Article

Recircumscription of Geum (Colurieae: Rosaceae)

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Abstract

Molecular phylogenetic studies of Colurieae indicate that Coluria, Waldsteinia, and Taihangia are ingroups in Geum. This paper summarizes phylogenetic results, discusses issues of taxonomy in clades with a reticulate history, and presents ten new combinations and one new name for a species.

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... In Rosoideae, several genera were lumped into Potentilla (Duchesnea, Horkelia, and Ivesia) based on previous analyses (Eriksson et al. 1998, and into Geum (Novosieversia, Erythrocoma, Oncostylus, Acomastylis, and Taihangia; see Smedmark, 2006). Material was not available for Stellariopsis, Comarella, and Purpusia, but according to preliminary study of morphology they are expected to be included in Potentilla. ...
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Phylogenetic relationships among 88 genera of Rosaceae were investigated using nucleotide sequence data from six nuclear (18S, gbssi1, gbssi2, ITS, pgip, and ppo) and four chloroplast (matK, ndhF, rbcL, and trnL-trnF) regions, separately and in various combinations, with parsimony and likelihood-based Bayesian approaches. The results were used to examine evolution of non-molecular characters and to develop a new phylogenetically based infrafamilial classification. As in previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of the family, we found strong support for monophyly of groups corresponding closely to many previously recognized tribes and subfamilies, but no previous classification was entirely supported, and relationships among the strongly supported clades were weakly resolved and/or conflicted between some data sets. We recognize three subfamilies in Rosaceae: Rosoideae, including Filipendula, Rubus, Rosa, and three tribes; Dryadoideae, comprising the four actinorhizal genera; and Spiraeoideae, comprising Lyonothamnus and seven tribes. All genera previously assigned to Amygdaloideae and Maloideae are included in Spiraeoideae. Three supertribes, one in Rosoideae and two in Spiraeoideae, are recognized.
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A previously described but unnamed hybrid of Geum aleppicum and G. canadense is reported from central New York, Vermont, and southern Ontario. Wild plants were compared to a cultivated plant and all exhibited traits intermediate in characters between the parent species. Comparative analysis of floral characters showed little relationship to Geum virginianum, as previously proposed. The hybrid is also compared to two similar hybrids involving G. urbanum, with which it might be confused. The hybrid is described and named here as G. ×hainesianum, nothosp. nov. A key to Geum species and hybrids east of the Rocky Mountains is presented.
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Waldsteinia Willd. is a small herbaceous genus presumably of Neogene age and formerly wide-distributed around the Northern Hemisphere and now presents the remnants of the tertiary flora. According to the latest taxonomic revision, Waldsteinia is considered a group nested in Geum L. A comparatively low level of morphological divergence together with fuzzy ploidy patterns within Waldsteinia could not be reliable evidence to establish the former distributions and migration pathways of species. In the present study, using plastid DNA ( trnH-psbA ) data we tried to throw light on Waldsteinia history. Based on our data we believe that the taxonomic decision of nesting Waldsteinia in Geum does not reflect the complex structure of the obtained clade. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the objectivity of previous division Waldsteinia on two subgenera, Waldsteinia and Comaropsis (Rich. ex Nestl.) Teppner, which was based on morphological differences, is becoming controversial. We also suggest an East Asian origin of Waldsteinia and subsequent speciation and taxa distribution in the direction of Europe and North America. W. ternate s.l. (traditionally including W. maximowicziana , W. ternata , and W. trifolia ) is appeared to be a polyphyletic group and at least W. maximowicziana should be considered a distinct species.
Article
The retroactive Art. 30.5 in the Vienna Code published in 2006 is discussed with respect to “internal evidence” for the intention of achieving effective publication. In the case of retroactive application of this article, the consideration of “external evidence” is also proposed.
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For Waldsteinia fragarioides (MICHAUX) TRATTINNICK subsp. fragarioides the ten chromosome counts known till now are reported; clones with 2n = 2x = 14, 2n = 3x = 21 and 2n = 6x = 42 do exist. For W. fragarioides subsp. doniana (TRATT.) TEPPNER comb, nova (2n = 14), W. lobata (BALDWIN in ELLIOTT) TORR. & GRAY (2n = 14), and W. idahoensis PIPER (2n = 4x = 28) the chromosome numbers are reported for the first time from one population each. The chromosome morphology is discussed in relation to the literature. The virtual "Waldsteinia pendula" from Puerto Rico of some U. S. websites is a mistake based on a read error for Wallenia pendula (URBAN) MEZ (Myrsinaceae).
Article
The retroactive Art. 30.5 in the Vienna Code published in 2006 is discussed with respect to “internal evidence“ for the intention of achieving effective publication. In the case of retroactive application of this article, the consideration of “external evidence“ is also proposed.
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