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Eco-Efficiency: A Prerequisite for Future Success


Abstract and Figures

At Roche, eco-efficiency – the optimal use of material, energy, human resources, and capital to supply innovative products to the market – is considered as a prerequisite for business success in the future. Group-wide activities to rise eco-efficiency are focussed on manufacturing processes rather than on product design, since chemical composition and structure of the Roche pharmaceutical products are defined by the desired therapeutic effect, in contrast to commodities. Three examples of currently operating eco-efficient processes at Roche are described. They cover main areas for further improvement of both environmental performance and economical benefit: less material intensity and waste for disposal, energy recovery, minimization of water consumption. Furthermore, four different indicators currently used at Roche to track environmental performance and eco-efficiency are presented: the Roche Environmental Impact Figure (REIF), the Roche Energy Rate (RER), the Roche contribution to man-made global warming (C02 equivalents), and the Eco-Efficiency Rate (EER). These key indicators are used as a basis to recognize weaknesses and strengths, to take decisions for improvement, to set environmental targets, and as management information.
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CHIMIA 5/ (1997) Nr. 5 (Mllil
Manuel Glauser* and Peter Muller
Chimia 51 (1997) 20/-206
©Neue Schweizerische Chemische Gesellschaft
Eco-Efficiency: A Prerequisite
for Future Success
Abstract. At Roche, eco-efficiency - the optimal use of material, energy, human
resources, and capital to supply innovative products to the market - is considered as a
prerequisite for business success in the future. Group-wide activities to rise eco-
efficiency are focussed on manufacturing processes rather than on product design, since
chemical composition and structure of the Roche pharmaceutical products are defined
by the desired therapeutic effect, in contrast to commodities. Three examples of
currently operating eco-efficient processes at Roche are described. They cover main
areas for further improvement of both environmental performance and economical
benefit: less material intensity and waste for disposal, energy recovery, minimization
of water consumption. Furthermore, four different indicators currently used at Roche
to track environmental performance and eco-efficiency are presented: the Roche
Environmental Impact Figure (REIF), the Roche Energy Rate (RER), the Roche
contribution to man-made global warming (C0
equivalents), and the Eco-Efficiency
Rate (EER). These key indicators are used as a basis to recognize weaknesses and
strengths, to take decisions for improvement, to set environmental targets, and as
management information.
2. Examples of Eco- Efficiency at Roche
Roche develops and manufactures
highly innovative products which serve to
prevent, diagnose, and treat diseases and
promote general well-being. Chemical
composition and structure of the Roche
products are defined by the desired thera-
peutic effect. The issue of environmental
compatibility of Roche products is not
critical - in contrast to commodities -
since they are manufactured in rather
moderate amounts and normally consumed
by man and animals. However, the eco-
compatibility and eco-efficiency of the
manufacturing processes are of prime con-
Of course, the principle of eco-effi-
ciency was not developed overnight at
Roche. According to its policy on safety
and environmental protection, Roche is
committed to a continuous improvement
of its environmental performance. The
change from a more reactive attitude of
pollution control by end-of-pipe technol-
ogy to the proactive attitude of eco-effi-
ciency by process-integrated improve-
ments developed gradually over the last
ten years. The following three examples
of eco-efficient processes currently oper-
ating at Roche underline this develop-
2.1. New Process Design
The pharmaceutical active substance
DMP, a morphinan derivative, is used as a
cough remedy in syrup, drop, and tablet
form. In the final steps of the former pro-
duction process, large amounts of both
starting materials and energy were con-
sumed and substantial quantities of wastes
were produced. This unsatisfactory situa-
tion led to a systematical review of the
process steps and the introduction of new
process technology and chemistry in 1986.
In the old process, a ring-closure reac-
tion was performed using an extremely
aggressive mixture of hydrobromic and
phosphoric acid. A reaction temperature
by stepping up production-integrated en-
vironmental protection measures. This
means to avoid, reduce, and, where eco-
logically and economically feasible, recy-
cle waste by-products at source. Such
improvements are normally less capital-
intensive than end-of-pipe technology and
often lead to higher yields, as well as less
waste. Thus, such improvements also en-
tail economic benefits. To cut a long story
short, production-integrated environmen-
tal protection is one of the main prerequi-
sites in raising eco-efficiency.
tion. It was at this point in the middle of the
1980s that the first steps towards eco-
efficiency were undertaken.
What is eco-efficiency? The World
Environmental Center (WEC) defines eco-
efficiency as 'obtaining economic and
ecological efficiency through the optimal
use of all inputs, i.e. raw materials, energy,
water, human resources, and capital to
supply products and services to the mar-
ket. Hence, a totally eco-efficient process
would not generate wastes or emissions' .
Although waste-free chemical processes
remain an unachievable goal, eco-effi-
ciency is a useful concept for the optimiza-
tion of economic and ecological goals. It is
a strategy:
- to get more environmental protection
per capital invested,
- to save money while improving envi-
ronmental performance,
- to add value while reducing consump-
tion of resources and the generation of
Obviously, this is a win-win concept,
and the examples below show that it can
work in practice.
In the chemical industry, efforts to
improve the input side of a synthesis in
order to save raw materials and costs have
been undertaken for a long time. Howev-
er, costs on the output side, e.g. for waste
treatment and disposal, were usually not
allocated at process level. Therefore, one
key route to become more eco-efficient is
Until about thirty years ago, it was the
accepted economic theory in the industri-
alized world that the growth of wealth was
directly linked to the consumption of re-
sources, especially energy. It took some
time before it was realized that the concept
of ever-growing consumption, coupled
with the growing production of wastes,
would inevitably lead to environmental
collapse. As a consequence, legislators set
limits for emissions into soil, water, and
air, and the response from industry was the
construction of so-called 'end-of-pipe'
plants to control their emissions. Expen-
sive wastewater treatment plants, waste
incinerators, and waste-air scrubbers were
built to remove pollutants from industrial
waste streams before they were discharged
into the environment. However, with the
ongoing increase in the consumption of
resources, ever stricter emission limits had
to be set to meet environmental targets. As
a consequence, end-of-pipe installations
had to be modernized and became even
more expensive. It became apparent that
this strategy could not be the final solu-
*Correspondence: Dr.
F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.
The Concept of Eco-Efficiency:
Development and Definition
CHIMIA 5/ (1997) Nr. 5 (Mai)
Fig. 1. Step design in cough-syrup production. Material balance comparison of old vs. new synthesis.
kg waste
kg product
also been improved significantly due to
the less corrosive reaction conditions.
Furthermore, the production capacity was
significantly increased due to the shorter
reaction times.
2.2. Recovery of Waste Heat
is also trying to apply the prin-
ciple of eco-efficiency in the area of ener-
gy supply and consumption. A lower fos-
sil-fuel and electricity consumption re-
duces purchasing costs and leads to less air
pollution as a result of combustion in the
boiler house.
Basel, water from the Rhine
river is used for cooling purposes in pro-
duction processes and air conditioning/
refrigeration units. The heat-loaded cool-
ing water at ca. 17° (in winter time) is
collected in a separate pipe system (Fig.
2). As the cooling water does not come
into contact with chemicals of the reaction
and purification processes, it is not con-
taminated, and before 1993, it was dis-
charged together with the unused thermal
energy into the Rhine.
On the other hand, fresh air is needed to
ventilate and heat four laboratory build-
ings, close to the waste cooling-water out-
let into the Rhine. During winter time, the
air was heated entirely by means of steam,
generated with oil and natural gas in the
boiler house.
In 1993, a new heat-recovery unit has
been commissioned which enables
to use the waste heat from the cooling-
water system to preheat the fresh air for
the four laboratory buildings (48, 68, 69,
and 70), containing in total
800 rooms.
The unit runs for ca. 6400hperyear, when
ever the outside air temperature is below
The whole heat-recovery system con-
sists of two circuits (Fig. 2). In the primary
circuit, waste cooling water of 17° is
pumped out of a collecting basin (buildi ng
33). The energy is transferred to the sec-
ondary circuit (water/glycol mixture 30%)
by two plate heat exchangers. In the sec-
ondary circuit two speed-controlled cen-
trifugal pumps deliver the water/glycol
mixture of 15°to the four buildings through
a closed pipe system. The energy is trans-
ferred to the fresh air of the buildings by
air/water heat exchangers. The unit is de-
signed to run without continuous local
supervision. The air/water heat exchang-
ers in the buildings can be disconnected
from the secondary circuit according to
the availability of and the demand for
The environmental and economic ben-
efits of this heat-recovery unit are remark-
1.0 kg
1.4 kg
2.6 kg
16.2 kg
Waate air
0.3 kg
0.3 kg
1.0 kg
Waste air
1.3 kg
only 3.2 kg of waste are generated for
every kilogram of active substance, repre-
senting a reduction of waste of over 80%
1). The air emissions have been
significantly reduced and methyl bromide
is no longer formed. Since 1994, also no
volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are
emitted any more into the air from this
process, as the remaining 0.3 kg of non-
halogenated VOCs are disposed of in the
central waste-air incinerator at the Basel
site. The residual 12% of waste phospho-
ric acid is fed as a nutrient to the microor-
ganisms of the WWTP. A separate pipe
conducts this phosphoric acid from the
plant in the desired quantities directly to
the biological step of the WWTP.
It goes without saying that the drastic
reduction of raw materials and generated
waste of these redesigned process steps
led to significant savings of manufactur-
ing cost. Additionally, the lifetime and
maintenance of the reaction vessels have
Old synthesis
19.9 kg
Raw materials
7.5 kg
Phosphoric acid
11.4 kg
Phosphoric acid recycling
3.2 kg waste
kg product
Raw materials
2.1 kg
1.0 kg
1.0 kg
acid 1.1 kg
around 100° and a reaction time of several
days were required for complete conver-
sion. Several by-products were formed in
this process, e.g. methyl bromide which
was emitted to the atmosphere. After com-
pletion of the reaction, the mixture of
acids and by-products had to be separated
from the product, neutralized, and dis-
charged as effluent; it could not be reused.
The microorganisms in the wastewater
treatment plant (WWTP) had to deal with
a heavy load of ammonium phosphate.
For every kilogram of active substance,
the process produced
19 kg of waste
products for disposal (Fig. 1).
In the new process, the reaction is
carried out in 100%phosphoric acid slight-
1yabove room temperature. After the ad-
dition of water, the product is extracted
with toluene. The aqueous phosphoric acid
is then concentrated and ca. 88% reintro-
duced into the process; in addition, the
toluene is also recycled. With this process,
CHIMIA 5/ (\997) Nr. 5 (Mail
- Heat .aving :
lectricity saving :
emis 'i n :
13 io. kWh/a
0.4 Mio. kWh/a
.c rre p ndingtoth amount emitted b
450 ingl - amily hou e per year,
-5 tla
H 30 00 0
After an analysis of this successful
pilot study, this system may be adopted in
all other production buildings at Roche
Basel, leading to a significant reduction of
water consumption and to an overall effi-
ciency increase for the cooling-water heat-
recovery unit.
Alr/w heat
In the building.
Plate heat IlIlC8ngers
of the heat recovery plant
Roche's goal is to develop and manu-
facture high-quality products with the best
possible conversion of energy and raw
materials and with a minimum of environ-
mental impacts. In order to monitor con-
tinuous improvement in this area, data on
35 selected safety and environmental pa-
rameters from all the production sites in
the Roche Group have systematically been
3. Indicators ofEco- Efficiency at
Building 33
Fig. 2. Cooling-water system - heat-recovery unit. Schematic drawing of the heat-recovery unit at
Roche Basel using the heat content of waste cooling water from production processes and refrigeration
units to warm up the inlet air of four laboratory buildings in winter time.
Primary clrcu"
Cooling water return from
production plants,
refrigeration units
Secondary circuit
water/glycol 30%
- Cooling-water savings of45% per year,
- 10% higher efficiency of the site cool-
ing-water heat-recovery unit (savings
of fossil fuels equivalent to the con-
sumption of 45 single-familiy houses),
electricity savings from water pump-
ing due to a difference of 11 m in
height between the admixing water
pump and Rhine water-pump unit,
- overall cost savings of 180000 CHF/a,
- capital investment: 750000 CHF.
2.3. Saving Water in Production
As already mentioned above, Roche
Basel requires large quantities of water for
the cooling of chemical processes and the
condensation of solvents in recycling col-
umns. For this purpose,
13 Mio. m
water from the River Rhine and from
Roche's own groundwater wells are need-
ed every year. In a first step, these have to
pass a sand filter prior to being pumped
into the different plants. The costs of water
consumption and pretreatment are signif-
icant for the site.
Since October 1996, a pilot project has
been running in a production building
which consumes high amounts of cooling
water. The new technical installations al-
low to save 75% of the water previously
consumed during winter time and, in addi-
tion, save energy.
Until recently, cooling water was
pumped from a central water tower
throughout the building. After use, the
cooling water, now warmer, joined the
main waste cooling-water stream of the
site, passing the heat-recovery unit in win-
ter time as described above, prior to be
discharged into the Rhine (Fig. 3).
The interdepartmental energy-saving
team of Roche Basel had the idea of mix-
ing the cold fresh cooling water from the
Rhine (6-18°, depending on the season)
with the already warm waste cooling wa-
ter in order to reduce water consumption
during the winter months. As the produc-
tion equipment is designed for a cooling-
water temperature of 20°, a regulated av-
erage water temperature of 18° for cooling
is also suitable during the colder periods of
the year.
With the implementation of the new
pilot study, cooling water is now circulat-
ing in a closed pipe system throughout the
building (Fig. 3). A frequency-driven
pump is adding the appropriate amount of
cold fresh water to achieve a constant
temperature of 18° in the cooling-water
circuit. After the cooling process, the sur-
plus waste cooling water at ca. 22° flows
into the main waste cooling-water stream
of the site and raises the temperature by 1
This in turn allows for an increase in
efficiency of the site cooling-water heat-
recovery unit. The expected benefits of
the pilot project in one building are:
CHIMIA 5/ (1997) Nr. 5 (Mail
Fig. 3. Admixing process for cooling water. Schematic drawing of a pilot project in a production
building at
Basel, which reduces cooling-water consumption by 45% per year. WF: fresh
cooling water, WAR-K: waste cooling water, TIC: temperature control.
be, together with material flow diagrams
(Fig. I), the comparison of similar pro-
cesses designed to yield the same end
product. As an example: the total REIF of
the old cough-syrup synthesis was 18.9,
compared to 3.2 for the optimized process.
3.3. Roche's Specific Contribution to
Man-made Global Warming
accepts, within the limits of
current scientific uncertainty, that global
warming may become a serious environ-
mental problem and that man-made emis-
sions of greenhouse gases contribute to it.
Hence, one attempt to assess eco-effi-
ciency at Group level is to compare group-
wide greenhouse-gas emissions with the
company's total sales. Sales reflect best
the operations related economic perfor-
mance. The emitted greenhouse gases of
into the atmosphere consist prima-
3.2. Roche Energy Rate
Energy generation and consumption
affect the costs of manufactured goods, as
well as having an impact on the environ-
ment. Therefore,
pays great atten-
tion to an efficient use of energy.
The RER is a standardized yardstick
for energy efficiency used at all sites of the
Group. The RER for a whole site
divides total site energy consumption by
the total number of employees and the
tonnage of manufactured end products
(Fig. 5). The lower the RER, the more
efficiently energy is used. In order to ad-
dress the different ranges of energy con-
sumption by an employee, for the pro-
duction of one ton of end product by
chemical synthesis orpharmaceutical pro-
duction (formulations) or by mixing oper-
ations, average weighting factors (k) have
been determined as a reference. These
different k factors reflect the existing
conditions, since they were defined
after careful analysis of the energy con-
sumption and production data of different
We are aware that this approach leaves
out energy-consumption factors, such as
differences in product range, number of
buildings to be heated, or climatic condi-
However, the RER is easy to
calculate even for smaller sites (Table 2),
yields nondimensional figures of a man-
ageable range, and helps to track energy
efficiency increases from one year to the
other within a site. RER determination for
single production plants allows site man-
agement to recognize possibilities for fur-
ther energy savings and also to monitor the
success of already realized projects, inde-
pendent of growth or decrease in produc-
tion volume.
Production building
3.1. Roche Environmental Impact
The REIFs represent the amounts of
non-reusable wastes and emissions, be-
fore any end-of-pipe treatment, per kilo-
gram of manufactured end product origi-
nating from production processes. The
total REIF (Ws), i.e. the total amount of
waste generated per kilogram of end pro-
duct, is the sum of four compartmental
REIFs (Fig. 4): per kilogram of end pro-
duct the process waste air (Es), the waste
disposed of by incineration (Is), the waste
in the effluent prior to wastewater treat-
ment (Fs), and the waste destined for land-
filling (Ls).
The higher the total REIF of a produc-
tion process, the lower the product yield
and the higher the final environmental
REIFs are suitable for internal moni-
toring of trends at process, plant, and site
level. Another valuable application can
Central cooling
water tower
Pump unit
gathered since 1992. These provide the
basis for the calculation of indicators de-
scribing environmental performance and
eco-efficiency. Four different indicators
have been developed so far, which are
used as a basis for recognizing weakness-
es and strengths, to take decisions for
improvement or to set environmental tar-
gets. The environmental performance in-
dicators currently used at
- the
Environmental Impact Fig-
ures (REIFs),
- the
Energy Rate (RER),
- the contribution to man-made global
warming (C0
- the Eco-Efficiency Rate (EER)
The purpose and mode of application
of these performance indicators are sum-
marized in Table 1. REIFs and RER are
used mainly internally, for production
plants and sites. The global warming indi-
cator and the EER are suitable at Group
level as management information.)
CHIMIA 5/ (1997) Nr. 5 (Ma;l
Environmental Performance Indicators: Purpose and Application
Purpo c
Ie cis
Rc gni\1on of trend ~
plOblcm Id\:nlifi at ion
Ba~e for management uccislon~
antral monitoring results of pr ~e
'argct sClllng
pr es, plant. llC
Management IIlf rmation:
plnnl. ilc. di\'i. ion
Mm rial fficicnc :
pmce. s, plant.·ilc
Plllnt. sileo division
plan! and sil .
Managemcl1l information:
plant. site di
nergy sa\ ings in plant. ;
i1e energy efficiency
Plant. sile, divi Ion
Plant. sile
information: roup
1'.\ ••
mp til rs:
invcstmclll. banking.
Manug m~nt
mpetil rs:
IIlVeslJll 'Ill. banklllg.
mmullI ali n
+ -
roup Report sin c
I 4; +E work hop';
ItC cnergy-manager
-Group Rep n
ince I 4
+ -
r up Report
The RERis a nondimensional figure which expresses the relation
between the total energy consumption of asite and the total amount
of end products manufactured and the number of employees.
kM100 GJ per employee and year
kc 100 GJ per metric ton of end product from chemical production
kp 6 GJ per metric ton of end product from pharmaceutical production or
mixing operations
Fig. 5. Roche
Rate (RER)
Fig. 4. Roche
Impact Figures
(REIFs) - Defini-
represent the
amounts of non-
reusable wastes per
kilogram end
product ofa
production process
prior to any treat-
ment. The output
waste streams E,
F, L indicate the
route of disposal.
WWTP: wastewater
treatment plant.
RM =Raw materials
P=End products
W=Total waste before end-of-pipe
BP =Valorized by-products
E=Waste air
I=Waste to incineration
F=Effluent to WWTP
L=Waste to landfill
Totalenergy consumption(GJlyr)
Employees' k
Chemicalproducts (t) kc
Pharma/mlxingproducts(t)· kp
. carY)= 150000/[(1 0·100 +(823·100)+06
+ - + - + - ---- Ws
Es + Is + Fs + Ls = REIF
P P P P P (specific waste figures)
Rs = Raw material consumption
kg end product
tal energy c numption
RM = P + W + BP
umber of empl ec
lanufaeturcd nd products from pharmac utical produ li n
Table 2.
RER - Calculation - Example:
Year Y
M:mufacturcd end pr duct r m chcmic:llymhei,
rily of carbon dioxide (C02)originating
from the combustion of fossil fuels and of
chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and halon loss-
es from refrigeration units and fire-fight-
ing equipment. These emissions are con-
verted into COrequivalent units by multi-
plying each ton of emitted CFC and halon
by 14 000, a reference value for the green-
house potential of the common CFC R 11
compared to CO
[1]. The
contribution to man-made global warm-
ing is expressed as emitted tons of CO2
equivalents per
Mio. of CHF sales (Fig.
The trend was downward in the early
1990s, but reversed in 1995 due to the
integration of environmental data from
new sites recently acquired by Roche and
the influence of currency exchange ef-
3.4. Eco-Efficiency Rate
In order to measure the overall eco-
efficiency at a corporate level, another
indicator combining ecological and eco-
nomic parameters was created: the Eco-
Efficiency Rate (EER). The EER devel-
ops proportionally to sales and in inverse
proportion to environmental impact and to
expenditure for environmental protection
(Fig. 7). The EER can be improved either
by doing more, i.e. increasing sales from a
constant level of environmental expendi-
ture and damage, or by using or impacting
less, i.e. consuming less raw materials and
thus reducing environmental impact while
keeping sales and environmental expend-
iture constant.
The 'environmental damage', as a
measure for the environmental impact of
Roche's activities, is calculated by multi-
plication of the amount of each ofthe eight
selected pollutants by the appropriate
CHIMIA 5/ (1997) Nr. 5 (Moi)
120.0 I CO2 equlvJ1 Mlo. CHF
tons of CO
equivalents, i.e. environmen-
tal damage units. CFC and halon emis-
sions are weighted by 14000 compared to
as described above, and hazard-
ous wastes with the factor of 1. Of course
these weighting factors, derived from po-
litical decisions rather than from scientific
facts, are open to debate. Nevertheless, we
believe that the concept of linking sales to
environmental expenditure and to envi-
weighting factor (Table 3). The sum of all
individually weighted damages gives the
overall environmental damage used in the
formula. These weighting factors are de-
rived from emission and immission limit
values of Swiss and international legisla-
tion and are standardized against CO
Their units are tons of CO2equivalents per
ton of emitted pollutant. Therefore, the
overall environmental damage is given in
r- -j- -
l- I- I- -I- -
--j- --I- -
--I- -I- -I- -
--j- -I- -j- -
ronmental damage created gives a good
idea of the efficiency of money spent for
environmental protection.
The EER is important less for its abso-
lute level than for monitoring trends over
time. It shows clearly that Roche bec.ame
much more eco-efficient between 1990
and 1994, when the EER rose by 85%
from 0.79 to 1.46. However, it declined by
almost 20% in
995, mainly because of
outlays for site remediation and higher
environmental impact due to the integra-
tion of environmental data from recently
acquired new sites. In
996, the trend was
reversed again as a result of a sizeable
reduction in groupwide VOC emissions.
4, Summary and Conclusions
Table 3. EER - Weighting Factors and Calculation - Example: Roche Group /995
CO2equivalents •• CO2.mlsslons
(CFCltlalon emissions x 14000)
Eco-efficiency is a prerequisite for
business success in the future. Roche wants
to supply its products to the market not
only at the lowest possible cost - with the
efficient use of raw materials and energy-
but also with less impact to the environ-
ment. Some progress has been achieved so
far, but further significant improvements
can still be found.
At Roche, four indicators are currently
used to track environmental performance
and eco-efficiency: the Roche Environ-
mental Impact Figures (REIFs) and the
Roche Energy Rate (RER), mainly at pro-
cess, plant, and site level, the contribution
to man-made global warming and the Eco-
Efficiency Rate (EER) at a corporate lev-
el. The last two indicators have recently
found some interest among financial in-
vestors and bankers who are starting to
incorporate environmental performance
and risks as further aspects for the assess-
ment of a company. A stronger interna-
tional consensus on a few key environ-
mental performance indicators would be
helpful in the future.
14300 14700 14400 16000
300 270 290 321
46 37 42 37
eightcd en ir nmentul
duma e (Mt
02 equivu-
lenl~'" Ii em·j nmental
unll )
'994 1995
13000 14300 14700 14400 16000
1.459 1.273 1.180 1.211 1.347
1.025 0.971 0.984 1.002 1.125
31.0 21.6 14.0 14.9 15.8
01991 1992
(Mlo. CHF)
11500 13000
(Mlo. CHF)
230 300
53 52
eighling fact "
S ;.,58118
E •• EJ:pl!IndUur. on .nvlronm.nt.1 prot.ctlan
EDU •• Environmental damage untlt (millions) •• tons ot CO2equlv.IIIlentll (millions)
Sales IMi•.
CO2emissions (MI•.•)
CFC/halon emissions
:ou I:::
0.2 -..
Fig. 7. Eco-Efficiency Rate
Fig. 6. Specific contribution of
Roche to man-made global
1002012 11.00
14000 0.21
41 4 1_.20
=224 4154 9. 3
[2] =
9154 19.09
=3912 2 0.32
'a\) metal.
16 41 0.04
II<IIanJous wa
lal 42A8
Sale. (
HF) = 14426
[ nvironmcntlll e~pcndllure (IOV ~lInenl +openlling costs, io. H =291
14 26/(291·42.4 )
a) Weighted as I for lack of reference.
The authors highly appreciate the help and
collaboration oftheircollegues Dr. R.
the delivery of updated information on the DMP
process, Mr. R. Schweighauser and Dr. T. Glar-
ner for the preparation of Figs.
and 3, and Dr.!.
Simpson for reviewing this article.
Received: March 21, 1997
'Information on ozone-depleting substanc-
es', Swiss Federal Office for the Environ-
ment, Forest and Landscape, 1990.
[2] S. Schaltegger, A. Sturm, 'Okologieorienti-
erte Entscheidungen im Unternehmen', [n-
stitute of Business Management, University
of Basel, 1994.
... The term eco-efficiency (EE) was introduced as a business strategy for "increasing value added while decreasing pollution and resource use". 1 Soon after, a more quantitative interpretation was added, in terms of the ratio of the value added and the environmental damage. 2 The World Business Council for Sustainable Development 3 likewise proposed the product value divided by environmental influence for defining EE. Such ideas were more thoroughly elaborated in subsequent articles. ...
... Such a conflation is, for instance, present in Schmidheiny, 19 who defines EE as the impact per unit of value, and then proudly announces that companies are raising it, whereas a decrease would be something to aim for. Part of the confusion can be explained by reflecting on the idea of efficiency denoting "the relation between output and input", 16 which Meier 20 concisely writes as = = efficiency benefit burden outputs inputs (2) If we take a manufacturer's point of view and consider economic value as the output and environmental capital as the input, we indeed can think of EE in terms of economic value divided by environmental impact. This then represents the desire to make more value with less impact, in-line with the Factor Four movement. ...
... That form has a simple geometric interpretation in Figure 1: It indicates the slope of the line passing through the point defined by product α and the point (0, 0). A product at (1, 1) would have a slope, and therefore an EE value of 1, and so would a product at (2,2). A product in the left upper corner has a smaller slope, and therefore a higher EE value, and a product in the right lower corner has a larger slope, and therefore a smaller EE value. ...
... El acelerado desarrollo de la urbanización ha tenido un impacto dramático en el medio ambiente ecológico (Fang & Wang, 2013;Liu, Song, & Arp, 2012;Yin, Wang, An, Yao, & Liang, 2014); haciendo que los habitantes usan cantidades significativas de recursos del medio ambiente a través de la producción, procesamiento y fábrica de bienes (Huang, Li, & Yu, 2018;Li, Hui, Leung, Li, & Xu, 2010;Zhang & Yang, 2007), causando daños en el aire y suelo, diversidad biológica y un incremento al cambio climático (Bai, Deng, Jiang, Zhang, & Wang, 2018;Bohne, Brattebø, & Bergsdal, 2008;Zheng, 2010); constituyendo una relación empírica en las actividades económicas entre los costos ambientales y el impacto ambiental (Fang & Wang, 2013;Fernández Viñé, Gómez Navarro, & Capuz Rizo, 2010), quien conceptualiza a la ecoeficiencia (Glauser & Müller, 1997;Huppes & Ishikawa, 2008;Lloclla Gonzales & Arbulú López, 2014). La ecoeficiencia de las ciudades basadas en sus recursos naturales puede variar de acuerdo a la cantidad de habitantes (Huang et al., 2018;Montes Vásquez, 2008), ello es fundamental para lograr objetivos de la sostenibilidad ambiental (Basuki, 2015;Caiado, de Freitas Dias, Mattos, Quelhas, & Leal Filho, 2017;Frischknecht, 2010;Leal, 2005), es decir, tiene como objetivo garantizar un bienestar decente y equitativo para todas las personas (Arévalo & Cueva, 2019;Diaz Escobar, 2019;Hoffrén, 2001) y, al mismo tiempo, reducir la degradación ambiental a un nivel que sea sostenible (Austermühle, 2012;Basuki, 2015;Caiado et al., 2017;Frischknecht, 2010). ...
... La ecoeficiencia tiene un impacto positivo (Diaz Escobar, 2019;Fang & Wang, 2013;Huang et al., 2018;Ruelas Llerena, 2017;Yin et al., 2014), en el ahorro de recursos como de energía y agua, así como también el manejo adecuado de los residuos sólidos (Diaz Escobar, 2019;Zhang & Yang, 2007), siendo sumamente importancia para el futuro (Glauser & Müller, 1997;Hoffrén, 2001;Huppes & Ishikawa, 2008;Leal, 2005) así que, no solo puede reflejar la relación entre economía, medio ambiente y recursos (Austermühle, 2012;Basuki, 2015;Caiado et al., 2017;Frischknecht, 2010), sino que también puede evaluar exhaustivamente el grado de armonía en cada campo de recursos, conocimiento y una actitud ambiental (Bleischwitz, 2003;Condori Cama, 2016;Czibere, Kovách, & Megyesi, 2020;Yin et al., 2014). El conocimiento es importante para determinar los temas ambientales orientados a problemas de aire, suelo (Barreiro, López, Losada, & Ruzo, 2002;Sonja, Dombois, & Funke, 2018), diversidad biológica y el cambio climático (Barreiro et al., 2002;Berenguer, 1998;Chuliá, 1995;Holahan, 2012), quien no excluye a la ecoeficiencia; un conocimiento y actitud ambiental se limitan a los aspectos de los problemas ambientales (Arteaga Aguilar, Zárate Quiñones, & Zuñiga Lapa, 2019;Booi Chen & Teck Chai, 2010;Holahan, 2012;Parillo, Marca, & Talavera, 2019;Portal, 2018;Sonja et al., 2018). ...
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La Ecoeficiencia es una forma efectiva y fundamental para evaluar el Conocimiento y la Actitud a un nivel personal logrando un Desarrollo Ambiental-Urbano Sostenible; lo que nos lleva al objetivo de la investigación en el distrito de Chilca. Se analizó la descripción y relación entre ambos conceptos; elaborando así dos encuestas con 23 ítems/cu, teniendo como muestreo a 382 personas encuestadas, la encuesta esta validada mediante la escala de Likert (5 niveles) y corroborada mediante la contratación de hipótesis estadística rho Spearman, t-student y α=0.05. Los resultados afirmar lo siguiente: Conocimiento Ambiental hacia la Ecoeficiencia (115, 109 y 131 posee una idea totalmente de acuerdo en aire y suelo, diversidad biológica y cambio climático, respectivamente); Actitud Ambiental hacia la Ecoeficiencia (113, 137 y 141 tiene una idea totalmente de acuerdo en su aspecto cognitivo, afectivo y conativo, respectivamente) y la relación entre el C. y A. presenta un rho=0.47 siendo una relación buena, con t-student=10.35 y α=2.2e-16; perfeccionando que si existe relación entre la actitud ambiental y conocimiento ambiental hacia la ecoeficiencia. Concluyendo que, si tenemos una actitud y conocimiento “ambiental” a un nivel personal esto influirá a nivel urbano formando una polimatía y psicología ambiental ecoeficiente para un desarrollo ambiental urbano sostenible en el distrito de Chilca.
... The accelerated development of urbanization has had a dramatic impact on the ecological environment (Fang & Wang, 2013;Liu et al., 2012;Yin et al., 2014); causing inhabitants to use significant amounts of environmental resources through the production, processing, and factory of goods (Huang et al., 2018;Li et al., 2010;Zhang & Yang, 2007), causing damage to air and soil, biological diversity, and an increase to climate change (Bai et al., 2018;Bohne et al., 2008;Zheng, 2010); constituting an empirical relationship in economic activities between environmental costs and environmental impact (Fang & Wang, 2013;Fernández Viñé et al., 2010), who conceptualizes ecoefficiency (Glauser & Müller, 1997;Huppes & Ishikawa, 2008;Lloclla & Arbulú, 2014). The ecoefficiency of cities based on their natural resources can vary according to the number of inhabitants (Caiado et al., 2017;Fernández et al., 2021;Huang et al., 2018), this is fundamental to achieve environmental sustainability goals (Basuki, 2015;Caiado et al., 2017;Frischknecht, 2010;Leal, 2005), i.e., it aims to ensure decent and equitable welfare for all people (Arévalo & Cueva, 2019;Diaz, 2019;Hoffrén, 2001) and, at the same time, reduce environmental degradation to a level that is sustainable (Austermühle, 2012;Basuki, 2015;Caiado et al., 2017;Fernández et al., 2021;Frischknecht, 2010). ...
... Eco-efficiency has a positive impact (Diaz, 2019;Fang & Wang, 2013;Huang et al., 2018;Ruelas Llerena, 2017;Yin et al., 2014), in saving resources such as energy and water, as well as proper solid waste management (Diaz, 2019;Fernández et al., 2021;Zhang & Yang, 2007), being extremely important for the future (Glauser & Müller, 1997;Hoffrén, 2001;Huppes & Ishikawa, 2008;Leal, 2005;Montes, 2008;Zhang & Yang, 2007) so, not only can reflect the relationship between economy, environment and resources (Austermühle, 2012;Basuki, 2015;Caiado et al., 2017;Frischknecht, 2010), but can also comprehensively assess the degree of harmony in each field of resources, knowledge and an environmental attitude (Bleischwitz, 2003;Condori, 2016;Czibere et al., 2020;Fernández et al., 2021;Yin et al., 2014). Knowledge is important to determine environmental issues oriented to air, soil (Barreiro et al., 2002;Sonja et al., 2018), biodiversity and climate change problems (Barreiro et al., 2002;Berenguer, 1998;Chuliá, 1995;Holahan, 2012), who does not exclude eco-efficiency; an environmental knowledge and attitude are limited to aspects of environmental problems (Arteaga et al., 2019;Booi Chen & Teck Chai, 2010;Holahan, 2012;Parillo et al., 2019;Portal, 2018;Sonja et al., 2018). ...
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The attitude is based on the self-concept or degree to which an individual perceives an integral part of the natural environment and situations with which it is related. Knowledge includes obtaining, analyzing and systematizing an individual from their natural environment, which is an important step for personal understanding and development. The objective of the research was to analyze and relate the environmental knowledge and attitude of 382 people towards urban-sustainable eco-efficiency in the inhabitants of the Chilca district. Two questionnaires [knowledge and attitude] of 23 questions were designed, the interview was personal to 382 people between the ages of 20 and 50 years. The questionnaire presented 5 responses using the Likert scale, the relationship was corroborated by hiring Rho Spearman and t-student statistical hypotheses. Result: The Environmental Knowledge towards Eco-efficiency (267, 290 and 225 has an idea totally in agreement in air and soil, biological diversity and climate change, respectively). The Environmental Attitude towards Eco-efficiency (200, 192 and 191 have an idea that is totally in agreement in their cognitive, affective and conative aspects, respectively). The relationship between K. and A. presents a rho=0.47 being a good relationship, with con t-student=10.35 and α=2.2e-16; affirming that there is a relationship between the environmental attitude and environmental knowledge towards eco-efficiency. The inhabitants of Chilca affirm that knowledge and attitude are important and agree to mitigate, reduce and conserve biodiversity, air, soil and water, climate change from a cognitive, affective and conative perspective, forming an eco-efficient polymathic and environmental psychology for sustainable urban. Received: 3 October 2021 / Accepted: 26 November 2021 / Published: 3 January 2022
... Supporting the deficiencies, other researchers paid attention to the ratio approach which computes eco-efficiency as a ratio of (added) value of the production and the (added) environmental impacts (e.g. Glauser and Müller, 1997;Burritt and Schaltegger, 2001;Zhang et al., 2008). However, there are a lot of limitations using this single indicator (Kuosmanen and Kortelainen, 2005;Wang et al., 2011). ...
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European policies regarding global warming have been out-spread the last few decades with many initiatives for industrial production process. In this paper we model eco-efficiency performance under a meta-frontier framework for 14 industries from the manufacturing sector from 27 European countries over the 1995-2011 period. The utilization of NOx, SOx, CO2, CH4, N2O, CO, NMVOC and NH3 as undesirable outputs and GVA as the desirable represent the impact of of economic activities on the environment. In the first stage, we estimate eco-efficiency using the conventional Directional Distance Function (DDF) as well as the non-radial DDF approach. In the second stage of analysis, we investigate the existence of conditional and unconditional convergence according to several methodologies. Our eco-efficiency estimates provide a distinct behavior for energy intensive European industries. Moreover, a decline occurs for the majority of them. In addition, our results using distributional dynamics approach and the recent approach of Philips and Sul (2007) supports the non-convergence hypothesis and the creation of distinct clubs. Finally, the establishment of a catch up index indicate an increase in the speed of convergence.
... The indicators of the environmental dimension of CSR represent the dispersion of pollutants (waste and air emissions) and the share of renewable resources in the main inputs consumed (water and energy). The latter correspond to desirable inputs and follow the framework proposed by Glauser and Müller (1997) in the context of eco-efficiency assessments. These authors included in the assessment of the pharmaceutical sector the criteria of reused and recycled resources, represented by two desirable inputs: heat recovery (to save costs and electricity) and recycling packages. ...
This paper proposes an innovative composite indicator to evaluate Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The methodology proposed involves two stages. The first stage specifies an optimization model, based on Directional Distance Functions, to obtain a relative measure of CSR at the firm level that can guide performance improvements. This model allows distinguishing the firms with best practices from those with potential for improvement and can suggest targets for future achievements. In the second stage, a goal programming model is proposed to identify a common set of weights for the key performance indicators, enabling the evaluation of all firms on common grounds. These weights are used to construct an industry ranking, which is based on the distance of firms to a common frontier of technology that respects the trade-offs determined for the industry. An illustrative application of the method proposed is presented at the end of the paper. The indicators considered in the evaluation were selected according to international standards and guidelines applicable to mining firms. All dimensions of the Triple Bottom Line (economic, environmental and social) were taken into account. The results and their managerial implications are discussed with the objective of promoting the awareness of CSR levels in the mining activity, supporting the sustainable development of industrial activities. Keywords: (D) Data envelopment analysisDirectional Distance FunctionsComposite indicatorsGoal ProgrammingCommon set of weights
... The indicator system approach can comprehensively reflect the level of development and coordination of social, economic, and natural subsystems. Although at present, World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBSCD) and some scholars have put forward a series of evaluation indexes of eco-efficiency [35]. However, these methods are difficult to unify in dealing with a variety of environmental impacts. ...
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Due to the large volume of sewage in China, the efficiency of water consumption evaluated by the traditional model may be inaccurate. This paper evaluates the water consumption efficiency more scientifically. First, this paper uses the CCR model to evaluate the resource efficiency and environmental efficiency separately. The latter is generally lower than the former, which means the issue of water pollution is more serious than the problem of water resource consumption. Then, the water consumption efficiency is integrally evaluated by an eco-inefficiency model which focuses on undesirable outputs. The results are in good agreement with the results of the CCR model: (1) Only Beijing, Tianjin, and Shanghai are eco-efficient in terms of water consumption, water consumption efficiency in the southeastern coastal areas is higher than in the Midwest, and the overall water environment is bad; (2) China needs to focus on reducing industrial wastewater; (3) the output of water consumption has a lot of room for improvement; and (4) the output improvement schemes of all provinces have some similarities and are related to many features. So, this paper has made a clustering analysis of the improvement schemes and given detailed suggestions for improving the eco-efficiency of water consumption in China according to the clustering result.
... The analyzed studies failed to account for the positive aspects of environmental policies, such as the use of renewable resources (R) and conservation (C). Glauser and Müller (1997) is the only ecoefficiency study accounting for firm policies regarding reused and recycled materials, Mahdiloo et al. (2015) is the only study covering environmental investments (C 2 ), and Beltr an-Esteve et al. (2013) is the only study including biodiversity conservation (C 1 ) in the assessment. One possible reason for the deprecation of criteria R and C is the fact that these indicators cannot fit the traditional perspective of minimization of ecological impacts within optimization models, as renewable resources and conservation efforts should be maximized. ...
Assessing eco-efficiency of companies is important to ensure the creation of wealth without compromising the needs of future generations. This work aims to extend the eco-efficiency concept by including in the assessment new features related to environmental benefits and environmental burdens. This concept is implemented using an innovative Directional Distance Function model, which searches for improvements in the magnitude of the indicators and in the composition of the resources consumed. This framework can help firms to become more sustainable by replacing non-renewable inputs with “greener” alternatives. We present an empirical application to large mining companies. Different scenarios regarding managerial priorities for adjustments to firms' economic and environmental indicators are explored. The results obtained and their managerial implications are discussed in the context of mining firms activity.
Tourism eco-efficiency plays an important role in the environment due to serious environment pollution and resource consumption. An evaluation of the tourism eco-efficiency of 53 Chinese coastal cities was conducted for 2003–2013, exploring the overall efficiency levels, regional differences, eco-efficiency types and influencing factors. To achieve the objectives of the study, a data envelopment analysis (DEA)-Tobit model is applied. The major findings indicate that the overall tourism eco-efficiency of Chinese coastal cities is 0.860, which means that only a few cities are effectively efficient and that most cities still have room for improvement. This finding implies that tourism development has a more negative impact on the environment and that there are substantial regional differences in efficiency. The results also show that economic and ecological indicators have significantly positive influences on the tourism eco-efficiency of Chinese coastal cities, while the number of tourists and the use of three major pollutants in the tourism industry have a negative impact. We identify several influencing factors and propose several suggestions for increasing tourism eco-efficiency and the development quality of Chinese coastal cities.
China's industrial parks have been playing a crucial role on driving regional economy development, but also been posing threats to local environment due to intensive resource consumption and waste emission. Chinese government facilitated eco-industrial development of industrial park, aiming to output more with less environmental burden. In our study, the eco-efficiency levels of 40 Chinese industrial parks in 2012 were assessed and ranked by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). This paper applied indicators relevant to resource, economy, and environment from industrial parks which can well reflect the characteristics of eco-efficiency conforming to the concept of sustainability. This paper introduced how to adjust less sustainable parks to be more sustainable according to the DEA results. The roles of industrial added value per capita, industrial structure, environmental policy and development scale as influence factors of eco-efficiency were discussed. The results show that large differences exist in the eco-efficiency of different industrial parks. It is shown that 20% of the parks are relatively efficient. 47% of the study parks being inefficient in terms of scale efficiency show decreasing returns to scale. Policy implementations for the management of industrial parks were also discussed based on the results.
Metrics are a prerequisite for the successful monitoring and management of progress toward goals. Within the context of sustainable development these 'values' are stakeholder dependent with the interests of the individual, society, the environmental infrastructure and intergenerational liability differing significantly. These stakeholder priorities may also be mutually inconsistent or simultaneously unattainable. Therefore, a set of scale- and value-specific indicators will be required to represent the priorities of individuals, religious organizations, political and public interest groups, non-government organizations, firms and industry associations, as well as national and international institutions. Restricting the number of ecometrics, or creating aggregated sustainability indicators, risks disenfranchisement and invalidation respectively. Over the past three decades a series of microecometrics have been developed to account for the impact of human activity, technology or products over regional, national, and sub- continental scales. These include life cycle energy consumption, dematerialization, waste minimization, as well as design for environment and eco-efficiency indicators, the latter two combining technological or economic aspects respectively with environmental factors. Metrics which evaluate the impact of a service, or the utility provided by a product, are lacking. A series of global measures, or macroecometrics have also been defined and include the average annual temperature as well as atmospheric compositions and concentrations, sea level, and earth based resources such as topsoil quantities. The validity of microecometrics as measures of global phenomena can be established through life cycle impact assessments which evaluate the 'system's' response to effects of products or services throughout their life cycle. However, the link between microecometrics and macroecometrics, their validity as indicators of sustainability, the subjectivity of sustainable development per se as a value, and the relationship of metrics and sustainable development with family values has not extensively been addressed. This paper summarizes recently proposed ecometrics, calls for the recognition of the subjectivity of indicators, the distinction between ecometrics used for internal corporate reporting and external decision making, and the establishment of a representative multistakeholder debate.
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