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Social and physiological influences of robot therapy in a care house

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Abstract

This article presents research on robot therapy for elderly residents in a care house. Experiments were conducted from June 2005, lasting more than 2 months. Two therapeutic baby seal robots were introduced to the residents, and activated for over 9 hours daily. To investigate the psychological and social effects of the robots, the residents' activities in public areas were recorded using video cameras, during the daytime (8:30-18:00) for over 2 months. In addition, urinalysis of the residents was performed for 17-ketosteroid sulfate and 17-hydroxycorticosteroid. Results of the video analysis indicated that social interaction increased through interaction with the seal robots. Results of the urine tests showed that the reactions of the subjects' vital organs to stress improved after the introduction of the robots.

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... Of the 33 identified studies, 16 (48.4%) focused on people with dementia [11,18,23,24,27,[29][30][31][32][33][34][35]38,39,43,44], 9 (27.3%) were performed in samples of residents of long-term care facilities whose cognitive status was not mentioned [17,20,22,26,28,36,40,41,45], and the remaining 8 (24.2%) focused on elderly people living in the community whose cognitive status was also not clearly revealed [16,19,22,25,37,42,46,47]. Moreover, 4 (12.1%) ...
... a form of quasi-experimental design. The effectiveness of the robots was explicitly studied in 8 (24.2%) articles [17,20,24,36,40,41,43,45] using randomized designs, with 1 (12.5%) RCT, 2 (25%) blocked RCTs, 2 (25%) quasi-experimental designs, 1 (12.5%) ...
... individual and 2 (14.3%) group setting interventions were found. In 2 (6.1%) studies, social robots were available in the residents' lounge in nursing homes, and participants were free to interact with the social robots during scheduled time slots [22,45]. In 8 (24.2%) studies, the robots were installed in participants' private homes for a duration of 5 days to 3 months [16,27,29,33,37,39,44,47]. ...
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Article
Background: New research fields to design social robots for older people are emerging. By providing support with communication and social interaction, these robots aim to increase quality of life. Because of the decline in functioning due to cognitive impairment in older people, social robots are regarded as promising, especially for people with dementia. Although study outcomes are hopeful, the quality of studies on the effectiveness of social robots for the elderly is still low due to many methodological limitations. Objective: We aimed to review the methodologies used thus far in studies evaluating the feasibility, usability, efficacy, and effectiveness of social robots in clinical and social settings for elderly people, including persons with dementia. Methods: Dedicated search strings were developed. Searches in MEDLINE (PubMed), Web of Science, PsycInfo, and CINAHL were performed on August 13, 2020. Results: In the 33 included papers, 23 different social robots were investigated for their feasibility, usability, efficacy, and effectiveness. A total of 8 (24.2%) studies included elderly persons in the community, 9 (27.3%) included long-term care facility residents, and 16 (48.5%) included people with dementia. Most of the studies had a single aim, of which 7 (21.2%) focused on efficacy and 7 (21.2%) focused on effectiveness. Moreover, forms of randomized controlled trials were the most applied designs. Feasibility and usability were often studied together in mixed methods or experimental designs and were most often studied in individual interventions. Feasibility was often assessed with the Unified Theory of the Acceptance and Use of Technology model. Efficacy and effectiveness studies used a range of psychosocial and cognitive outcome measures. However, the included studies failed to find significant improvements in quality of life, depression, and cognition. Conclusions: This study identified several shortcomings in methodologies used to evaluate social robots, resulting in ambivalent study findings. To improve the quality of these types of studies, efficacy/effectiveness studies will benefit from appropriate randomized controlled trial designs with large sample sizes and individual intervention sessions. Experimental designs might work best for feasibility and usability studies. For each of the 3 goals (efficacy/effectiveness, feasibility, and usability) we also recommend a mixed method of data collection. Multiple interaction sessions running for at least 1 month might aid researchers in drawing significant results and prove the real long-term impact of social robots.
... 3. State of the art behavioral assessment techniques are either too general to grasp the natural flow of engagement (i.e., observational rating scales) or too complex to trace behavior back to an overall engagement state (i.e., ethograms). 4. Available studies on the physiology of engagement of people with demen tia are scarce and involve costly and invasive procedures, such as elec troencephalography (EEG), urinalysis, hormone analysis, and functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS; Wada et al., 2005;Wada and Shibata, 2008;Kawaguchi et al., 2012). 5. No study combines different measures of engagement. ...
... Studies on the physiology of engagement of people with dementia are scarce and involve costly or invasive procedures, such as EEG (Wada et al., 2005), urinalysis and hormones analysis (Wada and Shibata, 2008), and fNIRS (Kawaguchi et al., 2012). In the context of dementia, we found only two studies conducted using EDA, both for purposes beyond our interest (Treusch et al., 2015;Alam et al., 2016). ...
... Most of the studies on psychophysiology in dementia are aimed at evaluating the clinical benefits of robot interaction. For instance, in terms of reduction of stress levels (Wada and Shibata, 2008) or improvement of neuronal activity (Wada et al., 2005). These studies involve costly and invasive procedures, such as EEG and urinalysis. ...
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Thesis
Dementia is a neurodegenerative disease that affects cognition, producing a reduction in thinking, problem-solving, and mnemonic abilities, functioning, preventing affected people to care for themselves and carry out activities of daily living (e.g., self-feeding, dress oneself), and psychosocial well-being, causing the appearance of disorders of thought content, mood, and behavior (e.g., depression, apathy, anxiety). The reduction of cognition, the disorientation in space and time, and the inability to complete basic tasks and function independently are the major causes of institutionalization in dementia. Care facilities are extremely efficient in meeting the physical and environmental needs of persons with dementia (e.g., food, self-care, drugs). However, they often fail in addressing mental and social needs. Several studies show that people with dementia living in institutionalized contexts spend most of their time inactive and isolated. Just as many studies demonstrate that engagement in playful activities is crucial to ensure quality of life and psychosocial well-being in dementia. On the one hand, the centrality of the medical aspects of dementia is due to the legacy of the biomedical approach to care. On the other hand, it is caused by the objective difficulty of understanding the needs of somebody who struggles to communicate. As a matter of fact, we are in great need of models enabling us to make meaning of how people with dementia express their psychological states. According to the literature, engagement is the psychological state of proactive involvement with an object (e.g., a game, an interactive system) or an agent (e.g., a person, a social robot) that has a positive affective nuance. In healthy adults, engagement can be measured on three different levels, according to three distinct response systems: experiential/subjective (i.e., self-reports), behavioral/expressive (i.e. overt behavior), and peripheral-physiological (i.e., human bodily reactions). In adults with dementia, the experiential/subjective level is rarely accessible due to cognitive impairment, the behavioral/expressive level might be blunted by motivational disorders like apathy and depression, and the peripheral-physiological level might provide insightful results, but is often overlooked. As the three response systems are not always equally accessible, it becomes crucial to combine them to achieve the most exhaustive possible measurement of engagement in people with dementia. The objective of this dissertation is twofold. First, it aims at exploring new techniques to assess engagement in dementia with the help of unobtrusive physiological sensors and systematic behavior observation. Second, it focuses on the development of a model of engagement of people with dementia that could formalize the relationships among these assessment techniques and outline their relative meaning in the economy of the overall engagement state. As a first result, we came up with three techniques to measure different aspects of engagement in people with dementia: electrodermal activity (EDA), the Ethographic and Laban-Inspired Coding System of Engagement (ELICSE), and quantity of movement. EDA – which is the variation in the skin conductance derived from the activation of the sympathetic nervous system – accounts for the arousal of the person with dementia during the activity. The ELICSE – which is a coding system of engagement based on nonverbal behavior – permits the measurement of different body configurations that account for different levels of engagement. Quantity of movement – which is the amount of movement on the non-dominant wrist gauged with a triaxial accelerometer – captures the proactive engagement of the person with dementia during the activity (i.e., holding and manipulating objects, reaching out others). As a second result, we built a model of engagement – the ENGAGE-DEM – which specifies the components of engagement, how these are measured through the deployed measurement techniques – EDA, the ELICSE, and quantity of movement – and which relationships they entertain. The model was tested with structural equation modeling and achieved an excellent goodness of fit. The ENGAGE-DEM is the result of a process of testing and progressive refinement of a model of engagement drawn from the literature. This process brought to the refutation of the widely accepted definition of engagement as a compound of positive affect and proactive involvement and to the promotion of a more data-consistent definition of engagement. According to the ENGAGE-DEM, engagement is the degree of proactive participation of the person with dementia in an activity that can take different hedonic tones and achieve different levels of energy mobilization. The ENGAGE-DEM could contribute to several domains of knowledge. It could benefit the field of nursing research since it could prompt a better understanding of the person with dementia and enable a more informed choice of meaningful activities. It could be an aid for designers aiming to create compelling playful technologies for people with dementia. Last, it could be used to enable socially interactive robots and interactive technologies to detect the engagement state of the person with dementia online and react accordingly.
... Many researchers validated the feasibility of a companion robot [1] and highlighted its various benefits. For instance, companion robots provide many health benefits to the elderly by reducing their loneliness [2] and encouraging them to have more social interactions [3]. ...
... A huge body of research papers addressed the various benefits of companion robots [2,3,17], and researchers have expanded the scope of research to investigate optimal robot design [18][19][20] for the elderly. For instance, Oh et al. conducted a face-to-face survey of 191 older adults and used stuffed toys to investigate the design preferences of the elderly [16]. ...
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Article
Recent studies have addressed the various benefits of companion robots and expanded the research scope to their design. However, the viewpoints of older adults have not been deeply investigated. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the distinctive viewpoints of older adults by comparing them with those of younger adults. Thirty-one older and thirty-one younger adults participated in an eye-tracking experiment to investigate their impressions of a bear-like robot mockup. They also completed interviews and surveys to help us understand their viewpoints on the robot design. The gaze behaviors and the impressions of the two groups were significantly different. Older adults focused significantly more on the robot’s face and paid little attention to the rest of the body. In contrast, the younger adults gazed at more body parts and viewed the robot in more detail than the older adults. Furthermore, the older adults rated physical attractiveness and social likeability of the robot significantly higher than the younger adults. The specific gaze behavior of the younger adults was linked to considerable negative feedback on the robot design. Based on these empirical findings, we recommend that impressions of older adults be considered when designing companion robots.
... The usefulness and feasibility of the use of robots has been established by many studies [25] [26], together with multiple evidence of psychological stress recuperation especially in dementia patients in the presence of social robots [25] [26] [27] [28] [29]. There is also evidence that using robots in clinical setting results in not only reduced stress in patients but less stress and burnout for working staff as well who are providing care [26]. ...
... Deep networks has multiple layers which performs operations on the input data, the number of layers in deep networks outweighs the number of layers in a classic neural network, which is the key factor in their high performance as recognition systems [29]. Machine learning is used to transcribe speech to text, although it has its limitations. ...
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Conference Paper
Assistive robotic technology is increasingly employed in many industries including health care. One of the most important features of this assistive technology is its autonomous verbal communication skill. We propose a new theory for autonomous agent based on the five human senses. Then we proceed to address one of the five senses, the speech. Our approach to address and develop an autonomous verbal communication is to apply deep learning to learn about different topics in healthcare. We developed a novel approach where we created a set of question-answer dataset from articles and interviews with physician specialist from U.S. National Public Radio (NPR). We trained a deep learning model which is able to listen to conversations between a patient and a physician to answer to the questions when the physician is not able to answer or it might not answer the question completely. We discuss the corpus on Health Science which shows what NPR can teach to machine. We share the usage of the Corpus to train a deep learning model to be used by pepper which is a humanoid robot that can be implemented in helping provide elderly care in individuals diagnosed with early stages of dementia.
... In the other study (33) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 Several studies reported comparative quantitative data, by using the same or similar assessment scales to others within their role category. The data from these studies have been reproduced from the studies and are compiled in Tables 3-5. ...
... In the other study (33) Several studies reported comparative quantitative data, by using the same or similar assessment scales to others within their role category. The data from these studies have been reproduced from the studies and are compiled in Tables 3-5. ...
... Nursing care robots are of major interest in research in the fields of computer science, medicine, biology and sociology (Huang, 2015;Pfadenhauer & Dukat, 2015;Robinson, MacDonald, and Broadbent 2014). In the past decades, researchers have particularly given attention to person-robot interactions (Libin & Libin, 2004;Wada & Shibata, 2008). Existing research recognizes the development of robots that can assist in health-care, and these developments have demonstrated some promising outcomes, such as an improvement in communication skills, improved stress recovery and improved neuroactivity (Kanoh et al., 2011;Kimura et al., 2010;Kramer, Friedmann, & Bernstein, 2009;Wada & Shibata, 2008). ...
... In the past decades, researchers have particularly given attention to person-robot interactions (Libin & Libin, 2004;Wada & Shibata, 2008). Existing research recognizes the development of robots that can assist in health-care, and these developments have demonstrated some promising outcomes, such as an improvement in communication skills, improved stress recovery and improved neuroactivity (Kanoh et al., 2011;Kimura et al., 2010;Kramer, Friedmann, & Bernstein, 2009;Wada & Shibata, 2008). ...
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Article
The aim of this study was to present the functionality and design of nursing care robots as depicted in pictures posted on social media. A netnographic study was conducted using social media postings over a period of 3 years. One hundred and Seventy-two images were analyzed using netnographic methodology. The findings show that nursing care robots exist in various designs and functionalities, all with a common denominator of supporting the care of one's own and others' health and/or well-being as a main function. The results also show that functionality and design are influenced by recent popular sci-fi/cartoon contexts as portrayed in blockbuster movies, for example. Robots'designs seem more influenced by popular sci-fi/cartoon culture than professional nursing culture. We therefore stress that it is relevant for nursing researchers to critically reflect upon the development of nursing care robots as a thoughtful discussion about embracing technology also might generate a range of epistemological possibilities when entering a postmodern era of science and practice.
... These interactive robots provide companionship and enhance social interactions, resulting in improved social health. In particular, Paro and Nao excelled in this role in a few studies, reducing feelings of loneliness, and improving mood and social interaction [6][7][8]. Despite promising results, there is no strong evidence based on the effectiveness of social robots on (neuro) psychosocial outcomes [9]. ...
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Article
Background Social robots have demonstrated promising outcomes in terms of increasing the social health and well-being of people with dementia and mild cognitive impairment. According to the World Health Organization’s Monitoring and assessing digital health interventions framework, usability and feasibility studies are crucial before implementing prototype social robots and proving their efficacy and effectiveness. This protocol paper aims to detail the plan for conducting the usability and feasibility study of the MINI robot based on evidence-based recommended methodology. Methods In this study, an experimental design and a mixed method of data collection will be applied. Twenty participants aged 65 and over with dementia or mild cognitive impairment will be recruited. Eight sessions of interaction with the robot, as well as qualitative and quantitative assessments, will be accomplished. The research will take place in a laboratory. Ethical approvals have been acquired. This research will be valuable in the development of the MINI robot and its practical deployment in the actual world, as well as the methodological evidence base in the sector of social robots. Discussion By the winter of 2022–2023, the findings of this study will be accessible for dissemination. This study will aid to improve the evidence-based methodology used to study the feasibility and usability of social robots in people with dementia and mild cognitive impairment as well as what can be learned to advance such study designs in the future.
... Assistive robots are robots that help to maintain or enhance the capabilities usually of older persons or people suffering from functional limitations. There is a vast discussion concerning the necessities of older people, and assistive robots can surely cover some of them [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9]. Thus, assistive robots help people with injuries to move and to maintain a good social life status, resulting in psychological and physical well-being. ...
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Article
This paper presents the research and development of the prototype of the assistive mobile information robot (AMIR). The main features of the presented prototype are voice and gesture-based interfaces with Russian speech and sign language recognition and synthesis techniques and a high degree of robot autonomy. AMIR prototype’s aim is to be used as a robotic cart for shopping in grocery stores and/or supermarkets. Among the main topics covered in this paper are the presentation of the interface (three modalities), the single-handed gesture recognition system (based on a collected database of Russian sign language elements), as well as the technical description of the robotic platform (architecture, navigation algorithm). The use of multimodal interfaces, namely the speech and gesture modalities, make human-robot interaction natural and intuitive, as well as sign language recognition allows hearing-impaired people to use this robotic cart. AMIR prototype has promising perspectives for real usage in supermarkets, both due to its assistive capabilities and its multimodal user interface.
... In general, studies on the physiology of engagement of people with dementia are limited and mainly tackle the health benefits of engagement. They involve costly or invasive procedures that are not suited to field measurement: EEG [78], urinalysis and hormones analysis [79], and fNIRS [80]. The main antecedent to our work is a study carried out with healthy seniors and seniors with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) during interactions with a telepresence robot (Giraff) using cardiac measures (i.e., HRV) [81]. ...
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Article
One of the most effective ways to improve quality of life in dementia is by exposing people to meaningful activities. The study of engagement is crucial to identify which activities are significant for persons with dementia and customize them. Previous work has mainly focused on developing assessment tools and the only available model of engagement for people with dementia focused on factors influencing engagement or influenced by engagement. This paper focuses on the internal functioning of engagement and presents the development and testing of a model specifying the components of engagement, their measures, and the relationships they entertain. We collected behavioral and physiological data while participants with dementia (N=14) were involved in six sessions of play, three of game-based cognitive stimulation and three of robot-based free play. We tested the concurrent validity of the measures employed to gauge engagement and ran factorial analysis and Structural Equation Modeling to determine whether the components of engagement and their relationships were those hypothesized. The model we constructed, which we call the ENGAGE-DEM, achieved excellent goodness of fit and can be considered a scaffold to the development of affective computing frameworks for measuring engagement online and offline, especially in HCI and HRI.
... It was suggested that improved communication contributed to [36] Long-term care, Japan + + more calmed behaviors and improved mood [19,25], and reduced loneliness [14]. Some studies indicated improved social engagement persisted for longer than a year [3,33]. ...
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Article
Background: Given the complexity of providing dementia care in hospitals, integrating technology into practice is a high challenge and an important opportunity. Although there are a growing demand and interest in using social robots in a variety of care settings to support dementia care, little is known about the impacts of the robotics and their application in care settings, i.e., what worked, in which situations, and how. Methods: Scientific databases and Google Scholar were searched to identify publications published since 2000. The inclusion criteria consisted of older people with dementia, care setting, and social robot PARO. Results: A total of 29 papers were included in the review. Content analysis identified 3 key benefits of and 3 barriers to the use of PARO. Main benefits include: reducing negative emotion and behavioral symptoms, improving social engagement, and promoting positive mood and quality of care experience. Key barriers are: cost and workload, infection concerns, and stigma and ethical issues. This review reveals 3 research gaps: (a) the users' needs and experiences remain unexplored, (b) few studies investigate the process of how to use the robot effectively to meet clinical needs, and (c) theory should be used to guide implementation. Conclusions: Most interventions conducted have been primarily researcher-focused. Future research should pay more attention to the clinical needs of the patient population and develop strategies to overcome barriers to the adoption of PARO in order to maximize patient benefits.
... We called the coding system that we developed the Ethographic and Laban-Inspired Coding System of Engagement INTRODUCTION Engagement in activities is of crucial importance for people with dementia (Kolanowski et al., 2006;Brooker et al., 2007). Indeed, a growing body of research has found that participation in activities is associated with augmented selfefficacy and self-esteem in dementia (Benveniste et al., 2012) and is deemed useful to improve social bonding (Wada and Shibata, 2008) and mood (Moyle et al., 2013) and to reduce loneliness (Robinson et al., 2013), challenging behaviors (Mordoch et al., 2013), and medication consumption . ...
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Article
Engagement in activities is of crucial importance for people with dementia. State of the art assessment techniques rely exclusively on behavior observation to measure engagement in dementia. These techniques are either too general to grasp how engagement is naturally expressed through behavior or too complex to be traced back to an overall engagement state. We carried out a longitudinal study to develop a coding system of engagement-related behavior that could tackle these issues and to create an evidence-based model of engagement to make meaning of such a coding system. Fourteen elderlies with mild to moderate dementia took part in the study. They were involved in two activities: a game-based cognitive stimulation and a robot-based free play. The coding system was developed with a mixed approach: ethographic and Laban-inspired. First, we developed two ethograms to describe the behavior of participants in the two activities in detail. Then, we used Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) to identify a common structure to the behaviors in the two ethograms and unify them in a unique coding system. The inter-rater reliability (IRR) of the coding system proved to be excellent for cognitive games (kappa = 0.78) and very good for robot play (kappa = 0.74). From the scoring of the videos, we developed an evidence-based model of engagement. This was based on the most frequent patterns of body part organization (i.e., the way body parts are connected in movement) observed during activities. Each pattern was given a meaning in terms of engagement by making reference to the literature. The model was tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). It achieved an excellent goodness of fit and all the hypothesized relations between variables were significant. We called the coding system that we developed the Ethographic and Laban-Inspired Coding System of Engagement (ELICSE) and the model the Evidence-based Model of Engagement-related Behavior (EMODEB). To the best of our knowledge, the ELICSE and the EMODEB constitute the first formalization of engagement-related behavior for dementia that describes how behavior unfolds over time and what it means in terms of engagement.
... Prior work in human-robot interaction (HRI) demonstrated that in line with findings in HHI physical contact can reduce subjectively reported loneliness and objectively measured stress in repeated interactions (e.g. [4,7]). Nakagawa et al. [6] demonstrated that active touch lead to higher motivation than passive touch or no touch, while the latter two did not differ from each other in their motivational effect. ...
Conference Paper
This study, investigates whether stress reducing effects as they are known from human-human interaction also occur while humans interact with robots. To analyze the individual stress level, 63 participants were asked about their stress level before and after they interacted with a humanoid robot. Three different conditions of touch behavior were analyzed in the course of this study: active touch, passive touch as well as no touch. However, as the results of this study indicate, there seems to be no difference between those three touch conditions and the individual perception of stress.
... Ideally, related work would include studies that gauged EDA to understand and profile the quality of interactions with social robots of persons with dementia. However, in spite of the great interest of the Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) community for the therapeutic effects of social robots on dementia patients, studies on the physiology of engagement with social robots of people with dementia are scarce and involve costly or invasive procedures, such as EEG [13], urinalysis and hormones analysis [14], and fNIRS [15]. Albeit in recent years there has been a progressive effort in making EEG measurement the least obtrusive possible, EEG headsets such as Emotiv 1 and MindWave 2 are still too invasive to be brought in the field and might face acceptability issues when proposed to people with dementia [16]. ...
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Conference Paper
The study of engagement is central to improve the quality of care and provide people with dementia with meaningful activities. Current assessment techniques of engagement for people with dementia rely exclusively on behavior observation. However, novel unobtrusive sensing technologies, capable of tracking psychological states during activities, can provide us with a deeper layer of knowledge about engagement. We compared the engagement of persons with dementia involved in two playful activities, a game-based cognitive stimulation and a robot-based free play, using observational rating scales and electrodermal activity (EDA). Results highlight significant differences in observational rating scales and EDA between the two activities and several significant correlations between the items of observational rating scales of engagement and affect, and EDA features.
... We can anticipate that the development of robots in geriatric nursing is not only restricted to the specific robots themselves. The demands robotization will put upon aged care organisations will likely create huge challenges too (Lattanzio et al., 2014;Wada & Shibata, 2008). Therefore, we stress that nursing care robots will not only make a difference in older patients' care and daily life. ...
Article
Background: People use social media to express perceptions, attitudes and a wide range of concerns regarding human life. Aim: This study aims at analysing the ongoing discussions on the internet microblog Twitter and offers some coming predicaments regarding developments in geriatric nursing regarding nursing robots. Methods: Data were retrospectively collected from Twitter. 1322 mentions were included in the final analyses, where principles of interpreting data by using netnography were utilized. Results: Many ideas are presented expressing functional, psychological and social aspects of robots in nursing care. Most postings come from metropolitan cities around the globe. The discussion focuses on market-driven, science fiction solutions for aged care. Twitter users overall seem to be positive using various nursing robots in aged care. These discussions offer a window into the attitudes and ideas of this group of users. Conclusion: We suggest that monitoring Twitter discussions on social media can provide valuable insights into current attitudes as well as forecast coming trends.
... While causality is not established between oxytocin and stress alleviation, it is a starting point for further investigation into benefits of being a nurturer. Furthermore, we are inspired by research that showed that stress alleviation through nurturing touch with a robotic seal virtual pet was demonstrated in dementia patients [8]. However, of the studies that exist into nurturing, few focus on workplace stress alleviation. ...
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Conference Paper
Workplace stress is an ongoing concern for individuals, employers and communities, calling for innovative interventions. Benefits of play therapy, animal-assisted activities, and nurturing are well documented, yet workplaces restrictions often prevent novel solutions from being applied. To overcome these restrictions while taking advantage of recent research, we introduce a human-computer-animal interactive (HCAI) nurturing play system, minimising workplace disruption through alternative stress alleviation approaches. Our proposed system connects workers with remote rescued dogs in nurturing play interactions, while promoting dog wellbeing. Through NurturePlay, this paper invites further consideration of how interactive technology design may facilitate workplace stress alleviation through remote nurturing play with animals. We seek feedback of our proposed system through this work-in-progress before actual implementation.
... NeCoRo is able to perceive user actions by internal sensors, including sight, sound, touch, and orientation. (2010); Wada and Shibata (2006a, 2006c, 2007a, 2007b, 2007c, 2008a, 2008b 12 (1 male NeCoRo reacts with inbuilt 15 actuators (A. V. . ...
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Article
The world’s population is aging, and developed countries are engaged in developing a new aged-care paradigm to reduce spiraling healthcare costs. Assistive technologies like Socially Assistive Robots (SAR) are being considered as enablers to support the process of care giving or keep elderly at home longer. This article reports a mixed-method systematic review of SAR in elderly care and recognizes its impact on elderly well-being, integrating evidence from qualitative and quantitative studies. It follows the principles explained in Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and classifies interventions, measures, and outcomes of field trials of SAR in elderly care. Eighty-six studies in 37 study groups have been included. The findings imply positive effects of SAR on elderly well-being. Ten significant recommendations are made to help avoid the current limitations of existing research and to improve future research and its applicability. This review revealed that SAR can potentially enhance elderly well-being and decrease the workload on caregivers. There is a need for rigorous research methodology, person-centered care, caregiver expectation model, multimodal interaction, multimodal data collection, and modeling of culturally diverse groups to facilitate acceptability of SAR.
... Often companion-type robots are given the form of a pet and are used to improve the user's health and psychological well-being. The most prominent example is Paro, a Japanese robot in the form of a seal [19][20][21][22]. There are also robots that do not fit into any of these categories or combine features of both. ...
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Article
Taking care of older adults is among the major challenges currently faced by ageing populations. Researchers, designers, and engineers have proposed socially assistive robots as one way of helping elderly people stay in their homes longer. In a systematic literature review, this paper wants to investigate if and how evaluations of the acceptance of socially assistive robots by older people take into account sociodemographic factors. The results indicate that this only holds true for a few studies. Research that incorporates age, gender, education, and so forth; clearly shows that these key factors have a significant impact. However, the relations are complex and experience with technology mitigates the influence of sociodemographic factors on acceptance. Assistive devices should be adaptable to individual needs to be able to consider all these factors.
... The majority of the research reports on social commitment robots are with Paro, the baby harp seal, AIBO, a robotic dog, and NeCoRo, a robotic cat [3,18,19]. Each of these robots are designed to evoke emotions and interact in sophisticated multi-sensory ways; audio, visual, and tactile. ...
Article
Globally, the population of elderly people is rising with an increasing number of people living with dementias. This trend is coupled with a prevailing need for compassionate caretakers. A key challenge in dementia care is to assist the person to sustain communication and connection to family, caregivers and the environment. The use of social commitment robots in the care of people with dementia has intriguing possibilities to address some of these care needs. This paper discusses the literature on the use of social commitment robots in the care of elderly people with dementia; the contributions to care that social commitment robots potentially can make and the cautions around their use. Future directions for programs of research are identified to further the development of the evidence-based knowledge in this area.
Article
Introduction It is estimated that 55 million people are living with dementia worldwide in 2021, and the numbers are expected to rise to 78 million in 2030 and 139 million in 2050 (Siriaraya et al., 2022; World Health Organisation, 2022). Dementia is an umbrella term that describes neurodegenerative disorders that impact memory, cognition, language, and behaviour (Beck et al., 1998; Cohen-Mansfield, 2001; Kane, 2001). Along with symptoms of dementia such as forgetfulness, disorientation and communication, People with Dementia (PwD) often lose their sense of autonomy and capacity to make decisions in various or all aspects of their life (Garcia-Palacios et al., 2002; Jones et al., 2015). Currently, there is no cure for dementia. Thus, promoting well-being in PwD or Quality of Life (QoL) is considered a quintessential measure of effective dementia care (Van Nieuwenhuizen and Nijman, 2009). QoL for dementia care is multifaceted, which includes measures related to i. physical comfort, hygiene, and wellbeing, ii. safety, security, and order, iii. maintaining a sense of autonomy, dignity, and privacy, as well as iv. living a meaningful life, individuality, maintaining relationships, and enjoyment (Kane, 2001). However, such measures of QoL can be challenging to achieve due to the complexity of dementia symptoms (i.e. cognitive decline, losing the ability to communicate, behaviour that challenges, etc.) (Hennelly et al., 2021) and families’ burden of caring for PwD against other competing priorities (Sury et al., 2013). In the case of institutionalised care, care settings suffer from understaffing and a low retention rate (Brown Wilson, 2009; Bunn et al., 2020), which leads care settings to focus on delivering everyday care (i.e. physical safety, assistance in eating and bathing) over other psychosocial QoL measures (Hicks et al., 2022). As such, there is an immense need to develop tools, interventions, and solutions to preserve and promote PwD's QoL and overall physical, emotional and mental well-being. In the past few decades, substantial research within the HCI domain has investigated technology-supported healthcare and well-being interventions to cater to an array of cognitive, emotional and mental disorders such as body image and eating disorders (Matsangidou et al., 2020; Wiederhold et al., 2016), depression and anxiety disorders (Falconer et al., 2016; Griffiths et al., 2022; Otkhmezuri et al., 2019; Siriaraya et al., 2021), addiction (Intarasirisawat et al., 2020; Siriaraya et al., 2021, 2018), and prolonged grief disorder (She et al., 2022, 2021). Other HCI research has also investigated the use of technologies to promote positive health and well-being, including interventions for supporting and enhancing physical exercise (Kiriu et al., 2019; Matsangidou et al., 2017b, 2017a), elevating mood (Gaggioli et al., 2019; Lee et al., 2021; Peters et al., 2018), assisting in the pursuit of everyday happiness (Panote Siriaraya et al., 2022; Suzuki et al., 2021), and promoting pro-social behaviour and interaction (Ibrahim and Ang, 2018; Oliveira et al., 2021; Siriaraya et al., 2014, 2013; Slattery et al., 2021). Given the wealth of literature on human-centred healthcare technology, we believe that utilising such technology to support PwD's lived journey through dementia holds great potential and benefits. However, such technologies need to attend to the unique design requirements when designing user-friendly and effective interventions for PwD. For instance, the fluctuation of cognitive impairment is a marked deficit of a dementia diagnosis. As such, PwD experience barriers in using mainstream web platforms due to difficulties in recognising the correct navigational path, have less eye/hand coordination when using input devices (i.e. mouse) and have a lower threshold for information overload (Slatin and Rush, 2003). Such cognitive deficits have also been reported to affect navigation and socialisation in 3D spaces (Siriaraya and Ang, 2019, 2012). Furthermore, PwD face difficulties in maintaining attention and struggle to deactivate irrelevant stimuli (Cohen-Mansfield, 2001), which may affect the efficacy of technology-based interventions. It has also been reported in the literature that PwD are sometimes reluctant to participate in activities, interventions or use new technologies, due to their concerns about how other people view them, especially if they carry out some tasks or use technologies incorrectly (Nolan et al., 2006). Hence, it is a challenge not only to persuade PwD to join an activity but also to let their guard down and be truly engaged. Finally, difficulties in the areas of language and communication is a common symptom in PwD; it can be challenging for PwD to share their thoughts or express their emotions (Banovic et al., 2018). As such, it is imperative that tools, solutions, interventions, and technologies developed are based on sound human-centred principles, and sensitive to the needs of this population in a bid to design more user-friendly, highly engaging, and effective solutions (Tabbaa et al., 2020), which can also help PwD and those around them understand their emotions through means beyond verbal communication (Jiang et al., 2022a, 2022c; Tabbaa et al., 2021; Zeng et al., 2020a, 2020b). In the following sections, we discuss key areas of digital technologies which are relevant to dementia care. We then conclude by summarising the six papers of this special issue. Section snippets Cognitive Assessment, Training & Remeniscence Designing and developing interventions to detect and assess cognitive deficits is one area of research that has received significant interest within the HCI community. Research has shown that older adults with mild cognitive impairment are at higher risk of progressing to more severe cognitive impairment (Petersen et al., 2001) and that early detection of subtle signs of cognitive decline provides a greater opportunity for timely intervention (Dubois et al., 2015). In one study, researchers Promote Positive Well-being Beyond diagnosis and assessment, many studies have focused on designing technology-based interventions to promote positive well-being and mood. One major factor leading to compromised QoL is the significant barriers PwD face in accessing stimulating, interesting and engaging experiences beyond their physical premises due to location, weather, safety concerns or mobility constraints. As such, many studies have examined how technologies can be designed to promote positive well-being. In one Socialisation & Meaningful Conversations The body of research has concluded that the use of technologies to build strong and meaningful connections between PwD and their social circles (i.e. family, friends, caregivers, the community, etc.) and engaging them in social activities can reduce the speed of the cognitive decline and depressive symptoms (Barbosa Neves et al., 2019; Kleinberger et al., 2019; Ramírez et al., 2014). However, family members often struggle to find topics to discuss with PwD because they are unsure if PwD will be Exergames Physical exercise is important for PwD as it improves their physical fitness and contributes to a better QoL (Barnes, 2015). However, many PwD lose interest in themselves and others and lack the motivation to engage in activities (Kitching, 2015). Furthermore, PwD struggle to focus attention during exercise and deactivate irrelevant stimuli (Schutzer, 2004). As such, several research works have designed interventions to motivate physical exercise through gaming technologies or what is known as Accessibility & Independence PwD life, identity and personhood are not defined by their dementia diagnosis. As such, creating a positive narrative around “life with dementia” is essential to help PwD maintain their independence, autonomy, individuality, and, ultimately QoL for as long as possible (Yates et al., 2019). As such, many researchers have investigated ways in which PwD, especially those in their early stages of dementia, can enjoy life more independently. For instance, one study examined the accessibility Summary of the Special Issue It would be impossible to cover such a breadth of application areas of technology in dementia care within the scope of the special issue. We have received a significant number of submissions, and ultimately, we accepted six papers covering two key technology fields which are starting to make an important impact in healthcare generally, and dementia care more specifically: i) machine learning and ii) immersive technology.
Conference Paper
The paper introduces a multimodal affective dataset named VREED (VR Eyes: Emotions Dataset) in which emotions were triggered using immersive 360° Video-Based Virtual Environments (360-VEs) delivered via Virtual Reality (VR) headset. Behavioural (eye-tracking) and physiological signals (Electrocardiogram (ECG) and Galvanic Skin Response (GSR)) were captured, together with self-reported responses, from healthy participants (n=34) experiencing 360-VEs (n=12, 1-3 min each) selected through focus groups and a pilot trial. Statistical analysis confirmed the validity of the selected 360-VEs in eliciting the desired emotions. Preliminary machine learning analysis was carried out, demonstrating state-of-the-art performance reported in affective computing literature using non-immersive modalities. VREED is among the first multimodal VR datasets in emotion recognition using behavioral and physiological signals. VREED is made publicly available on Kaggle 1. We hope that this contribution encourages other researchers to utilize VREED further to understand emotional responses in VR and ultimately enhance VR experiences design in applications where emotional elicitation plays a key role, i.e. healthcare, gaming, education, etc.
Chapter
Globally, the world population is ageing, which increases the prevalence of non-communicable diseases that affect patients both physically and psychologically, such as is the case of dementia. Consequently, there is a greater demand for the healthcare system as it needs to develop solutions to answer to these needs.The literature review shows that complementary therapies may be applied in dementia in order to aid the symptom management as well as to slow down the progression of the disease. The Socially Assistive Robots (SAR) are tools that may be used as a complementary therapy in dementia and have shown to promote a potentially beneficial relationship. The zoomorphic models of SAR have shown to have similar results to complementary therapies with animals, as they generate positive emotions and promote multisensorial interaction through the sight, hearing and touch.The use of SAR is a new tool that has shown to have benefits in terms of slowing down the progression of the disease, aiding to improving the quality of life in the elderly.
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New technology, such as social robots, opens up new opportunities in hospital settings. PARO, a robotic pet seal, was designed to provide emotional and social support for older people with dementia. We applied video-ethnographic methods, including conversational interviews and observations with video recording among 10 patient participants while they were using the robot. We also conducted semi-structured individual interviews and focus groups with nursing staff to gain contextual information. Patient and family partners were actively involved in the study as co-researchers. This study reports our findings on the perceptions of 10 patients with dementia about their experiences with PARO in a hospital setting. Thematic analysis yielded three substantive themes: (a) ‘it’s like a buddy’ – the robot helps people with dementia uphold a sense of self in the world, (b) ‘it’s a conversation piece’ – the baby seal facilitates social connection and (c) ‘it makes me happy’ – PARO transforms and humanizes the clinical setting. Our findings help provide a better understanding of the perspectives of patients with dementia on the use of social robots.
Article
Researchers have reported that companion robots have had positive effects on older adults with depression. However, there has been little quantitative analysis on the relationship between robot design and depression. To address this, we surveyed 191 older adults and investigated the impact of age, gender and depression level on design preferences for companion robots. We focused on toy-sized companion robots and evaluated three design elements: type, weight and material. The findings show that baby-type robots were the most preferred by older adults. They favoured the lightest weights and microfibre materials, regardless of the independent variables. Moreover, robot weight preferences varied significantly with the level of depression. Highly depressed older adults disliked heavy robots. These preliminary findings suggest that companion robots need to be designed with careful consideration of their physical characteristics and potential psychological effects.
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Objective With an elderly population that is set to more than double by 2050 worldwide, there will be an increased demand for elderly care. This poses several impediments in the delivery of high-quality health and social care. Socially assistive robot (SAR) technology could assume new roles in health and social care to meet this higher demand. This review qualitatively examines the literature on the use of SAR in elderly care and aims to establish the roles this technology may play in the future. Design Scoping review. Data sources Search of CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, MEDLINE, PsychINFO and Scopus databases was conducted, complemented with a free search using Google Scholar and reference harvesting. All publications went through a selection process, which involved sequentially reviewing the title, abstract and full text of the publication. No limitations regarding date of publication were imposed, and only English publications were taken into account. The main search was conducted in March 2016, and the latest search was conducted in September 2017. Eligibility criteria The inclusion criteria consist of elderly participants, any elderly healthcare facility, humanoid and pet robots and all social interaction types with the robot. Exclusions were acceptability studies, technical reports of robots and publications surrounding physically or surgically assistive robots. Results In total, 61 final publications were included in the review, describing 33 studies and including 1574 participants and 11 robots. 28 of the 33 papers report positive findings. Five roles of SAR were identified: affective therapy, cognitive training, social facilitator, companionship and physiological therapy. Conclusions Although many positive outcomes were reported, a large proportion of the studies have methodological issues, which limit the utility of the results. Nonetheless, the reported value of SAR in elderly care does warrant further investigation. Future studies should endeavour to validate the roles demonstrated in this review. Systematic review registration NIHR 58672.
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This paper describes a path to practical guidelines for professional caregivers and family members who want to use pet robots in the care for persons with dementia. It reports how a literature study, which included the use of related techniques, was combined with interviews with professional caregivers and field studies. The result of this triangle approach is an outline of directives and recommendations, represented in a practical set of guidelines.
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Article
This study was designed to compare the natural free form communication that takes place when a person interacts with robotic entities versus live animals. One hundred and eleven participants interacted with one of four entities: an AIBO robotic dog, Legobot, Dog or Cat. It was found that participants tended to rate the Dog as more capable than the other entities, and often spoke to it more than the robotic entities. However, participants were not positively biased toward live entities, as the Cat often was thought of and spoken to similarly to the AIBO robot. Results are consistent with a model in which both appearance and interactivity lead to the development of beliefs about a live or robotic entity in an interaction. Keywords: Human-robot interaction; human-animal interaction; AIBO; free form communication; attributions; human-entity interaction
Article
The ongoing development of robotics on the one hand and, on the other hand, the foreseen relative growth in number of elderly individuals suffering from dementia, raises the question of which contribution robotics could have to rationalize and maintain, or even improve the quality of care. The objective of this review was to assess the published effects and effectiveness of robot interventions aiming at social assistance in elderly care. We searched, using Medical Subject Headings terms and free words, in the CINAHL, MEDLINE, Cochrane, BIOMED, PUBMED, PsycINFO, and EMBASE databases. Also the IEEE Digital Library was searched. No limitations were applied for the date of publication. Only articles written in English were taken into account. Collected publications went through a selection process. In the first step, publications were collected from major databases using a search query. In the second step, 3 reviewers independently selected publications on their title, using predefined selection criteria. In the third step, publications were judged based on their abstracts by the same reviewers, using the same selection criteria. In the fourth step, one reviewer made the final selection of publications based on complete content. Finally, 41 publications were included in the review, describing 17 studies involving 4 robot systems. Most studies reported positive effects of companion-type robots on (socio)psychological (eg, mood, loneliness, and social connections and communication) and physiological (eg, stress reduction) parameters. The methodological quality of the studies was, mostly, low. Although positive effects were reported, the scientific value of the evidence was limited. The positive results described, however, prompt further effectiveness research in this field.
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This article presents a longitudinal study with four children with autism, who were exposed to a humanoid robot over a period of several months. The longitudinal approach allowed the children time to explore the space of robot–human, as well as human–human interaction. Based on the video material documenting the interactions, a quantitative and qualitative analysis was conducted. The quantitative analysis showed an increase in duration of pre-defined behaviours towards the later trials. A qualitative analysis of the video data, observing the childrens activities in their interactional context, revealed further aspects of social interaction skills (imitation, turn-taking and role-switch) and communicative competence that the children showed. The results clearly demonstrate the need for, and benefits of, long-term studies in order to reveal the full potential of robots in the therapy and education of children with autism.
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Conference Paper
Robot therapy for demented patients was conducted at a cranial nerve clinic. Two therapeutic seal robots, Paro, were introduced there. This paper describes the results of this experiment. DIMENSION (diagnosis method of neuronal dysfunction) was used to analyze recorded patient's EEG before and after 20 minutes of robot therapy. Questionnaire concerning impression of seal robots was also conducted. The results showed that their cortical neurons activity was improved by interaction with the seal robots, especially for patients who liked the robots.
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1. Animal assisted therapy is an applied science using animals to solve a human problem. It is an interdisciplinary approach using animals as an adjunct to other therapies. 2. The major difference between animals as therapy and entertainment is the animal-human bond, a special relationship that develops when a person has strong feelings of psychological attachment to the animal. 3. It is essential that a complete nursing and activity assessment be made before implementation of individualized animal assisted therapy.
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We have conducted research to determine the compounds in human urine which have high values in healthy individuals, decrease with failing health (or bodily decay) and decline rapidly with advancing illness to reach very low values in severe illnesses. We initially established that 17-ketosteroid sulfates (17-KS-S) have the highest values in healthy individuals. Stress was regarded by Hans Selye as the rate of wear and tear and 17-OHCS as its indicator, but we considered that, different from inanimate things, energy transforming live organisms exist in a dynamic balance between "wear and tear" and "repair and recovery". Here it becomes important to determine the organism's adaptability at least to two factors. We regarded 17-OHCS as a compound related to tissue "wear and tear", and a search for a compound related to "repair and recovery", led us to the identification of 17-KS-S. In other words, we considered the relation between "repair and recovery" and "wear and tear". The measurement of 17-KS-S, which decreases with failing health, when combined with 17-OHCS, may make it possible to evaluate distortions in the organism (disturbance of adaptability), which bring the presence of illness or the susceptibility to illness in each person to our notice. Further adding a new dimension to clinical diagnostic acumen in an objective evaluation of psychosocial stress (emotional imbalance, dejection, depression, etc. due to the burden of a heavy debt, dismissal, urgent mental work against a deadline, transfer, inter-personal friction, parent-child relationship, etc.) where results of clinical routine tests are often within normal limits, and in the monitoring of health and illness.
Conference Paper
This paper describes research on a "mental commit robot". These robots have a different target audience to industrial robots, one that is not so rigidly dependent on objective measures such as accuracy and speed. The main goal of this research is to explore a new area in robotics, with the emphasis on human-robot interaction. In previous research, we classified robots into four categories, which related to their appearance. We then introduced a robot cat and a robot seal, which we evaluated by interviewing a large group of people. The results showed that physical interaction improved their subjective evaluation of the robots. Moreover, a priori knowledge of a subject has a considerable influence on the subjective interpretation and evaluation of mental commit robots. In this paper, we asked several groups of subjects to evaluate the seal robot known as 'Paro' by answering questionnaires that were given out in exhibitions that were held in four different countries; Japan, U.K., Sweden and Italy. This paper reports the results of statistical analysis of the evaluation data.
Conference Paper
This paper describes research on mental commit robot that seeks a different direction from industrial robot, and that is not so rigidly dependent on objective measures such as accuracy and speed. The main goal of this research is to explore a new area in robotics, with an emphasis on human-robot interaction. In the previous research, we categorized robots into four categories in terms of appearance. Then, we introduced a cat robot and a seal robot, and evaluated them by interviewing many people. The results showed that physical interaction improved subjective evaluation. Moreover, a priori knowledge of a subject has much influence into subjective interpretation and evaluation of mental commit robot. In this paper, 440 subjects evaluated the seal robot, Paro by questionnaires in an exhibition at the Science Museum in London, UK. This paper reports the results of statistical analysis of evaluation data.
Conference Paper
Advances in robotics have been applied to automation in industrial manufacturing, with the primary purpose of optimizing practical systems in terms of such objective measures as accuracy, speed, and cost. The paper introduces research on artificial emotional creatures that seeks to explore a different direction that is not so rigidly dependent on such objective measures. The goal of this research is to explore a new area in robotics, with an emphasis on human-robot interaction. There is a large body of evidence that shows the importance of the interaction between humans and animals such as pets. We have been building pet robots, as artificial emotional creatures, with the subjective appearance of behaviors that are dependent on internal states as well as external stimuli from both the physical environment and human beings. The pet robots have multi-modal sensory system, actuators, and bodies with artificial skin for physical interaction with human beings