Article

John Wesley slept here: American shrines and American Methodists

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Abstract

Historians of religion have devoted little attention to shrines in the United States, and the limited scholarship that is available has overlooked Protestants. Protestants, most interpreters have assumed, do not have shrines or make pilgrimages. In this essay I define and classify shrines, surveying a wide range of sacred sites in the United States. Then I challenge the assumptions about Protestants and pilgrimage. Focusing on the United Methodists, I argue that while the spiritual descendants of John Wesley do not consecrate all types of sacred sites or endorse all pilgrimage practices, commemorative shrines play a role in American Methodist piety. If I am right, Protestants, and American Methodists in particular, are less anomalous in the history of religion than most scholars have assumed.

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... The renewed academic interest in pilgrimage practices is largely due to the global increase in travel practices that involve religious motives (Cohen, 1992(Cohen, , 1998Coleman, 2002;Fleischer, 2000;Jackowski & Smith, 1992;Morinis, 1992;Murray & Graham, 1997;Rinschede, 1992;Stoddard, 1997;Timothy & Olsen, 2006;Tweed, 2000). Within this body of literature, the examination of pilgrims' experiences involves an understanding of the psychological and social experiences of individuals and the special characteristics of pilgrimage groups (e.g. ...
... As Protestants, they may also wish to travel to sites in Germany and Switzerland, where the events of the Reformation unfolded. Another emerging type of American evangelical pilgrimage is organized visits to sites related to the founding Journal of Heritage Tourism 135 fathers of American evangelicalism (Tweed, 2000). Nevertheless, since fundamentalists' eschatology leads them to be oriented not only back into events of their religious heritage but also forward toward events of the prophesied future, evangelical leaders may herald the development of new sites of touristic interest. ...
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Based on fieldwork on a Midwestern American grassroots organization that conducts evangelical tours to Israel, this paper seeks to enrich analysis of the pilgrimage experience by suggesting a more contextualized approach to its study. To illustrate the implementation of the contextualized perspective, three thematic examples from the fieldwork are presented: men's emotional expression; religious deeds and their political meanings; and a case on the theo-political symbolism embedded in evangelical pilgrimage itineraries. It is argued that understanding not only the theological but also the historical, socio-cultural and political contexts in which evangelical tours operate can illuminate the way individual pilgrims construe meaning during their travel experiences. The paper concludes by suggesting that each of the examined examples illustrates the role of the pilgrimage as a cohesive force in the evangelical sub-culture.
... The shrines which have been identiÀed by American Methodists are commemorative ones, sites which, although not strictly sacred, recall key historical events. 356 Tweed takes a sociological view of this phenomenon and concludes that it reÁects a broader social process such as the construction of collective identity. 357 He argues that commemorative shrines function as identity shrines since collective identity, for many Methodists, emerges from historical consciousness. ...
... There have been several approaches as to the study of pilgrimage (based upon Tweed, 2000). A historical approach has highlighted change over time and the distinctiveness of each pilgrimage, plus its embeddedness in the cultural context and the sponsoring religion. ...
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This volume is a selection of articles presented at the 24th International Conference on Tourism and Rural Space in National and International Context – TARS held online on May 27, 2022. TARS is the new denomination of the 1998-2020 International Conference on Romanian Rural Tourism in International Context: Present and Prospects – RoRuT. The title of the volume series, Romanian Rural Tourism in International Context: Present and Prospects, has changed starting with Volume 48.
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Article
الانگليكانية وقراءة في تطور الكنيسة البروتستانتية الأُسقفية في الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية 1784- 1789 PECUSA الأستاذ المساعد الدكتورة : نغم طالب عبد الله كلية التربية - ابن رشد - قسم التأريخ ملخص البحث باللغة العربية : تتناول هذه الدراسة المراحل المبكرة لتوطيد الكنيسة الانكليزية في مستعمرات أميركا الشمالية, والتي تطورت بعد حرب الاستقلال لتصبح الكنيسة الوطنية, التي انضوت تحت لوائها الكنائس المحلية في عموم الولايات الأخرى, وتعرف بالكنيسة البروتستانتية الأسقفية في الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية. فبالتزامن مع وصول الانكليز من مساهمي شركة لندن, وضع الأساس لأولى مستعمرات انكلترا في العالم الجديد في جيمس تاون, ووفدت الانگليكانية في الوقت ذاته, معلنة عن بداية تأسيسها لاحقاً كنيسة رسمية في فرجينيا ومستوطنات أخرى, حظيت بدعم مالي وضريبي, كونها تمثل كنيسة البلد الأم. كما يعالج البحث كيف تطورت تلك الكنيسة في أجواء تختلف عما كان سائداً في انكلترا, وطبيعة العلاقة التي نشأت بيها وبين بقية الفرق والطوائف الدينية التي استقطبتها تلك المستعمرات. ظلت الانگليكانية تتمتع باهتمام ورعاية السلطة المدنية, التي شرعت قوانين لحمايتها وتمويلها ولفترة طويلة, ولاسيما في الجنوب ونيويورك, لكن اندلاع الثورة الأميركية كان فاتحة لتحول كبير في علاقة هذه الكنيسة بالقضية الوطنية, فأصبحت ورجال دينها مصدر شك بميولها وولائها للتاج البريطاني. عانت الكنيسة الأسقفية خلال حرب الاستقلال كثيراً, وتزايدت الحاجة لإعادة تنظيمها وفق أسس تلائم الواقع الجديد بعد إقرار معاهدة باريس عام 1783. وبدأت المساعي الحثيثة لتوحيد الكنيسة في عموم الولايات المتعددة, وكان لكونكتكت الدور الأبرز في الأخذ بزمام المبادرة, وبرزت شخصيات عدة ساهمت بتذليل العقبات التي رافقت تلك المحاولات والتي توجت عام 1789 . The Anglicanism, A reading in the Evolution of the Episcopal Protestant Church in the United States of America 1784 - 1789 Nagham T. Abdullah University of Baghdad This study deals with the early stages of the consolidation of the church of England in the colonies of North America, which developed after the War of Independence to become a national church, that unite all of the local churches across the other states, and known as The Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States of America. Coinciding with the arrival of the English of the shareholders of the Company of London, laid the foundation for the first colonies of England in the New World at Jamestown, and so the arrival of Anglicanism at the same time, announcing the beginning of the founding of the later the Established church in Virginia and other settlements, enjoying with financial support and tax, as it represent the Church of the mother country. And We discuss how that church has developed in an atmosphere that is different from what prevailed in England, and the nature of the relationship that developed between it and the rest of the Sects and religious communities that Came and Lived in those colonies. Anglicanism Remained enjoying the attention and care of the civil power, initiated by the laws to protect them and funding for a long time, especially in the South and New York, but the outbreak of the American Revolution was the beginning of a major shift in the relationship of this church with the national cause, and became a source of doubt of here loyalty to the British crown. The Episcopal Church has suffered during the war of Independence too much, increasing the need for re-organized according to the foundations suit the new reality after the adoption of the Treaty of Paris in 1783. The tireless efforts to unite the church across several states had began ,and Connecticut had a prominent role in taking the lead, and emerged several figures contributed to overcoming the obstacles that have accompanied these attempts, which culminated in 1789.
Article
Many scholars have debated the potential results of pilgrimage, but few have tracked how pre-trip goals actually relate to post-trip outcomes. Based on research with US evangelicals, this article argues that, despite being confronted with the possibility of disrupted meaning, nearly every pilgrim comes to see the trip as a success. To understand why, I draw on studies that frame Christian rituals as processes that are partial and in flux. Firstly, I explore how gendered notions of relationality affect perceptions of efficacy and lead to multiple goal-setting. Secondly, I show how the journey is couched within broader epistemologies that define a Christian life as incremental improvements, where one ‘grows’ with God. Thus the meaning making associated with pilgrimage is never fully complete, but is compelled into a future where further interpretations and presumed successes are inchoate. Ultimately, the belief in future meaning is as important—perhaps more so—than immediate ritual success.
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