-old female. Psychiatric history or reason for referral for MT was not reported. ...
... Psychiatric history or reason for referral for MT was not reported. The participant's experience was compatible with the following a priori themes associated with mindfulness derived from theoretical literature: present-centered attention and awareness, attitude and heart qualities (e.g., compassion), self-regulation, universalism of mindfulness (i.e., that it is not bound to a particular spiritual tradition but a fundamental human tendency), and mindlessness (i.e., greater awareness of the wandering mind in daily life) [21]. ...
... This is the first study to develop an explanatory model of how adolescents or young people relate to mindfulness practice. With the exception of the single-case adolescent study reviewed previously [21] and one study of adult college students [23], this is the first detailed qualitative study, known to the authors, of MT in participants of any age not suffering from a specific clinical disorder or social disadvantage. Young people in this study were able to go beyond an arguably superficial, regulatory [24] engagement with mindfulness, wherein relaxation and a sense of control may be gained, to experience benefits such as an expanded understanding of themselves and others and greater confidence and competence. ...
Article
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Purpose: Although quantitative benefits of mindfulness training have been demonstrated in youth, little is known about the processes involved. The aim of this study was to gain a detailed understanding of how young people engage with the ideas and practices known as mindfulness using qualitative enquiry. Methods: Following completion of a six-week mindfulness training program with a nonclinical group of 11 young people (age 16-24), a focus group (N = 7) and open-ended interviews (n = 5) were held and audio-recorded. Qualitative data, collected at eight time points over three months from the commencement of training, were coded with the aid of computer software. Grounded theory methodology informed the data collection process and generation of themes and an explanatory model that captured participants' experiences. Results: Participants described their daily lives as beset by frequent experiences of distress sometimes worsened by their unhelpful or destructive reactions. With mindfulness practice, they initially reported greater calm, balance, and control. Subsequently they commented on a clearer understanding of themselves and others. Mindfulness was then described as a "mindset" associated with greater confidence and competence and a lessened risk of future distress. Conclusions: Participants demonstrated a sophisticated understanding of and engagement with mindfulness principles and practice. Their reported experience aligned well with qualitative research findings in adults and theoretical literature on mindfulness. An encouraging finding was that, with ongoing mindfulness practice and within a relatively short time, participants were able to move beyond improved emotion regulation and gain greater confidence in their ability to manage life challenges.
... Mason and Hargreaves (2001), for example, investigated the process by which MBCT may bring about its therapeutic benefits and noted that participants' preconceived ideas and expectations about the interventions may be important factors influencing later experiences during the MBI programme. In a case study report, Dellbridge and Lubbe (2009) illustrated how an adolescent who practised mindfulness in an MBI format took a predominantly task-oriented approach to mindfulness. Solhaug et al. (2018) investigated attitude change in MBSR participants more explicitly with a sample of first-year medical and psychology students. ...
... Interpretive analyses may be vulnerable to confirmation biases from researchers' preconceptions about mindfulness and mindfulness practice. For example, Dellbridge and Lubbe (2009) interpreted and organised their data according to their understanding of mindfulness gained from a prior review of the literature. The ability of mixed-methods research to triangulate findings therefore presents a substantial methodological advantage (Johnson et al., 2007). ...
... Mason and Hargreaves (2001), for example, investigated the process by which MBCT may bring about its therapeutic benefits and noted that participants' preconceived ideas and expectations about the interventions may be important factors influencing later experiences during the MBI programme. In a case study report, Dellbridge and Lubbe (2009) illustrated how an adolescent who practised mindfulness in an MBI format took a predominantly task-oriented approach to mindfulness. Solhaug et al. (2018) investigated attitude change in MBSR participants more explicitly with a sample of first-year medical and psychology students. ...
... Interpretive analyses may be vulnerable to confirmation biases from researchers' preconceptions about mindfulness and mindfulness practice. For example, Dellbridge and Lubbe (2009) interpreted and organised their data according to their understanding of mindfulness gained from a prior review of the literature. The ability of mixed-methods research to triangulate findings therefore presents a substantial methodological advantage (Johnson et al., 2007). ...
Conference Paper
Background and aims: Randomized controlled trials (RCT) presenting macro outcome data show that parents are able to reduce and maintain their stress within average levels following training in MBPBS. Furthermore, there are concomitant changes in their children’s challenging behaviors and compliance with parental requests. The aim of the present study was to provide micro outcome data from a RCT that examined the preventative effects of early intervention with MBPBS on mothers’ stress and the children’s challenging and compliance behaviors. Method: Mothers with children aged between 3 and 6 years were randomized into 3 groups: (a) those receiving additional community-based services for their children with ASD, (b) those not receiving additional community-based services for their children with ASD, or (c) those receiving standard services for their neurotypical children. All groups received general medical and pediatric services, but only the mothers with children with ASD who were not receiving additional services were provided training in MBPBS. The training was personalized as required in the stepped care MBPBS model. For this study, the outcome measures were derived from mother-child interactions videotaped in the family home and coded, analyzed, and compared across experimental groups. Results: Data are being coded using partial time-sampling for the following variables: mother’s engagement with the child during learning and leisure activities, mother’s reinforcement patterns of child behavior, mother’s engagement that is followed by child behavior problems during learning and leisure activities, turn-taking and interruptions during mother-child engagement, the “presence” of mother and child during engagement, and related variables. The percent occurrence of these variables will be compared across the three experimental groups. Conclusion: This study was designed to obtain data on what actually happens at a micro level during mother-child engagement across three experimental groups in a RCT, with one group receiving training in MBPBS.
... The purposeful regulation of internal experience is clearly defined as a vital aspect of mindfulness practice, by keeping the mental faculties in balance. Mindfulness training is relevant to the field of athletic training because it appears to support the development of a broad range of essential capacities including regulation of attention (Aherne et al., 2011;Birrer, Rothlin, & Morgan, 2012;Brown & Ryan, 2003;Moore, 2009), arousal, and emotion (Birrer et al., 2012, Brown & Ryan, 2003; motivation and volition (Aherne et al., 2011;Deci & Ryan, 2000;Moore, 2009;Parto & Besharat, 2011;Thompson & Gauntlett-Gilbert, 2008); cognitive functions related to perception and motor control (Aherne et al., 2011); confidence and self-efficacy (Coholic, 2011;Dellbridge & Lubbe, 2009;Monshat, Khong, Hassed, Vella- Brodrick, Norrish, Burns, & Herrman, 2013); and skills related to coping (Biegel, Brown, Shapiro, & Schubert, 2009;Coholic, 2011;Dellbridge & Lubbe, 2009;Himelstein, Hastings, Shapiro & Heery, 2012;Monshat et al., 2013;Parto & Besharat, 2011;Wisner, Jones & Gwin, 2010), self-compassion ( Mosewich et al., 2013), recovery, social connectedness, and leadership (Deci & Ryan, 2000;Monshat et al., 2013). ...
... The purposeful regulation of internal experience is clearly defined as a vital aspect of mindfulness practice, by keeping the mental faculties in balance. Mindfulness training is relevant to the field of athletic training because it appears to support the development of a broad range of essential capacities including regulation of attention (Aherne et al., 2011;Birrer, Rothlin, & Morgan, 2012;Brown & Ryan, 2003;Moore, 2009), arousal, and emotion (Birrer et al., 2012, Brown & Ryan, 2003; motivation and volition (Aherne et al., 2011;Deci & Ryan, 2000;Moore, 2009;Parto & Besharat, 2011;Thompson & Gauntlett-Gilbert, 2008); cognitive functions related to perception and motor control (Aherne et al., 2011); confidence and self-efficacy (Coholic, 2011;Dellbridge & Lubbe, 2009;Monshat, Khong, Hassed, Vella- Brodrick, Norrish, Burns, & Herrman, 2013); and skills related to coping (Biegel, Brown, Shapiro, & Schubert, 2009;Coholic, 2011;Dellbridge & Lubbe, 2009;Himelstein, Hastings, Shapiro & Heery, 2012;Monshat et al., 2013;Parto & Besharat, 2011;Wisner, Jones & Gwin, 2010), self-compassion ( Mosewich et al., 2013), recovery, social connectedness, and leadership (Deci & Ryan, 2000;Monshat et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Newly, 3° wave Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) programs suggest that mindfulness-based programs might be a powerful strategy to optimize performance and improve flow. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a Mindfulness-Based Soccer Program (MBSoccerP) on elite soccer athletes. In a quasi-experimental design with experimental (n = 28) and control group (n = 29), the effectiveness of MBSoccerP was tested. The results of an analysis of covariance with repeated measures indicate that the intervention group (M=25.68, SD=3.42) significantly improved in Mindfulness-act with awareness; Mindfulness non-react; Self-compassion mindfulness; Selfcompassion self-kindness; Self-compassion common-humanity subscales; Dispositional flow state total scale; and decreased Brief Symptom Inventory anxiety subscale and experiential avoidance, as traits compared to the control group, and increase direct measures scores of sports performance Athlete's Performance Self-Rating Scale and Coach's Performance Self-Rating Scale. Results suggest that MBSoccerP can be effective in enhance elite soccer performance, self-compassion, psychological flexibility, mindfulness and flow. © 2018 Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Murcia Murcia (España).
... The purposeful regulation of internal experience is clearly defined as a vital aspect of mindfulness practice, by keeping the mental faculties in balance. Mindfulness training is relevant to the field of athletic training because it appears to support the development of a broad range of essential capacities including regulation of attention (Aherne et al., 2011;Birrer, Rothlin, & Morgan, 2012;Brown & Ryan, 2003;Moore, 2009), arousal, and emotion (Birrer et al., 2012, Brown & Ryan, 2003; motivation and volition (Aherne et al., 2011;Deci & Ryan, 2000;Moore, 2009;Parto & Besharat, 2011;Thompson & Gauntlett-Gilbert, 2008); cognitive functions related to perception and motor control (Aherne et al., 2011); confidence and self-efficacy (Coholic, 2011;Dellbridge & Lubbe, 2009;Monshat, Khong, Hassed, VellaBrodrick, Norrish, Burns, & Herrman, 2013); and skills related to coping (Biegel, Brown, Shapiro, & Schubert, 2009;Coholic, 2011;Dellbridge & Lubbe, 2009;Himelstein, Hastings, Shapiro & Heery, 2012;Monshat et al., 2013;Parto & Besharat, 2011;Wisner, Jones & Gwin, 2010), self-compassion ( Mosewich et al., 2013), recovery, social connectedness, and leadership (Deci & Ryan, 2000;Monshat et al., 2013). ...
... The purposeful regulation of internal experience is clearly defined as a vital aspect of mindfulness practice, by keeping the mental faculties in balance. Mindfulness training is relevant to the field of athletic training because it appears to support the development of a broad range of essential capacities including regulation of attention (Aherne et al., 2011;Birrer, Rothlin, & Morgan, 2012;Brown & Ryan, 2003;Moore, 2009), arousal, and emotion (Birrer et al., 2012, Brown & Ryan, 2003; motivation and volition (Aherne et al., 2011;Deci & Ryan, 2000;Moore, 2009;Parto & Besharat, 2011;Thompson & Gauntlett-Gilbert, 2008); cognitive functions related to perception and motor control (Aherne et al., 2011); confidence and self-efficacy (Coholic, 2011;Dellbridge & Lubbe, 2009;Monshat, Khong, Hassed, VellaBrodrick, Norrish, Burns, & Herrman, 2013); and skills related to coping (Biegel, Brown, Shapiro, & Schubert, 2009;Coholic, 2011;Dellbridge & Lubbe, 2009;Himelstein, Hastings, Shapiro & Heery, 2012;Monshat et al., 2013;Parto & Besharat, 2011;Wisner, Jones & Gwin, 2010), self-compassion ( Mosewich et al., 2013), recovery, social connectedness, and leadership (Deci & Ryan, 2000;Monshat et al., 2013). ...
Article
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ABSTRACT The purpose of this review is to summarize the empirical findings on the effectiveness of mindfulness-based programs to enhance elite athletes sport performance. A literature research was undertaken using Medline, Psych info, Web of Science, Cochrane, Ebscohost, Isi Web of Knowledge databases and references of retrieved articles. The search included original articles published from 1985 to March 2017. The main search terms were mindfulness programs, sport performance, elite athletes, in different combinations as needed. All articles were coded for their design, type of control, study population, and outcome measures. Search returned 26 articles, and set out 2 main mindfulness-based interventions on the field of elite sport performance. Despite methodological limitations in the research design, the results show MAC and MSPE programs as effective on enhancing elite athlete’s sports performance. To confirm these preliminary results, further research, with improved experimental designs, is recommended. Findings yielded mindfulness programs as an important factor on elite sport performance. Keywords: Mindfulness-based interventions, performance, elite athletes. 1
... El objetivo de este estudio ha sido examinar los efectos de un programa extraescolar de mindfulness para adolescentes, sobre los niveles percibidos de estrés, optimismo y habilidades de mindfulness. Treinta adolescentes (15 niñas y 15 niños), con edades comprendidas entre los 16 y los 18 años (M = 16,8) fueron asignados aleatoriamente a un programa extracurricular de ocho semanas para el desarrollo de la atención plena (n = 15, 8 niñas y 7 niños) (N = 15, 7 niñas y 8 niños). Los resultados demuestran que los participantes en el grupo de intervención obtuvieron reducciones en el estrés percibido y aumentos en los niveles de optimismo y en cinco habilidades específicas de atención plena. ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years schools and youth-serving organizations have progressively adopted programs to reduce adolescents' stress levels and improve optimism trough mindfulness interventions. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a mindfulness out-of-school program for adolescents, on perceived levels of stress, optimism and mindfulness skills. Thirty adolescents (15 girls and 15 boys), aging from 16 to 18 years old (M = 16.8) were randomly allocated to either 8-week mindfulness extracurricular program (n = 15; 8 girls and 7 boys) or a control group (n = 15; 7 girls and 8 boys). The results demonstrate that participants in the intervention group reported reductions in perceived stress and increases in levels of optimism and in five specific mindfulness skills. These findings suggest that using an outof- school mindfulness program may be an effective setting to teach adolescents to use mindfulness to manage stress and to cultivate more positive emotional and social skills. This study is therefore significant for encourage the implementation of out-of-school mindfulness program that contribute to positive youth development and for an improvement of their health and more holistic health and well-being. © Copyright 2017: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Murcia Murcia (España).
... Consequently, I restrict my scope in this section to studies that arrive at slightly different outcomes, give a new focus, or appear to have some shared intentions with my project. Adolescents are the focus of a number of studies (Coholic, 2011; Dellbridge & Lubbe, 2009; Himelstein, Hastings, Shapiro, & Heery, 2012; Monshat et al., 2013). Young people were referred by child protection and mental health services to a group program combining mindfulness with arts-based interventions (Coholic, 2011). ...
Thesis
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Secular descriptions and practices of therapeutic mindfulness in the West have claimed positive physical benefits and improved mental wellbeing. Alongside these developments, the Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan is addressing unprecedented social problems through emerging counselling and psychotherapeutic services. Approaches seek to align with Bhutanese values, ethics and cultural mores, integrating mindful awareness training from the country’s Buddhist heritage. The present research project took a critical approach to deconstruct the place of mindfulness in the personal lives and professional practices of counsellors and psychotherapists in Australia and Bhutan. An interpretive and collaborative narrative research methodology was adopted to encourage reflexive, relational and dialogical understandings of participants’ views on mindfulness. The design comprised three sites of enquiry. First, as it is widely accepted that Buddhist traditions offer precise concepts and skills for mindfulness and given that Bhutan is founded upon the Kagyu and Nyingma schools of Buddhism, individual interviews were held with senior monastic and lay Buddha Dharma teachers from both the Mahayana and Theravada traditions to provide an historical context. Second, senior organisational managers who have promoted mindfulness, directly or indirectly, in their social service organisations were consulted individually. Third, in keeping with the principal aims of this project, six counsellors and psychotherapists in Perth, Western Australia and five counsellors in Bhutan were interviewed deploying a four-part cooperative group inquiry. To enhance reflexivity, these primary research partners were witnesses to each other’s interviews in their own countries, bringing forth their values, beliefs, and commitments in their professional and personal lives with regard to mindfulness. They were interviewed twice with impressions of the interviews being shared between the two countries to produce a conversational reciprocity. Throughout I situated myself as an active interpreter and co-author of the emerging discourses and practices while making transparent my research intentions. Storying noteworthy events and turning points in the lives of the counsellors and psychotherapists and revealing the significance of relationships with secular and spiritual teachers highlighted how meanings about mindfulness were shaped by diverse cultural conditions and personal circumstances. Everyday embodied storied lives and the broader discourses of cultural meaning-making generated similarities, uniqueness and novelty. The recognition of relational and contextual influences provided a foundation for reconsidering the descriptions, purposes and applications of mindfulness in personal life and professional settings.
... Teachers, en masse, in various countries around the world are teaching children techniques to cultivate loving kindness, compassion and inner peace (Black, Milam, & Sussman, 2009; Kaltwasser, Sauer, & Kohls, 2014; Rocco, 2012). These practices are generally inspired by mindfulness principles and practices, commonly associated with Buddhist traditions (Dellbridge & Lubbe, 2009; Hooker & Fodor, 2008; Whitehead, 2011). ...
Thesis
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Research Background An extraordinary phenomenon has occurred. Teachers, en masse, in various countries around the world are teaching children techniques to cultivate loving kindness, compassion and inner peace. These practices are generally inspired by mindfulness principles and practices, commonly associated with Buddhist traditions. To date, research in this new field has focused on assessing the efficacy of mindfulness programs in child populations, predominately using outcomes-based study designs. There has been less research focussing on the teacher’s experience. In order to deepen and expand our understanding of mindfulness instruction with children, contributors to the topic have highlighted a critical need to understand the teachers’ experience – particularly teachers with experience teaching mindfulness. Research Question In order to understand teachers’ experiences, the following research question was posed, “How do teachers who are experienced MindBody Wellness practitioners make sense of teaching children mindfulness?” Methodology and Methods Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), a qualitative methodology, was employed to interview teachers and analyse a range of illustrative material. Eight teachers from Australia and the United States (one male and seven females) were interviewed during 2014. Participants’ teaching experience in schools and out-of-school care settings varied from two years to 25 years. The teachers all had a regular mindfulness practice, but at a minimum, they also practised one other modality, such as yoga. The participants additionally provided demographic information and in some cases, data illustrative of their practice, such as unpublished materials, worksheets, journals and photos. Interviews with participants were facilitated by a method that incorporates authenticity, developing relational flow and mindful communication. Findings Through an in-depth analysis and interpretation of teachers’ texts, it was found that MindBody Wellness practices, such as yoga, meditation and mindfulness played an integral role in teachers’ lives. Four inter-related super-ordinate themes captured the essence of how eight teachers made sense of child-based mindfulness instruction: • Spirituality • Creativity • Responsibility for Nurturing a Child’s Wellbeing • Being a Mindful Role Model. It was found that a regular long-term mindfulness practice led to enhanced levels of wellbeing and connection to the self, others and the planet. The participants, having personally experienced the benefits of MindBody Wellness techniques, felt an inclination to share their wisdom with others, especially children. This inclination was generally supported and encouraged by either the school management or the school community and, when it was not, teachers moved to workplaces where a mindful way of being was valued. Being able to teach mindfulness to children and colleagues further heightened participants’ sense of wellbeing and enabled teachers to feel at home in their work environment, creating a conducive environment for learning and being. Teachers emphasised the importance of teaching mindfulness holistically and nourishing the whole of a child’s wellbeing. They felt that there were many ways to approach child-centric mindfulness instruction. However, in general, it was the participants’ personal and professional view that anyone considering teaching children mindfulness should first come to know and live the practice in his or her own life. A number of other recommendations are suggested for practice, policy and future research.
... Teachers, en masse, in various countries around the world are teaching children techniques to cultivate loving kindness, compassion and inner peace (Black, Milam, & Sussman, 2009; Kaltwasser, Sauer, & Kohls, 2014; Rocco, 2012). These practices are generally inspired by mindfulness principles and practices, commonly associated with Buddhist traditions (Dellbridge & Lubbe, 2009; Hooker & Fodor, 2008; Whitehead, 2011). ...
Research
Full-text available
Research Background An extraordinary phenomenon has occurred. Teachers, en masse, in various countries around the world are teaching children techniques to cultivate loving kindness, compassion and inner peace. These practices are generally inspired by mindfulness principles and practices, commonly associated with Buddhist traditions. To date, research in this new field has focused on assessing the efficacy of mindfulness programs in child populations, predominately using outcomes-based study designs. There has been less research focussing on the teacher’s experience. In order to deepen and expand our understanding of mindfulness instruction with children, contributors to the topic have highlighted a critical need to understand the teachers’ experience – particularly teachers with experience teaching mindfulness. Research Question In order to understand teachers’ experiences, the following research question was posed, “How do teachers who are experienced MindBody Wellness practitioners make sense of teaching children mindfulness?” Methodology and Methods Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), a qualitative methodology, was employed to interview teachers and analyse a range of illustrative material. Eight teachers from Australia and the United States (one male and seven females) were interviewed during 2014. Participants’ teaching experience in schools and out-of-school care settings varied from two years to 25 years. The teachers all had a regular mindfulness practice, but at a minimum, they also practised one other modality, such as yoga. The participants additionally provided demographic information and in some cases, data illustrative of their practice, such as unpublished materials, worksheets, journals and photos. Interviews with participants were facilitated by a method that incorporates authenticity, developing relational flow and mindful communication. Findings Through an in-depth analysis and interpretation of teachers’ texts, it was found that MindBody Wellness practices, such as yoga, meditation and mindfulness played an integral role in teachers’ lives. Four inter-related super-ordinate themes captured the essence of how eight teachers made sense of child-based mindfulness instruction: • Spirituality • Creativity • Responsibility for Nurturing a Child’s Wellbeing • Being a Mindful Role Model. It was found that a regular long-term mindfulness practice led to enhanced levels of wellbeing and connection to the self, others and the planet. The participants, having personally experienced the benefits of MindBody Wellness techniques, felt an inclination to share their wisdom with others, especially children. This inclination was generally supported and encouraged by either the school management or the school community and, when it was not, teachers moved to workplaces where a mindful way of being was valued. Being able to teach mindfulness to children and colleagues further heightened participants’ sense of wellbeing and enabled teachers to feel at home in their work environment, creating a conducive environment for learning and being. Teachers emphasised the importance of teaching mindfulness holistically and nourishing the whole of a child’s wellbeing. They felt that there were many ways to approach child-centric mindfulness instruction. However, in general, it was the participants’ personal and professional view that anyone considering teaching children mindfulness should first come to know and live the practice in his or her own life. A number of other recommendations are suggested for practice, policy and future research.
... Among scarce literature on mindfulness in correctional settings, literature on mindfulness and youth is also extremely rare. Uncontrolled feasibility studies have explored the impact of mindfulness-based interventions on HIV-infected African American adolescents (Sibinga et al., 2008), middle-school-aged boys and girls in a Boston area public school (Wall, 2005), and in a case study involving one participantÕs experience of learning and practicing mindfulness (Dellbridge & Lubbe, 2009). In contrast to the feasibility studies above, very few empirical studies have investigated the effect of mindfulness programs on adolescent populations. ...
Background: This study investigated the experience of 23 incarcerated male adolescents who participated in an adapted 10-week mindfulness-based intervention. Method: Participants completed semi-structured interviews immediately following the final class of the treatment intervention. A six-step thematic content analysis was used to identify major themes from the transcribed semi-structured interviews. Results: Four major clusters of themes were identified: increase in subjective well-being, increase in self-regulation, increase in awareness, and accepting attitude toward the treatment intervention. Conclusion: Results suggest that adapted mindfulness-based interventions are feasible as treatments for incarcerated youth and have promising potential. Clinical implications are discussed.
Article
Mindfulness-based soccer interventions have consistently demonstrated beneficial impacts on aspects of compassion, flow and elite soccer performance. Many soccer players hamper their own performance due to their harsh self-criticism and toxic performance evaluations. Literature shows self-compassion can counter self-criticism. Self-compassion is viewed as a healthy awareness, kindeness and understanding of players towards themselves during episodes of perceived competive underperformance. In this pilot study, we sought to explore the influences of a mindfulness-based program for elite soccer athletes (MBSoccerP) in relation to self-compassion, self-criticism, flow and perceived performance. The participants were a sample of 57 elite soccer players from two different cohorts. Pearson correlations were conducted to examine changes and the relationships between variables before and after the MBSoccerP intervention. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to assess the impact of baseline self-compassion and self-criticism on both flow and perceived performance measures at post-intervention. Significantly positive correlations were found between 'flow' and athletes' perceived performance at pre and post-intervention. Self-criticism was significantly negatively correlated with athletes' perceived performance and flow at post-intervention. Further, self-compassion predicted higher flow at post intervention, while controlling for baseline self-compassion. Self-criticism predicted lower perceived performance for athletes at post intervention while controlling baseline self-criticism. Findings suggest that self-compassion may be important for soccer players and their perceived performance routines and assets. Whereas self-criticism plays a negative role on flow and perceived sport performance assets.
Book
This book provides an outline and critical discussion of the characteristics of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) research. Since the first reports on the use of mindfulness practices in health interventions, a large body of research literature has emerged to document the effectiveness of MBIs for reducing psychological distress and to increase well-being. The integration of mindfulness into very diverse psychological theories makes it a unique concept in psychology that has generated a large amount of interest both in academic research but also the broader media. With this growing literature, mindfulness researchers have also recognised the need to be more critical of its developments, such as how MBIs are presented to the public or what types of research methods are used to test claims of an MBI's effectiveness. This book examines the large variety of approaches in which MBIs have been studied, including an outline of the philosophical underpinnings of MBI research, definition and measurement of mindfulness, the use of qualitative and quantitative research methods, research design, and research that addresses cultural and religious factors. The book contributes to increased awareness of the current direction of MBI research and thus seeks to contribute to further methodological refinement and sophistication of the research field. This book on the characteristics of research on MBIs is a must read for any researcher or practitioner interested in this fascinating topic. © 2019 Christian U. Krägeloh, Marcus A. Henning, Oleg N. Medvedev, Xuan Joanna Feng, Fiona Moir, Rex Billington, Richard J. Siegert. All Rights Reserved.
Article
In recent years schools and youth-serving organizations have progressively adopted programs to reduce adolescents' stress levels and improve optimism trough mindfulness interventions. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a mindfulness out-of-school program for adolescents, on perceived levels of stress, optimism and mindfulness skills. Thirty adolescents (15 girls and 15 boys), aging from 16 to 18 years old (M = 16.8) were randomly allocated to either 8-week mindfulness extracurricular program (n = 15; 8 girls and 7 boys) or a control group (n = 15; 7 girls and 8 boys). The results demonstrate that participants in the intervention group reported reductions in perceived stress and increases in levels of optimism and in five specific mindfulness skills. These findings suggest that using an out-of-school mindfulness program may be an effective setting to teach adolescents to use mindfulness to manage stress and to cultivate more positive emotional and social skills. This study is therefore significant for encourage the implementation of out-of-school mindfulness program that contribute to positive youth development and for an improvement of their health and more holistic health and well-being.
Article
Instructors of a middle school gifted language arts class implemented a 30-day unit of study on mindfulness in order to help students learn techniques to alleviate stress, perfectionistic tendencies, and anxiety. Practicing mindfulness techniques, such as meditation, provides individuals with tools to understand the mind and body and encourages individuals to not dwell on past events or fixate on future events, appreciating the here and now and living in the moment. Some gifted students struggle with social and emotional issues such as perfectionism and anxiety, and these conditions can create a cycle of stress rooted in nervousness, agitation, and compulsive thoughts. Instructors explained the components of mindfulness, provided daily guided meditations, and encouraged students to apply the techniques in their everyday lives. Results varied for each student with some able to use the mindfulness exercises to combat problems, while others struggled with understanding the purpose or potential benefits of mindfulness.
Thesis
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This narrative study explored experiences of 7 successful young professional baseball players as they interacted with the ideas and practices of mindfulness presented in yoga and mindfulness-acceptance-commitment (MAC) classes. Individuals who learned mindfulness practices in off-season instructional programs and classes during the season were interviewed to gain insight into how mindfulness practices were interpreted and utilized in training and competition. Three-dimensional space narrative analysis was applied to data collected from semi-structured episodic interviews to highlight the relationships between subjective experience, behavior, environmental conditions, and external events. Individual narratives were restoried in light of current neuroscientific findings. Research results indicated that mindfulness practices appeared to support enhanced self-regulation skills and performance, dynamic balance of arousal and relaxation, positive mental states, diminished anxiety, increased confidence and self-efficacy, and heightened resilience to competitive stress.
Article
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Mindfulness, achieved without meditation, is discussed with particular reference to learning. Being mindful is the simple act of drawing novel distinctions. It leads us to greater sensitivity to context and perspective, and ultimately to greater control over our lives. When we engage in mindful learning, we avoid forming mind-sets that unnecessarily limit us. Many of our beliefs about learning are mind-sets that have been mindlessly accepted to be true. Consideration is given to some of the consequences that result from a mindful reconsideration of those myths of learning.
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The paradigm of positive psychology was publicly launched by Martin Seligman in his Presidential Address to the American Psychology Association in 1998. Since then, the scientific study of optimal human functioning gained new momentum. This article provides an overview of research on positive psychology in South Africa. The article explores general trends and the main developments in the field, internationally as well as nationally. South African research in the paradigm of positive psychology was categorised according to a framework developed for the purposes of this article. Results indicate frequencies of South African research undertaken over the last 36 years. Possible future directions for research in the field are pointed out and integrated with recommendations from prominent South African and international authors.
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Adolescents with conduct disorder frequently engage in aggressive and disruptive behaviors. Often these behaviors are controlled or managed through behavioral or other psychosocial interventions. However, such interventions do not always ensure lasting changes in an adolescent's response repertoire so that he or she does not engage in aggression when exposed to the same situations that gave rise to the behavior previously. Mindfulness training provides a treatment option that helps an individual focus and attend to conditions that give rise to maladaptive behavior.Using a multiple baseline design,we assessed the effectiveness of a mindfulness training procedure in modulating the aggressive behavior of three adolescents who were at risk of expulsion from school because of this behavior. The adolescents were able to learn the mindfulness procedure successfully and use it in situations that previously occasioned aggressive behavior.This led to large decreases in the aggression of all three individuals. Follow-up data showed that the adolescents were able to keep their aggressive behavior at socially acceptable levels in school through to graduation. Maladaptive behaviors, other than aggression, that the adolescents chose not to modify, showed no consistent change during mindfulness training, practice, and follow-up.
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