ArticlePDF Available

Abstract

Humans are closely coupled with their environments. They rely on being `embedded' to help coordinate the use of their internal cognitive resources with external tools and resources. Consequently, everyday cognition, even cognition in the absence of others, may be viewed as partially distributed. As cognitive scientists our job is to discover and explain the principles governing this distribution: principles of coordination, externalization, and interaction. As designers our job is to use these principles, especially if they can be converted to metrics, in order to invent and evaluate candidate designs. After discussing a few principles of interaction and embedding I discuss the usefulness of a range of metrics derived from economics, computational complexity, and psychology.
is is a contribution from Pragmatics & Cognition 14:2
© 2006. John Benjamins Publishing Company
is electronic le may not be altered in any way.
e author(s) of this article is/are permitted to use this PDF le to generate printed copies to
be used by way of oprints, for their personal use only.
Permission is granted by the publishers to post this le on a closed server which is accessible
to members (students and sta) only of the authors/s’ institute.
For any other use of this material prior written permission should be obtained from the
publishers or through the Copyright Clearance Center (for USA: www.copyright.com).
Please contact rights@benjamins.nl or consult our website: www.benjamins.com
Tables of Contents, abstracts and guidelines are available at www.benjamins.com
John Benjamins Publishing Company
Kirsh, D Distributed cognition: A methodological note In: Harnad, Stevan and Itiel
E. Dror (eds.). Distributed Cognition: Special issue of Pragmatics & Cognition
14:2, pp. 249–262, 2006.
1SBHNBUJDT$PHOJUJPOϚϝϛϛϙϙϟùûĀmùýù
ĢĬĬħϙϢϛϢmϙϢϙϠĞĢĬĬħϚϞϟϢmϢϢϝϜ¥+PIO#FOKBNJOT1VCMJTIJOH$PNQBOZ
%JTUSJCVUFEDPHOJUJPO
"NFUIPEPMPHJDBMOPUF
%BWJE,JSTI
6OJWFSTJUZPG$BMJGPSOJB4BO%JFHP
)VNBOTBSFDMPTFMZDPVQMFEXJUIUIFJSFOWJSPONFOUTѮFZSFMZPOCFJOH
AFNCFEEFEUPIFMQDPPSEJOBUFUIFVTFPGUIFJSJOUFSOBMDPHOJUJWFSFTPVSDFT
XJUIFYUFSOBMUPPMTBOESFTPVSDFT$POTFRVFOUMZFWFSZEBZDPHOJUJPOFWFO
DPHOJUJPOJOUIFBCTFODFPGPUIFSTNBZCFWJFXFEBTQBSUJBMMZEJTUSJCVUFE"T
DPHOJUJWFTDJFOUJTUTPVSKPCJTUPEJTDPWFSBOEFYQMBJOUIFQSJODJQMFTHPWFSO
JOHUIJTEJTUSJCVUJPOQSJODJQMFTPGDPPSEJOBUJPOFYUFSOBMJ[BUJPOBOEJOUFSBD
UJPO"TEFTJHOFSTPVSKPCJTUPVTFUIFTFQSJODJQMFTFTQFDJBMMZJGUIFZDBO
CFDPOWFSUFEUPNFUSJDTJOPSEFSUPJOWFOUBOEFWBMVBUFDBOEJEBUFEFTJHOT
"ѫFSEJTDVTTJOHBGFXQSJODJQMFTPGJOUFSBDUJPOBOEFNCFEEJOH*EJTDVTTUIF
VTFGVMOFTTPGBSBOHFPGNFUSJDTEFSJWFEGSPNFDPOPNJDTDPNQVUBUJPOBM
DPNQMFYJUZBOEQTZDIPMPHZ
,FZXPSETFQJTUFNJDBDUJPOTDPPSEJOBUJPOJOUFSBDUJPOEFTJHOUIFPSZ
FUIOPHSBQIZ
ø *OUSPEVDUJPO
1FPQMFJOUFSBDUXJUIBSUJGBDUTUFDIOPMPHJFTTVSGBDFTBOEPUIFSQFPQMFJOXBZT
UIBU PWFSXIFMN PVS DVSSFOU GPSNBMJTNT %ZOBNJDBM TZTUFNT UIFPSZ HBNF
UIFPSZ FDPOPNJD UIFPSZ UIF GPSNBM UIFPSZ PG EJTUSJCVUFE DPNQVUBUJPO BMM
GBMMTIPSUPGQSPWJEJOHTBUJTGZJOHFYQMBOBUJPOT'PSNBMJTNTCBTFEPOBCTUSBD
UJPOTTVDIBTUBTLFOWJSPONFOUTGBSFOPCFUUFSѮFZBSFLOPXOUPCFëBXFEJO
NBLJOHVOSFBTPOBCMFBTTVNQUJPOTBCPVUIPXSBUJPOBMQFPQMFBSFBCPVUIPX
UIFFOWJSPONFOUPGBDUJPODBOCFDIBSBDUFSJ[FEBTBêYFETFUPGDIPJDFQPJOUT
XJUIêYFEPQUJPOTFUTSBUIFSUIBOBQMBDFXIFSFQFPQMFEZOBNJDBMMZFOHBHFUIF
XPSMEJOUFSBDUJWFMZ-PPLBUBOZSFBMJTUJDFOWJSPONFOU PēDFTDBGÊTDPN
QVUFSAEFTLUPQTBMMUIFTFEFGZSFEVDUJPOUPMBZFSJOHTPSJOUFSTFDUJPOTPGUBTL
FOWJSPONFOUT)PXBSFXFUPQSPDFFEJOPVSTFBSDIGPSBTDJFOUJêDTUVEZ
¥+PIO#FOKBNJOT1VCMJTIJOH$PNQBOZ
"MMSJHIUTSFTFSWFE
ùü÷ %BWJE,JSTI
%FTQJUFUIFJNQPSUBODFPGUBLJOH B TZTUFNWJFXNZPXO BQQSPBDIJTUP
NPWFGSPNUIFJOEJWJEVBMUPUIFHSPVQ*GXFDBOVOEFSTUBOEIPXJOEJWJEVBM
QFPQMFFOHBHFUIFJS FOWJSPONFOUTIPX UIFZ BQQSPQSJBUFBSUJGBDUT IPXUIFZ
SFMZPONBUFSJBMBTQFDUTPGUIFJSBDUJWJUZTQBDFUPIFMQUIFNTUBZJODPOUSPMUP
NBOBHFUIPVHIUQFSDFQUJPOBOEDIPJDFUIFOQFSIBQTXFDBOCFHJOUPQVUUIFTF
JOEJWJEVBMTUPHFUIFSJOUPMBSHFSTPDJPUFDIOJDBMTZTUFNT*UJTOPUFBTZUPQSFEJDU
IPXJOEJWJEVBMCFIBWJPSDIBOHFTPODFQFPQMFBSFQVUUPHFUIFS$PPSEJOBUJOH
GPSDFTBUUIFTZTUFNMFWFMIFMQDPOTUSBJOJOEJWJEVBMTCVUJOUIFFOEQFPQMFTUJMM
BDUMPDBMMZ%JTUSJCVUFEDPHOJUJPOSFNBJOTBDIBMMFOHFQSFDJTFMZCFDBVTFJUJTTP
IBSEUPCBMBODFUIFSFBMJUZPGMPDBMDIPJDFXJUITZTUFNDPOTUSBJOU8FOFFECFU
UFSUIFPSJFTPGIPXQFPQMFBSFFNCFEEFEJOUIFXPSMEBTXFMMBTCFUUFSUIFPSJFT
PGIPXUIFXPSMEBOEUIFMBSHFSTZTUFNTXFBSFQBSUPGDPPSEJOBUFBDUJPO
ѮFGPMMPXJOHTJYBTTVNQUJPOTIBWFHVJEFENZPXOSFTFBSDIJOMPPLJOHGPS
QSJODJQMFTPGJOUFSBDUJPOUIBUNJHIUêUUIJTCPUUPNVQUPQEPXONPEFM
 8FBDUMPDBMMZBOEBSFDMPTFMZDPVQMFEUPPVSMPDBMFOWJSPONFOUT
 8FFYUFSOBMJ[FUIPVHIUBOEJOUFOUJPOUPIBSOFTTFYUFSOBMTPVSDFTPGDPHOJ
UJWFQPXFS
 &DPOPNJDNFUSJDTIBWFBQMBDFJOFWBMVBUJOHEJTUSJCVUFETZTUFNTCVUUIFZ
NVTUCFDPNQMFNFOUFEXJUITUVEJFTPGDPNQVUBUJPOBMDPNQMFYJUZEFTDSJQ
UJWFDPNQMFYJUZBOEOFXNFUSJDTZFUUPCFEFêOFE
 ѮFCFTU NFUSJDT BQQMZBU NBOZ MFWFMTPG BOBMZTJT GSPNUIF TZTUFN MFWFM
XIFSFPVSDPODFSOJTXJUIUIFHPPEOFTTPGBTZTUFNTEFTJHOUPUIFMFWFMPG
JOEJWJEVBMBSUJGBDUTXIFSFPVSDPODFSOJTXJUIUIFHPPEOFTTPGUIFEFTJHO
PGUIFBSUJGBDUTJOEJWJEVBMTJOUFSBDUXJUI
 $PPSEJOBUJPOJTUIFHMVFPGEJTUSJCVUFEDPHOJUJPOBOEJUPDDVSTBUBMMMFWFMT
PGBOBMZTJT
 )JTUPSZNBUUFST
.ZPCKFDUJWFJOUIJTOPUFJTUPJOUSPEVDFFBDIJEFBJOBQFSTPOBMXBZBTBOPQ
QPSUVOJUZUPPQFOBEJBMPHVFXJUIEFTJHOFSTJOUFSFTUFEJOTIBQJOHJOUFSBDUJWJUZ
XIJDIJTPOFPGUIFUPQJDTPGUIJTTQFDJBMJTTVF
ù $MPTFMZDPVQMFE
-FU VT TBZ UIBU UXP FOUJUJFT BSF DMPTFMZ DPVQMFE JG UIFZ SFDJQSPDBMMZ JOUFSBDU
DIBOHFTJOPOFDBVTFDIBOHFTJOUIFPUIFSBOEUIFQSPDFTTHPFTCBDLBOEGPSUI
JOTVDIBXBZUIBUXFDBOOPUFYQMBJOUIFTUBUFUSBKFDUPSZPGUIFPOFXJUIPVUMPPL
JOHBUUIFTUBUFUSBKFDUPSZPGUIFPUIFS8IFOBQFSTPOXSJUFTPOQBQFSUIFUXP
¥+PIO#FOKBNJOT1VCMJTIJOH$PNQBOZ
"MMSJHIUTSFTFSWFE
%JTUSJCVUFEDPHOJUJPO"NFUIPEPMPHJDBMOPUF ùüø
GPSNBSFDJQSPDBMTZTUFNѮFQFSTPODBVTFTQBQFSDIBOHFTQBQFSDIBOHFTQBS
UJBMMZDBVTFQFSTPODIBOHFTѮJTSFDJQSPDBMJOUFSBDUJPOBMMPXTUIFQFSTPOUPêOE
FYQSFTTJPOTUPSFQSFTFOUBOEFYQMPSFJEFBTVTJOHUIFQFSTJTUFOUTUBUFPGUIFQBQFS
UIBUXPVMEPUIFSXJTFCFJNQPTTJCMFѮFSFJTBEZOBNJDCFUXFFOUIFUXP
0OF PG NZ êSTU BQQSFDJBUJPOT PG UIF QSBDUJDBM WBMVF PG TFFJOH DPHOJUJPO
BTEJTUSJCVUFEUIFPVUDPNFPGBDMPTFDPVQMJOHXJUIFYUFSOBMQSPDFTTFTDBNF
GSPNTUVEZJOH5FUSJTTFF'JHVSF*OXPSLPO5FUSJT1BVM.BHMJPBOE*GPVOE
UIBUQMBZFSTIBE UP CFDMPTFMZDPVQMFEUPUIFHBNFJOCPUIBO FQJTUFNJDBOE
QSBHNBUJDXBZUPQMBZXFMM,JSTIBOE.BHMJP
ѮFQSBHNBUJDTJEFPGDPVQMJOHJTVODPOUFOUJPVT*OWJEFP HBNFT XIFSF
XIBUIBQQFOTOFYUEFQFOETTVCTUBOUJBMMZPOXIBUBQMBZFSEPFTBNPNFOUCF
GPSFJOUFSBDUJPOJTJOUFOTFIJHIGSFRVFODZBOEUIFUXPQMBZFSBOEHBNFBSF
DMPTFMZDPVQMFEѮFZ GPSN BEJTUSJCVUFE TZTUFN XIPTFUSBKFDUPSZ DBOOPUCF
VOEFSTUPPEXJUIPVUFYQMBJOJOHUIFSPMFFBDIQMBZTJOESJWJOHUIFOFYUTUBUF
*O5FUSJTIPXFWFSXFGPVOEUIBUJUXBTOPUQPTTJCMFUPVOEFSTUBOEUIFBD
UJPOTQMBZFSTUPPLJGXFMPPLFEKVTUBUUIFJSQSBHNBUJDHPBMT JO QMBZJOHѮFZ
TFFNFEUPCFDPVQMFEUPUIFTZTUFNFQJTUFNJDBMMZUPPPѫFOQFSGPSNJOHBDUJPOT
OPU GPS QSBHNBUJD BEWBOUBHF CVU SBUIFS GPS FQJTUFNJD SFBTPOT 'PS JOTUBODF
HJWFOBDIPJDFCFUXFFOQFSGPSNJOHBNFOUBMBDUJPOPGSPUBUJOHBNFOUBM5FUSJT
QJFDFPSBQIZTJDBMBDUJPOPGSPUBUJOHBQIZTJDBM5FUSJTQJFDFUIFZPѫFODIPTFUIF
QIZTJDBMBDUJPOѮFOFUFQJTUFNJDFĒFDUPGLOPXJOHXIBUBQJFDFXPVMEMPPL
'JHVSF *O5FUSJTUIFHPBMPGQMBZJTUPSFMFOUMFTTMZêMMHBQTPOUIFCPUUPNMBZFSTTP
BTUPDPNQMFUFSPXTѮFHBNFFOETXIFOUIFCPBSEDMPHTVQBOEOPNPSFQJFDFT
DBOFOUFS#FDBVTFUIFSFBSFNJSSPSQJFDFTBOEUIFDIPJDFPGXIFSFUPQMBDFBQJFDFJT
TUSBUFHJD5FUSJTQMBZFSTOFFENBOZIPVSTPGQSBDUJDFUPCFDPNFFYQFSU8FGPVOEUIBU
QMBZFSTPѫFOSPUBUFQJFDFTUPTQFFEVQUIFJSJEFOUJêDBUJPOQSPDFTTFTQFDJBMMZBNPOH
QJFDFTXJUINJSSPSDPVOUFSQBSUT
¥+PIO#FOKBNJOT1VCMJTIJOH$PNQBOZ
"MMSJHIUTSFTFSWFE
ùüù %BWJE,JSTI
MJLFSPUBUFEPS  XPVMECF UIF TBNF#VUQIZTJDBMSPUBUJPOXBTGBTUFS
UIBONFOUBMSPUBUJPOTPUIFTBNFFQJTUFNJDTUBUFDPVMECFSFBDIFEGBTUFSJGEPOF
QIZTJDBMMZ1IZTJDBMSPUBUJPOXPVMEIBWFCFFOQPJOUMFTTJGJUXFSFOPUDPVQMFETP
DMPTFMZJOUJNFXJUIUIJOLJOH
0VSBOBMZTJTMFUVT TBZ UIBU UIFTFAFYUSBNPWFTQBJEFOPVHIJO FQJTUFNJD
CFOFêUT UP DPWFS UIFJS QSBHNBUJD DPTUT *O 5FUSJT XF XFSF BCMF UP VTF TQFFE
BDDVSBDZPGKVEHNFOUTBOEUIFJNQBDUPGUIPTFKVEHNFOUTPOHBNFTDPSFUP
EFWFMPQBNFUSJDGPSFWBMVBUJPOѮVTCFOFêUTNFBTVSFEJOUFSNTPGJODSFBTFE
TQFFEPG QJFDF SFDPHOJUJPOJNQSPWFEDIPJDF PG QMBDFNFOUMPDBUJPOBOEJN
QSPWFEDPOUSPMBOEWJTVBMKVEHNFOUNPSFUIBOPVUXFJHIFEDPTUTNFBTVSFEBT
UIFOVNCFSPGTUFQTPĒUIFNPTUEJSFDUQBUIBOEUIFUJNFUPSFDPWFS
5PNBSLUIJTEJTUJODUJPOJOUIFSPMFPGBDUJPOTXFDBMMFEJOUFOUJPOBMNPWF
NFOUTUBLFOUPCSJOHBTVCKFDUQIZTJDBMMZDMPTFSUPJUTFYUFSOBMHPBMTQSBHNBUJD
BDUJPOTBOEUIPTFJOUFOEFEUPTJNQMJGZDPNQVUBUJPOSFEVDFFSSPSPSJODSFBTF
QSFDJTJPOFQJTUFNJDBDUJPOTѮFEJTUJODUJPOXBTOPUIBSEBOEGBTU$FSUBJOQSBH
NBUJDBDUJPOTDPVMEBMTPTFSWFFQJTUFNJDFOET"OEFQJTUFNJDBDUJPOTDPVMECF
TFFOBTQSBHNBUJDXJUISFTQFDUUPBEWBODJOHFQJTUFNJDFOETXIFOUIFTFXFSF
UIFFYUFSOBMHPBM#VUUIFQPJOUXBTUIBUJUJTOPUBMXBZTPCWJPVTXIZTPNFPOF
EPFTTPNFUIJOH8FNBZUIJOLUIFZBSFWFSZHPBMEJSFDUFEJOBTJNQMFTFOTF
#VUXJUIPVUBCFUUFSUIFPSZPGFYBDUMZXIBUJTHPJOHPOJOUIFJSIFBEBOEUIFJS
XPSMEXFNJHIUFBTJMZBQQSPBDIBUBTLBOENJTDIBSBDUFSJ[FUIFBDUJPOTCFJOH
UBLFO"DUJPOTNJHIUCFFJUIFSQSBHNBUJDPSFQJTUFNJDѮFSFGPSFUIFNFUSJDUP
FWBMVBUFBDUJPO TUSBUFHJFTBSUJGBDUT BOE UFDIOPMPHJFTNBZIBWFUP IBWFQSBH
NBUJDBOEFQJTUFNJDDPNQPOFOUTBOECFDPNQMFUFMZOPOBQQBSFOU
&QJTUFNJDBDUJPOTBSFFWFSZXIFSF4PNF BSF DPOOFDUFE XJUI VODPWFSJOH
JOGPSNBUJPO8FNPWF PVS IBOETDMPTFUPTPNFUIJOH IPU CFGPSFHSBTQJOHJU
*OXPPEXPSLJOHUIFBEBHFJTNFBTVSFUXJDFDVUPODF4PNFFQJTUFNJDBDUJPOT
DPNQFOTBUFGPSTFOTPSZMJNJUBUJPOT"USJDLNPTUPGVTMFBSOFEBTLJETXBTUP
TRVJOUPVSFZFTPSNBLFBMJUUMFIPMFXJUIPVSêOHFSTUPMPPLUISPVHIJOPSEFS
UPTFFEJTUBOUJUFNTNPSFDMFBSMZ0UIFSTBSFJOUFSBDUJWFTUSBUFHJFTGPSFYUFSOBM
J[JOH4BZTPNFUIJOHRVJFUMZPVUMPVEUPNBLFTVSFJUJTDPNJOHPVUSJHIUUIJT
TFSWFTUPDPOêSN4PNFTFSWFBT SFNJOEFSTѮPVHIUGVMMZQMBDF POFTLFZTJO
GSPOUPGUIFEPPSPSJOPOFTTIPFTUPTBWFSFMZJOHPOQSPTQFDUJWFNFNPSZBMPOF
ѮFSFBSFNBOZPUIFSGPSNTPGFQJTUFNJDBDUJPOT"MMIBWFQFSTPOBMQBZPĒTBOE
EFQFOEPOJOUFSBDUJPOXJUIUIFFOWJSPONFOU
ѮFXBZUPEJTDPWFSFQJTUFNJDBDUJPOTBTXJUINPTUDMPTFJOUFSBDUJPOTBD
UJPOT JT UP SFDPSE BDUJWJUZ CZ WJEFP PS DPNQVUFSBOE UIFO FUIOPHSBQIJDBMMZ
BOBMZ[FJU8FEJEUIJTXJUI5FUSJTBOEXFBMTPEBUBNJOFEPVSSFDPSETPGBHFOU
FOWJSPONFOUBDUJWJUZ#VUJODPOUFYUTXIFSFUIFSFJTOPQSFEFUFSNJOFENFUSJD
¥+PIO#FOKBNJOT1VCMJTIJOH$PNQBOZ
"MMSJHIUTSFTFSWFE
%JTUSJCVUFEDPHOJUJPO"NFUIPEPMPHJDBMOPUF ùüú
JO BDUJWJUJFTPUIFS UIBO QMBZJOHWJEFPHBNFT GPS JOTUBODF JU JT IBSEUP
NFBTVSFDPHOJUJWFBOEQIZTJDBMDPTUTBOECFOFêUT
ú $PTUTUSVDUVSF
.ZPXOFĒPSUTUPEFWFMPQNFUSJDTGPSFWBMVBUJOHUIFDPTUTBOECFOFêUTPGBD
UJPOTSFTPVSDFTBOEFOWJSPONFOUTESBXPOJEFBTGSPNDPNQMFYJUZUIFPSZBOE
FDPOPNJDT$POTJEFSFDPOPNJDNFBTVSFTêSTU
*OSFDFOUFUIOPHSBQIJDXPSL BU BMPDBM DBGÊ* XJMMDBMM +PMUT* IBWF CFFO
TUVEZJOHUIFTVCTZTUFNGPSUBLJOHDVTUPNFSPSEFSTBOEDPNNVOJDBUJOHUIFN
UPUIFCBSJTUBTXIPNBLFUIFESJOLT5PEFWFMPQNFUSJDT*UIPVHIUJUXPVMECF
IFMQGVMUPDPOUSBTUUIFNFUIPEBU+PMUTXJUIUIFNFUIPEBUBOPUIFSDBGÊXIJDI*
XJMMDBMM#VDLT#VDLTTUJMMSFMJFTPOBQBQFSDVQUIBUJTTVQQPTFEUPCFXSJUUFO
PO+PMUTVTFTBO*#.PSEFSJOHTZTUFNXJUIBOPWFSIFBENPOJUPSEJTQMBZJOH
UIFRVFVFPG PSEFST#PUIBSFFYDFMMFOUNFDIBOJTNTGPSDPPSEJOBUJOHBDPN
QMFYTZTUFNPGQBSUTBOEQSPDFTTFTCVUFBDIIBTTUSFOHUITBOEXFBLOFTTFTѮF
HPBMPGUIF TUVEZ XBT UPEFWFMPQPCKFDUJWFXBZTPG NFBTVSJOH TPNF PGUIFTF
TUSFOHUITBOEXFBLOFTTFT
*DPOTJEFSFE TJY NFUSJDT TQFFEBDDVSBDZFSSPS UZQF WT GSFRVFODZFSSPS
SFDPWFSZ SBUF WBSJBODF MFBSOBCJMJUZ BOE ESJOL DPNQMFYJUZ 4FF 'JHVSFT 
BOE
B      C
'JHVSFB"TQFFEBDDVSBDZHSBQITIPXTUIFBWFSBHFUJNFJUUBLFTTLJMMFEVTFSTUP
QMBDFBOPSEFSWTUIFQSPCBCJMJUZUIBUUIFJSFOUSZJTXSPOH"TVTFSTHFUCFUUFSBUUIFJS
KPCXFBTTVNFUIBUUIFZSFBDIBNBYJNVNMFWFMPGQFSGPSNBODFUIBUJTDMPTFUPTPNF
JEFBMMFWFMHJWFOUIFUFDIOPMPHZBSUJGBDUTBOEQSPDFEVSFTUIFZBSFPQFSBUJOHXJUI"
CFUUFSUFDIOPTPDJBMTZTUFNPVHIUUPUSBOTMBUFJOUPCFUUFSTQFFEBDDVSBDZDVSWFT
C#FDBVTFFSSPSTDPNFJOEJĒFSFOUëBWPSTXJUIEJĒFSFOUDPOTFRVFODFTUIFZOFFEUP
CFDBUFHPSJ[FEBTTFTTFEGPSGSFRVFODZBOEUIFJSQSPCBCMFJNQBDUFWBMVBUFE
¥+PIO#FOKBNJOT1VCMJTIJOH$PNQBOZ
"MMSJHIUTSFTFSWFE
ùüû %BWJE,JSTI
"OZPOFJOUFSFTUFEJOUIFFWPMVUJPOBOETQSFBEPGSPVUJOFTJODBGÊTPSPUIFS
PSHBOJ[BUJPOTXPVMEEPXFMMUPDPNQBSFSPVUJOFTVTJOHHSBQITBOENFBTVSFT
BTJO'JHVSFTBOE#VUUIFSFBSFBGFXUIJOHTUPBQQSFDJBUFBCPVUUIFTFTPSUT
PGFDPOPNJDBOBMZTFT
'JSTUFBDIHSBQINFBTVSFTBEJĒFSFOUQBSBNFUFSѮJTSBJTFTUIFRVFTUJPO
IPXEPXFEFDJEFJGJUJTHPPEUPJOUSPEVDFBOBSUJGBDUUIBUJNQSPWFTTQFFEBD
DVSBDZCVUJTXPSTFVOEFSTPNFPUIFSNFBTVSFTTVDIBTCFJOHIBSEFSUPMFBSO 
B      C
'JHVSFB"OBUVSBMXBZUPNFBTVSFUIFWBMVFPGUIFSFTJMJFODFPGBTZTUFNJTUPPC
TFSWFUIFUJNFJUUBLFTUIFTZTUFNUPSFDPWFSGSPNBOFSSPSBOJOUFSSVQUJPOPSBOFSSPS
JOQSPDFTTBOEVTFUIBUNFBTVSFUPDPNQBSFUFDIOPTPDJBMTZTUFNT
C"UNPEFSODBGÊTESJOLDPNQMFYJUZIBTSJTFOESBNBUJDBMMZ"OFYDFMMFOUUFDIOPM
PHZTVDIBTUIF#VDLTDVQOFFEOPUJODSFBTFQSPEVDUJPOTQFFEJGJUQFSNJUTTUBĒUP
QSPEVDFESJOLTPGHSFBUFSDPNQMFYJUZJOBDDFQUBCMFUJNFBOERVBMJUZ
B      C
'JHVSFB"CBTJDBUUSJCVUFPGBHPPEEFTJHOJTUIBUJUSFEVDFTUIFWBSJBODFPGPVUQVU
ѮFIPMZHSBJMPGRVBMJUZDPOUSPMJTVOJGPSNJUZ
C#PUI+PMUTBOE#VDLTIBWFSFMBUJWFMZIJHIUVSOPWFSJOTUBĒ0UIFSUIJOHTCFJOH
FRVBMPOFTZTUFNJTCFUUFSUIBOBOPUIFSJGOFXTUBĒDBONPSFRVJDLMZMFBSOUIFPSEFS
JOHBOEFTQSFTTPNBLJOHTZTUFNSFBDIJOHUIFTBNFQFSGPSNBODFMFWFMTPPOFS
¥+PIO#FOKBNJOT1VCMJTIJOH$PNQBOZ
"MMSJHIUTSFTFSWFE
%JTUSJCVUFEDPHOJUJPO"NFUIPEPMPHJDBMOPUF ùüü
*GUIFSFJTOPJOEFQFOEFOUNFBTVSFPGWBMVFGPSDPNQBSJOHUIFSFMBUJWFHPPE
OFTTPGEJĒFSFOUQBSBNFUFST UIFO XF NVTUSFMZ PO B 1BSFUPTUZMF BTTFTTNFOU
XIFSFBMMUIBUDBOCF TBJE JT &OW JT CFUUFSUIBO&OWPOMZ JG &OWJT BUMFBTU
BTHPPEBT&OWJOFWFSZQBSBNFUFSBOECFUUFSJOBUMFBTUPOFѮJTIBSEMZBE
ESFTTFTUIFSFBMJUZPGUSBEFPĒTJOEFTJHO
4FDPOEUIFTF TPSU PGRVBOUJUBUJWFBCTUSBDUJPOT EPOUFYQMBJO XIZ&OWJT
CFUUFS8FIBWFOPNFDIBOJTNѮVTJOTBZJOHUIBUUIF#VDLTDVQZJFMETBCFU
UFSTQFFEBDDVSBDZBOEFSSPSSFDPWFSZSBUFUIBOUIF+PMUTNPOJUPSTZTUFNXF
IBWFOPUTBJEXIBUBCPVUUIFDVQBOENPOJUPSTZTUFNNBLFJUTP'PSUIBUXF
OFFEBNJDSPBOBMZTJTPGUIFUZQFEJTUSJCVUFEDPHOJUJPOIBTCFDPNFXFMMLOPXO
GPSTFF GPS FYBNQMF)VUDIJOT #VUFUIOPHSBQIJD TUVEJFT UFOE OPUUP
MFBEUPHFOFSBMJ[BUJPOTBCPVUNFDIBOJTNTXIJDITFFNTOFDFTTBSZGPSBTDJ
FODFPGEFTJHO
ѮJSEUIFTUSFOHUIPSXFBLOFTTPGBUFDIOPMPHZXJMMOPUCFBQQBSFOUVOMFTT
XFBMTPJODMVEFBDBSFGVMBDDPVOUPGXIBU7JDFOUFIBTDBMMFEJUTAIVNBO
UFDIOPMPHZ"OFYBNQMFPGIVNBOUFDIOPMPHZJTUIFQSPUPDPMSFRVJSFEXIFO
UBLJOHBOPSEFS*O+PMUTBTJO#VDLTDBTIJFSTBSFSFRVJSFEUPSFQFBUUIFESJOL
TQFDJêDBUJPOUPUIFDVTUPNFSѮJTSFDSVJUTUIFDVTUPNFSTIFMQJOWFSJGZJOHUIF
FOUSZBOEIBTBTBTJEFFĒFDUUIBUBOBMFSUCBSJTUBJGOFBSCZDBOBOUJDJQBUFUIF
ESJOLѮJTGPSNBMQSBDUJDFSFEVDFTFSSPS#VUQSBDUJDFJTBDPNQMFYQIFOPN
FOPOJOJUTFMG.FUSJDTUIBUBSFVTFEUPNFBTVSFIPXHPPEBUFDIOPMPHZJTMFBWF
VOFYQMBJOFEUIFJOUFSEFQFOEFODFPGUFDIOPMPHZBOEQSBDUJDF1FSGPSNBODFJT
BTTVNFEUPWBSZXJUITLJMMPSMFBSOBCJMJUZCVUOPUIJOHJTTBJEBCPVUUIFOBUVSF
PGUIJTTLJMM
5PRVBOUJGZQSBDUJDFT*IBWFUSJFEBUUJNFTUPBQQSPBDIUIFNBTDPNQVUB
UJPOBMTZTUFNTSPVUJOFTSFBMMZUIBUJOWPMWFQSPDFEVSFTNFNPSZDPOUSPM
PGBUUFOUJPOTLJMMBOESFBTPOJOH*GBQSBDUJDFDBOCFJOUFSQSFUFEDPNQVUBUJPO
BMMZUIFO XFDBONFBTVSFJUTDPNQMFYJUZ)PXGBTUEPNFNPSZSFRVJSFNFOUT
UIFOVNCFSPGTUFQTJOWPMWFEBOEUIFOVNCFSPGJUFNTUPNPOJUPSSJTFBTUIF
TJ[FPGUIFUBTLJTJODSFBTFE )PXEPDBTIJFSTDPQFXJUIWFSZMBSHFPSEFSTPS
XJUIUXPQFPQMFPSEFSJOHBUPODFPSXJUIPOFQFSTPOHJWJOHUXPPSEFST 8IBU
JTUIFDPNQMFYJUZPG UIF NPNFOUBSZ DPNQVUBUJPOBMQSPCMFNTUIFZ GBDF  $BO
UIFZSFEVDFUIFTFQSPCMFNTCZEPJOHUIJOHTMJLFNBLJOHBOOPUBUJPOTBTUIFZ
XPSLCZMBZJOHPVUQIZTJDBMPCKFDUTUP FODPEF IJOUTPSDVFT %PUIFZIBWFB
XBZPGUBMLJOHUPDMJFOUTUIBUMFUTUIFNFOUFSBOPSEFSJOBTUFQCZTUFQNBOOFS
TPUIBUUIFZEPOUIBWFUPSFNFNCFSBTNVDIBUFBDINPNFOUPSTPUIBUUIFZ
BSFMFTTMJLFMZUPNBLFBOFSSPSXIJMFEVBMUBTLJOH
*VOEFSUPPLBWBSJFUZPGUIFTFTNBMMDPNQVUBUJPOBMBOBMZTFT,JSTI
4FF'JHVSFGPSBOPUIFSFYBNQMFPGIPXXFDBONFBTVSFUIFFĒFDUPG
¥+PIO#FOKBNJOT1VCMJTIJOH$PNQBOZ
"MMSJHIUTSFTFSWFE
ùüý %BWJE,JSTI
TJNQMFFOWJSPONFOUBMNBOJQVMBUJPOTPO UIFDPNQMFYJUZPG B UBTL 5BTLTDBO
CFJOWFOUJWFMZDIBOHFEUPDIBOHFUIFJSDPNQMFYJUZQSPêMFѮFRVFTUJPOJTEP
QBSUJDJQBOUTSFTIBQFUIFJSUBTLTBOEFOWJSPONFOUTUIJTXBZ "UUIJTQPJOUFUI
OPHSBQIZCFDPNFTJOEJTQFOTBCMF0GUIFNBOZUIJOHTUIBUQBSUJDJQBOUTNJHIU
EPUPTBWFDPHOJUJWFFĒPSUXIJDIBSFUIFPOFTUIFZBDUVBMMZEPBOEXIZ 'PS
JOTUBODFJG B DPNQVUBUJPOBMBOBMZTJTTVHHFTUTUIBUBHJWFOQSBDUJDF TIPVMECF
EJēDVMUUPNBTUFSBOEJGFUIOPHSBQIZTIPXTUIBUJUJTOPOFUIFMFTTQSFWBMFOU
UIFOXFOPXIBWFBTQFDJêDRVFTUJPOUPBTLXIBUJTJUBCPVUUIFXBZQFPQMFVTF
UIFJSSFTPVSDFTUIBUNBLFTUIJTQSPCMFNFBTJFSUIBOXFBTTVNFE 0SJTJUEPOF
GPSIJTUPSJDBMSFBTPOTCFDBVTFJUJTUIFXBZQFPQMFBMXBZTIBWF
û $PHOJUJWFFēDJFODZPGEFTJHO
.ZBSHVNFOUTPGBSIBTCFFOUIBUBMUIPVHIFDPOPNJDNFUSJDTBSFIFMQGVMBOE
OFDFTTBSZUPBOBMZ[FUFDIOPTPDJBMTZTUFNTJUJTOFDFTTBSZUPPCTFSWFUIFXBZ
QFPQMFEP UIJOHTJO FWFSNPSF EFUBJM BOE UJF UIFTF BDUJPOTUP DPHOJUJPO BOE
DPNQVUBUJPOBMBOBMZTFTUPHFUBUUIFNFDIBOJTNTPGEJTUSJCVUFEDPHOJUJPOѮF
TBNFUZQFPGBOBMZTFTDBOCFVTFEUPCFHJOUPNFBTVSFBOEFYQMBJOUIFFĒFD
UJWFOFTTBOEFēDJFODZPGBOBSUJGBDUTEFTJHO
'JHVSF+VTUDIBOHJOHUIFTJ[FPGUIFNBUPOXIJDIBQSPCMFNIBTUPCFTPMWFEDBO
DIBOHFJUTDPNQMFYJUZ*OUIJTDBTFUIFCMPDLTNVTUCFBSSBOHFETPUIBUUIFGPMMPXJOH
DPOTUSBJOUJTNFU:UPVDIFT(:UPVDIFT:3UPVDIFT(4PMWJOHUIJTQSPCMFNPO
BTNBMMNBUSFTUSJDUTUIFTPMVUJPOUPUIFUXPUPXFSTTIPXO8PSLJOHPOBMBSHFNBU
IPXFWFSJODSFBTFTUIFTPMVUJPOTQBDFCFDBVTFOPXUIFSFBSFUXPEJNFOTJPOTBMPOH
XIJDIUIFDPOTUSBJOUTDBOCFNFU
¥+PIO#FOKBNJOT1VCMJTIJOH$PNQBOZ
"MMSJHIUTSFTFSWFE
%JTUSJCVUFEDPHOJUJPO"NFUIPEPMPHJDBMOPUF ùüþ
5P EFWFMPQ EFFQFS JOUVJUJPOT BCPVU UIF FĒFDUJWFOFTT BOE DPHOJUJWF Fē
DJFODZPGEFTJHOTJOQBSUJDVMBSWJTVBMEFTJHOTFYBNJOFUIFGPMMPXJOHUXP
êHVSFT8IZJT'JHVSFCFUUFSUIBO'JHVSF
5PBOTXFSUIJTTPSUPGRVFTUJPOXFOFFEUPEFWFMPQDPHOJUJWFMZNPUJWBUFE
QSJODJQMFTPGEFTJHO8IBUESJWFTUIFXBZQFPQMFJOUFSBDUXJUIBSUJGBDUT *O'JH
VSFTBOEUIFQPJOUPGUIFBSUJGBDUJTUPTUSVDUVSFBOEQSFTFOUGPSDFEDIPJDFT
"OZEFTJHOUIBU NBLFT UIFTUSVDUVSF BOE TFU PG DIPJDFTFBTJFSUP BQQSFDJBUF
NPSFWJTJCMFJTB CFUUFS EFTJHOѮF WJTJCJMJUZ QSJODJQMF BU QMBZ IFSFJTA8IBU
HPFTUPHFUIFSTFNBOUJDBMMZTIPVMEHPUPHFUIFSWJTVBMMZ
*O'JHVSFUIFTQBDFCFUXFFODIPJDFTMBCFMTBOEDBUFHPSJFTJTTPBEIPD
UIBUJUJTOPUFBTZUPTDBOUIFêHVSFBOERVJDLMZTBZXJUIPVUMPPLJOHBUUIFMBCFMT
XIBUHSPVQPGSBEJPCVUUPOTPOFJTDIPPTJOHCFUXFFOѮFSFJTOPDMVTUFSJOH
OP VTF PG (FTUBMU QSJODJQMFT PG HSPVQJOH UP SFëFDU JO UIF MBZPVU UIF PQUJPOT
XIJDICFMPOHUPHFUIFS*UJTUSVFUIBUBMJHONFOUJTVTFEUPJOEJDBUFBDPOOFD
UJPOCFUXFFODBUFHPSZFH'BNJMZBOEPQUJPOTFH$PVSJFS#VUJGXFUBLF
BTNFBTVSFT PG FēDJFODZUIF UJNFJU UBLFT UPTDBO UIJTJNBHF BOE GPSNVMBUF
BTJNQMFQMBOUIF UJNF JU UBLFT UP EFUFSNJOFJG POFIBTDPNQMFUFEUIFFOUJSF
GPSNBOEUIFUJNFJUUBLFTUPEFDJEFIPXNVDIJTMFѫUPCFEPOFBMMXJMMTIPX
UIBU'JHVSFJTMFTTFēDJFOUUIBO'JHVSF
*G XF XFSF UP HJWF NFUSJDT GPS DPNQBSJOH UXP EFTJHOT UIFZ XPVME MPPL
NVDIMJLFPVS FDPOPNJD NFBTVSFT 'PSFYBNQMFTJODF TVCKFDUTNVTU EFDJEF
JGUIFZIBWFDPNQMFUFEUIFJSUBTLXFDBODSFBUFBTJNQMFEFDJTJPOUBTLBOEFY
QFSJNFOUBMMZDPNQBSFUIFTQFFEBDDVSBDZ DVSWFTGPS'JHVSFT WT  8F DBO
NFBTVSFXIBUUZQFTPGFSSPSTBSFNBEFBOEIPXGSFRVFOUMZ 4JNJMBSMZXFDBO
'JHVSF)FSFJTBEJBMPHVFCPYGPSTFUUJOHUIFUFYUQSPQFSUJFTPGBTUZMFJOBXPSE
QSPDFTTPSMJLF.48PSEJOUIFTBOEUIFEBZTPG.JDSPTPѫ%04
¥+PIO#FOKBNJOT1VCMJTIJOH$PNQBOZ
"MMSJHIUTSFTFSWFE
ùüÿ %BWJE,JSTI
FYQMPSFDPHOJUJWFDPTUTUISPVHIDPNQVUBUJPOBMBOBMZTJTTVQQPTFUIFQSPCMFN
XFSFJODSFBTFEJOTJ[FNPSFQBSBNFUFSTUPTFU"SFUIFSFNPSFFēDJFOUBMHP
SJUINTBWBJMBCMFGPSPOFPGUIFMBZPVUTUIBOUIFPUIFS
ü $PPSEJOBUJPO
ѮFTUVEZPGEJTUSJCVUFEDPHOJUJPOJTWFSZTVCTUBOUJBMMZUIFTUVEZPGUIFWBSJFUZ
BOETVCUMFUZPGDPPSEJOBUJPO0OFLFZRVFTUJPOXIJDI UIF UIFPSZPG EJTUSJC
VUFEDPHOJUJPOFOEFBWPSTUPBOTXFSJTIPXUIFFMFNFOUTBOE DPNQPOFOUTJO
BEJTUSJCVUFETZTUFNQFPQMFUPPMTGPSNTFRVJQNFOUNBQTBOE MFTTPCWJ
PVTSFTPVSDFTDBOCF DPPSEJOBUFEXFMM FOPVHI UPBMMPXUIF TZTUFN UP BD
DPNQMJTIJUTUBTLT&WFODPPSEJOBUJOHNFDIBOJTNTBTTJNQMFBTDMPDLTPSQBQFS
DMJQTDBONBLFUIFEJĒFSFODFCFUXFFOBTVDDFTTGVMTZTUFNBOEBOVOTVDDFTTGVM
POF$MFBSMZXFXPVMEMJLFNFUIPETBOENFBTVSFTGPSTZTUFNBUJDBMMZFYQMPSJOH
DPPSEJOBUJPO
1BSUPGNZPXOQMFBTVSFJOTUVEZJOHIVNBOTDPNFTGSPNEJTDPWFSJOHUIF
SFNBSLBCMZEJWFSTFXBZTXFDPPSEJOBUFBDUJWJUZ4PGBS*IBWFCSJFëZNFOUJPOFE
IPXJOEJWJEVBMTDPPSEJOBUFEJĒFSFOUQBSUTPGDPHOJUJPOCZFYQMPJUJOHUIFFO
WJSPONFOU1FPQMFNBOJQVMBUFMPDBM DPOEJUJPOTUPTUBZJODPOUSPMUPQFSGPSN
GBTUFSBOENPSFFĒFDUJWFMZѮFZBOOPUBUFUPDVFSFTQPOTFBOESFEVDFQSPTQFD
UJWFNFNPSZUIFZMJOFVQJUFNTUPNBLFUIFNFBTJFSUPTDBOUPOPUJDFPVUMJFST
BOETPPO
'JHVSFѮFTBNFMBCFMTIBWFOPXCFFOEJTUSJCVUFENPSFFĒFDUJWFMZVTJOHCPSEFST
BOEQPTJUJPOJOHUPTJNQMJGZUIFQFSDFQUJPOPGHSPVQTѮFTQFFEBDDVSBDZNFBTVSFTPG
QFSGPSNBODFPOUIJTMBZPVUUSVNQUIPTFPG'JHVSF
¥+PIO#FOKBNJOT1VCMJTIJOH$PNQBOZ
"MMSJHIUTSFTFSWFE
%JTUSJCVUFEDPHOJUJPO"NFUIPEPMPHJDBMOPUF ùüĀ
ѮFTFTBNFTPSUTPGQSJODJQMFTBSFFYQMPJUFECZHPPEEFTJHOFSTXIFOUIFZ
NBLFBSUJGBDUT UIBU NBLFPVSMJGF FBTJFS#VUBMM UIFTFFYBNQMFTPGDPPSEJOB
UJPO BSF MPDBM UIFZ BĒFDU MPDBM DIPJDF *O EJTUSJCVUFETZTUFNT UIF TVDDFTT PG
UIFXIPMFEFQFOETFRVBMMZPOBMMUIFTFBDUTPGMPDBMDIPJDFBEEJOHVQXPSLJOH
UPHFUIFSUP NPWF UIF TZTUFNDMPTFS UPXBSETZTUFN HPBMT*O B DBGÊJUT BCPVU
UIFCFWFSBHFTOPUUIFCBSJTUBTѮFTZTUFNXPSLTXFMMJGDMJFOUTHFUBTBUJTGZJOH
ESJOLUIFPOFUIFZPSEFSFERVJDLMZBUUIFSJHIUQSJDFBOEXFMMNBEF'PSUIBU
UPIBQQFOFWFSZPOFTSPMFTNVTUêU
%FDJTJPOTBCPVU UIF SPMFTQFPQMF XJMM QMBZ JO B TZTUFN MJLF UIF EFDJTJPOT
BCPVUUIFBSUJGBDUTQIZTJDBMMBZPVUSPVUJOFT BOE MPDBM HPBMTTFFNUP CF POB
EJĒFSFOUMFWFMUIBOMPDBMDIPJDFѮFZIBWFBMPUUPEPXJUINPSFHMPCBMDPOTJE
FSBUJPOTBCPVUIPXFWFSZUIJOHêUTUPHFUIFS"TTFNCMZMJOFTIBWFUPCFQMBOOFE
BOEMBJEPVU0SDIFTUSBMDPOEVDUPSTOFFEUPNBLFHMPCBMDIPJDFTBCPVUUFNQP
BOEFYQSFTTJWFOFTT*GUIFTFBSFOPUHPPEUIFOFWFSZPOFDBOQMBZUIFJSQBSUQFS
GFDUMZCVUUIFPWFSBMMQSPEVDUXJMMCFJNQFSGFDU&WFOHPPEDPPLTVTJOHHPPE
JOHSFEJFOUTQSPEVDFCBEGPPEJGUIFJSSFDJQFJTXBOUJOH
5PTUVEZDPPSEJOBUJPOBUUIJTMFWFMSFRVJSFTNFUIPETXFIBWFOPUEJTDVTTFE
NPEFMJOHBOETJNVMBUJPOTDIFEVMJOHUIFPSZBOEPUIFST&DPOPNJDBOEDPN
QVUBUJPOBMNPEFMTBSFPGVTFJO TIPXJOHVTUIF JNQBDUPGEJĒFSFOUHMPCBMDP
PSEJOBUJOHNFDIBOJTNTXIFOXFIBWFBDUVBMTZTUFNTUPDPNQBSF*GXFEPOPU
IBWFMJWJOHWFSTJPOTPGEJĒFSFOUTZTUFNTPGDPPSEJOBUJPOIPXDBOXFQSFEJDU
UIFWBMVFPGSFFOHJOFFSJOHBQSPDFTT 0OMZCZNPEFMJOHBOETJNVMBUJOHDBOXF
TUVEZUIFUFNQPSBMFĒFDUTPGTVDIUIJOHTBTDIBOHJOHUIFUJNFBOEEFTUJOBUJPO
PGSFTPVSDFTPSUIFJNQBDUPGDIBOHJOHUIFDPOOFDUJWJUZSFMJBCJMJUZPSTQFFEPG
DPNNVOJDBUJPOPSUIFQBUUFSOPGNFTTBHJOH0OMZUISPVHITJNVMBUJPODBOXF
CFHJOUPTFFIPXPOFQBSUJDJQBOUTMPDBMBDUJWJUZJOIJTPXOBDUJWJUZTQBDFDBO
IBWFTJEFFĒFDUTPOOFJHICPSJOHPSJOUFSTFDUJOHBDUJWJUZTQBDFTBOETPQSPEVDF
BDBTDBEFPGTJEFFĒFDUT
'PSUIFTFSFBTPOTNPEFMJOHBOETJNVMBUJPOBSFOFDFTTBSZGPSFYQMPSJOHDP
PSEJOBUJPOBOEUIFSPCVTUOFTTPGBEJTUSJCVUFETZTUFN#VU*EMJLFUPDMPTFXJUI
UXPDBVUJPOBSZQPJOUTDPODFSOJOHTJNVMBUJPOBOENPEFMTѮFêSTUDPODFSOT
UIFDSFBUJWJUZXIJDIXFMMNPUJWBUFEQBSUJDJQBOUTTIPXJODPNQFOTBUJOHGPSCBE
EFTJHOPSGPSUPSQFEPJOHHPPEEFTJHOѮFTFDPOEDPODFSOTUIFJNQPSUBODFPG
IJTUPSZ
*OPVS+PMUTTUVEZCBSJTUBTXPSLJOTVDIUJHIURVBSUFSTUIBUUIFJSBDUJWJUZTQBD
FTQIZTJDBMMZ PWFSMBQѮJT NFBOTUIBUPOFQFSTPONBZQVUBOJUFNJOUIF BSFB
BOPUIFSXBTJOUFOUJPOBMMZLFFQJOHDMFBS8JUIQSBDUJDFCBSJTUBTXIPTIBSFTQBDF
HFUUPLOPX FBDIPUIFSTXPSL QBUUFSOTBOEUIF UXPEFWFMPQ BOFX BOE CFUUFS
EZOBNJDPGDPPSEJOBUJPOѮJTMFBSOJOHJTJEJPTZODSBUJDBOEIBSEUPTJNVMBUF
¥+PIO#FOKBNJOT1VCMJTIJOH$PNQBOZ
"MMSJHIUTSFTFSWFE
ùý÷ %BWJE,JSTI
&WFONPSFTQFDUBDVMBSJTUIFXBZQFPQMFEJTDPWFSPSMFBSOUPDPNQFOTBUF
GPSUIFJSPXOBOEUIFJS UFBNTMJNJUBUJPOT1FPQMFXJUIBEWBODFE1BSLJOTPOT
EJTFBTFGPSFYBNQMFMPTFUIFBCJMJUZUPDPOUSPMXBMLJOHCFDBVTFPGDPSSVQUJPO
JOOFVSBMQSPDFTTJOHPGQSPQSJPDFQUJWFJOQVU:FUJGUIFZ XBMLPOëPPSTUIBU
IBWFMBSHFTUSJQFTPSDIFDLFSCPBSEUJMJOHUIFZDBODPNQFOTBUFGPSUIFMPTTPG
QSPQSJPDFQUJPOCZVTJOHUIFSIZUINJDJOQVUUIFWJTVBMTZTUFNQSPWJEFT)PX
DPVMETVDITVDDFTTFTCFQSFEJDUFECZNPEFMT
)JTUPSZJTJNQPSUBOUCFDBVTFDPPSEJOBUJPOJOPOHPJOHTZTUFNTJTBMNPTU
BMXBZTIJTUPSZ EFQFOEFOU5PBQQSFDJBUFIPXIBSEBEEJOHIJTUPSZNBLFTUIF
QSPCMFNPGDPPSEJOBUJPOJNBHJOF UIBUXF TFU PVU UP NPEFM BOE UIFO TJNV
MBUFBEJTUSJCVUFETZTUFNJOXIJDIBHFOUTSFMZPOBDMPDLUPDPPSEJOBUFUJNJOH
6OEFSSFBTPOBCMFBTTVNQUJPOTXF NBZ CF BCMFUP TIPXUIBU XJUIPVUB DMPDL
UJNJOHXPVMECFVOBDDFQUBCMZCBE(SFBUSFTVMU#VUXIFSFEJEPVSSFBTPOBCMF
BTTVNQUJPOTDPNFGSPN 1SFTVNBCMZGSPNBO JEFBMJ[BUJPOBCPVUUIFXBZUIF
TZTUFNJO RVFTUJPOPQFSBUFTSJHIUOPX:FUJGXFIBWFMFBSOFEBOZUIJOHGSPN
MPPLJOHBUUIFDPNQMFYJUZPGTZTUFNTJUJTUIBUFWPMVUJPODBOêOENVMUJQMFQBUIT
UPUIFTBNFHPBM'PSBMBSHFDMBTTPGTZTUFNTJODMVEJOHPVSUBSHFUTZTUFNBEJG
GFSFOUMZEFTJHOFETZTUFNXIJDISFMJFTPOTBZDPOWFZPSCFMUTNPWJOHBUêYFE
TQFFEDPWFSJOHBêYFEEJTUBODFDBO CF UFNQPSBMMZDPPSEJOBUFEBTXFMMBTBOZ
TZTUFNXJUIBDMPDL*UEFQFOETPOXIBUOFFETUPCFXIFSFBOEXIFOѮJTEJ
WFSTJUZPGTPMVUJPOTIJHIMJHIUTUIFOFFEUPTUBZDMPTFUPUIFGBDUT8FDBOOFWFS
VOEFSTUBOEUIFFMFNFOUTESJWJOHUIFDPPSEJOBUJPOPGBOBUVSBMEJTUSJCVUFETZT
UFNJGXFTVQQPTFUIBUUIFTZTUFNJUTTFUVQJUTUJNJOHJUTSVMFTBOEDVMUVSFPG
PQFSBUJPOBSFEFWPJEPGIJTUPSZ1BSUTIBWFCFFOBEBQUFEBUFWFSZMFWFMBOEUIF
GPSNUIFZBSFJOOPXBSFBQBSUJBMGVODUJPOPGUIFGPSNUIFZXFSFJOCFGPSF*G
JUXFSFOPUTPIBSEUPLOPXUIFBTQFDUTPGBTZTUFNUIBUUSBOTGFSXFMMUPUIFSFBM
XPSMECVTJOFTTNPEFMTXPVMECFNPSFTVDDFTTGVM
ѮF VQTIPU JT UIBU BT EFTJHOFSTXF NVTU BMXBZT XPSL GSPN UIF QSFTFOU
NJOEGVMPGUIFJOFSUJBPGVTFST*GXFDSFBUFBEFTJHOUIBUJTUPPEJTUBOUGSPN
DVSSFOUBDUJWJUJFTIPXFWFSDPHOJUJWFMZFēDJFOUXFUIJOLJUJTVTFSTXJMMFJUIFS
OPUBEPQU JU  TP JU JT EF GBDUPJOFĒFDUJWFPSVTFSTXJMMDPPQUJUGPSUIFJS
PXOQVSQPTFTѮFHVMGCFUXFFOUIFUIFPSJFTXFIBWFBOEUIFEFTJHOTXFOFFE
SFNBJOTXJEF
ý $PODMVTJPO
*OUIFTFBSDIGPSBDPNQSFIFOTJWFWJFXPGIPXIVNBOTTUSVDUVSFBOEJOUFSBDU
XJUIUIFJSFOWJSPONFOUTEJTUSJCVUFEDPHOJUJPOBEET B NFBOJOHGVMDPOTUSBJOU
¥+PIO#FOKBNJOT1VCMJTIJOH$PNQBOZ
"MMSJHIUTSFTFSWFE
%JTUSJCVUFEDPHOJUJPO"NFUIPEPMPHJDBMOPUF ùýø
POUIFêOBMTUPSZ8IBUNBLFTBOFOWJSPONFOUBHPPEQMBDFJOXIJDIUPXPSL 
$PHOJUJWFFOHJOFFSJOHXPVMECFDPOTJEFSBCMZFBTJFSJGXFIBEBQSJODJQMFEBO
TXFSUPUIJTRVFTUJPO%FTJHOFSTDPVMEUIFODPOTVMUUIFCPPLPGDPHOJUJWFBOE
JOUFSBDUJWF QSJODJQMFTBOE MJLF DJWJM FOHJOFFST EFTJHOJOH CSJEHFT UIFZ DPVME
DSFBUJWFMZBQQMZQSJODJQMFTUPCVJMEFOWJSPONFOUTUIBUNBLFMJGFFBTJFS"UQSFT
FOUOPTVDICPPLFYJTUT"OE UIF QSPTQFDUT PG FWFSXSJUJOHPOFEFQFOETPO
PVSVOEFSTUBOEJOHPGBDPMMFDUJPOPGJTTVFTCSPBEMZSFMBUFEUPJOUFSBDUJPOBOE
EJTUSJCVUFEDPHOJUJPOXIJDIXFBSFKVTUCFHJOOJOHUPBQQSFDJBUF*OUIJTQBQFS
*IBWFQSFTFOUFEBGFXPGUIFTFJTTVFT$IJFëZNZGPDVTIBTCFFOPONFUIPET
PGNFBTVSFNFOUFDPOPNJD DPNQVUBUJPOBMBOEDPOGPSNJUZUPQSJODJQMFѮF
DPNQMFYJUZPGSFBMXPSMEEJTUSJCVUFEDPHOJUJPOTZTUFNTJTTP HSFBUBOETPEF
QFOEFOUPOEFUBJMTPGIJTUPSZQFSTPOBMFYQFSUJTFBOEQIZTJDBMMBZPVUUIBUPVS
NPEFMTBOENFUSJDTBSFCPVOEUPCFJOBEFRVBUF#VUXFBMTPBSFBUBQPJOUJO
TDJFODFXIFSFOFXNBUIFNBUJDTOFXNPEFMJOHQPTTJCJMJUJFTBOENPSFFYUFOE
FEWJEFPHSBQIJDBOBMZTFTXJMMMFUVTFOUFSJOUPUIFOFYUMFWFMPGNFBTVSFNFOU
BOEPCTFSWBUJPO*UJTBHPPEUJNFUPCFBDPHOJUJWFTDJFOUJTU
/PUF
 *UJTBQMFBTVSFUPUIBOL4UFWBO)BSOBEBOE4BN)BSWFZ
3FGFSFODFT
)VUDIJOT&$PHOJUJPOJOUIF8JME$BNCSJEHF."ѮF.*51SFTT
,JSTI%iѮF*OUFMMJHFOU6TFPG4QBDFu"SUJêDJBM*OUFMMJHFODFmm
,JSTI%i"EBQUJOHUIFFOWJSPONFOUJOTUFBEPG POFTFMG u"EBQUJWF#FIBWJPSm
m
,JSTI%i%JTUSJCVUFEDPHOJUJPODPPSEJOBUJPOBOEFOWJSPONFOUEFTJHOu*O1SPDFFE
JOHTPGUIF&VSPQFBODPOGFSFODFPO$PHOJUJWF4DJFODFm
,JSTI%iѮFDPOUFYUPGXPSLu)VNBO$PNQVUFS*OUFSBDUJPOmm
,JSTI%i.FUBDPHOJUJPOEJTUSJCVUFEDPHOJUJPOBOEWJTVBMEFTJHOu*O1(BSEJOGPST
BOE1 +PIBOTTPO FET $PHOJUJPO &EVDBUJPOBOE$PNNVOJDBUJPO5FDIOPMPHZ)JMMT
EBMF/+-BXSFODF&SMCBVNm
,JSTI%BOE.BHMJP1i0OEJTUJOHVJTIJOHFQJTUFNJDGSPNQSBHNBUJDBDUJPOTu$PHOJ
UJWF4DJFODFm
.D/FJMM%)BOEBOE.JOE8IBU(FTUVSFT3FWFBMBCPVUѮPVHIU$IJDBHPѮF6OJ
WFSTJUZPG$IJDBHP1SFTT
7JDFOUF,ѮF)VNBO'BDUPS3FWPMVUJPOJ[JOHUIF8BZ1FPQMF-JWFXJUI5FDIOPMPHZ
-POEPO5BZMPSBOE'SBODJT
¥+PIO#FOKBNJOT1VCMJTIJOH$PNQBOZ
"MMSJHIUTSFTFSWFE
ùýù %BWJE,JSTI
"VUIPSTBEESFTT
%BWJE,JSTI
%FQBSUNFOUPG$PHOJUJWF4DJFODF
6OJWFSTJUZPG$BMJGPSOJB4BO%JFHP
-B+PMMB$"m
64"
LJSTI!VDTEFEV
IUUQBESFOBMJOFVDTEFEVLJSTI
"CPVUUIFBVUIPS
%BWJE,JSTIJT 1SPGFTTPSJOUIF$PHOJUJWF 4DJFODF %FQBSUNFOU BU UIF 6OJWFSTJUZPG$BMJ
GPSOJB4BO%JFHPXIFSFIFIBTCFFOTJODFJUTJODFQUJPOJO)JT%1IJMJTGSPN0YGPSE
6OJWFSTJUZJO1IJMPTPQIZBOEIFIFMEBQPTUEPDBOEMBUFSXBTSFTFBSDIGBDVMUZBU.*5JOUIF
"SUJêDJBM*OUFMMJHFODF-BC)JTJOUFSFTUTBSFCSPBECVUSFDFOUMZDPODFOUSBUFPOVOEFSTUBOEJOH
QSJODJQMFTGPSEFTJHOJOHJOUFSBDUJWFFOWJSPONFOUT
... Nevertheless, like Hutchins' navy ship and airplane cockpit, it remains constituted by a network of agents and nonagentic instruments and tools. Kirsh (2006) provides a similar framework for distributed cognition, altering the methodological focus from a systems analysis to one of both individuals and systems, i.e., a "bottom-up topdown model" (p. 250). ...
... 250). We provide a formalized list of the components of distributed cognitive systems consistent with Hutchins (1995aHutchins ( , 1995b, Giere (2006), and Kirsh (2006). ...
... Its paradigm cases are of human technical-scientific institutions. We provide formal criteria for the identification of distributed cognition consistent with Hutchins (1995aHutchins ( , 1995b, Giere (2006), and Kirsh (2006). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Studies of social cognition often assume a reductionist, computational-representational conceptual framework. Distributed cognition is one of the few extant conceptual frameworks for a nonreductive understanding of social cognition. This concept’s prototypical cases are exclusively of technical-scientific human institutions, including ships, cockpits, and the Hubble Space Telescope. In the first part of the paper, we outline the properties of distributed cognitive systems. We look at the case of wolf (Canis lupus) packs as an instance of distributed cognition in nonhuman systems. Nevertheless, a broad range of social cognitive phenomena across human and animal populations may not fit into this conceptual framework. We present a case study of bird flocks as a counterexample to distributed cognition. We propose “swarm intelligence” as an alternative concept of nonreductive social cognition. This is not to replace distributed cognition as a concept, but to add to and diversify the taxonomy of nonreductive social cognitive systems.
... Cognitive ethnography is a qualitative participant observation method building on the theory of distributed cognition (Hutchins, 1995a;Hollan et al., 2000;Giere & Moffatt, 2003;Kirsh, 2006;Sutton, 2006). Originating from the work of anthropologist Edwin Hutchins, it aspires to trace the specific distribution of tasks in a given cognitive system such as a medical ward. ...
... And should the replacement pill be administered to Hal although Ryan could not be entirely certain that the pill was identical to the dropped pill? All these decisions required an implicit weighing of cost against benefit (Kirsh, 2006). 4 Although we cannot calculate if it was worth it to find a replacement pill, we do know that Ryan had to make decisions on these tradeoffs. ...
Article
Full-text available
While the past decade has witnessed a proliferation of work in the intersection between phenomenology and empirical studies of cognition, the multitude of possible methodological connections between the two remains largely uncharted. In line with recent developments in enactivist ethnography, this article contributes to the methodological multitude by proposing an integration between phenomenological interviews and cognitive video ethnography. Starting from Schütz’s notion of the taken-for-granted (das Fraglos-gegeben), the article investigates a complex work environment through phenomenological interviews and Cognitive Event Analysis, drawing on distributed cognition and embodied cognitive science. The methodological integration is illustrated through the study of an adverse event in a highly specialised medical ward. Starting from a nurse’s task of administering medicine to a patient, the analysis tracks how a distributed cognitive system in the ward handles an adverse event where a pill becomes contaminated. The analysis demonstrates how complex decision-making processes depend on agents’ micro-scale embodied coordination, on their engagement with the material environment, and their anticipation of other agents’ intentions. It is concluded that ethnography can accommodate both cognitive and phenomenological research aims, while also contributing to the important mission of understanding successful responses to adverse events in healthcare. The article further contributes to patient safety studies by demonstrating how safe medicine administration itself can lead to increased risk, hereby pointing to a problem of incompatible safety logics as a source of medication errors in healthcare.
... More generally, at its core, the bounded rationality of situated human problemsolving requires the solution of constant trade-offs between pragmatic and epistemic actions. The exact amount of these trade-offs will depend on the precise nature of the cost function, which is determined by many, in part conflicting considerations and constraints (Kirsh 2006(Kirsh , 2013. But in principle, an optimal solution can be calculated by the mind of a situated human cognizer, i.e., a creature equipped with a less-than-perfectly rational Leibnizian will (sensu Fuller). ...
Chapter
As portrayed in Andy Clark’s extended mind thesis (EMT), human minds are inherently disposed to expand their reach outwards, incorporating and feeding off an open-ended variety of tools and scaffolds to satisfy their hunger for cognitive expansion. According to Steve Fuller’s heterodox Christian vision of transhumanism, humans are deities in the making, destined to redeem their fallen state with the help of modern science and technology. In this chapter, I re-examine Clark’s EMT through the prism of Fuller’s transhumanism, with the aim of unearthing a subterranean influence of theological tropes that are sweeping along beneath the naturalistic veneer of Clark’s thesis. Starting from four theological principles, which Fuller regards as foundational to his version of transhumanism, I review the philosophical narrative which, in Fuller’s view, provides the best philosophical motivation for the contemporary transhumanist project. On the basis of my reconstruction, I show how distant intellectual offshoots of the same principles mobilized by Fuller are also at play in Clark’s EMT – dressed up in secular garb, for sure, and in a materialistically inflected form, yet with a recognizably transhumanist bent. Undertaking this “archeology” of the EMT takes us surprisingly deep into the history of Western thought – to a point where Clark’s evocative “natural-born cyborg” image of humanity, with its emphasis on the radical openness of human nature to transcend itself, comes into view as a subtly blended continuation of certain historically consequential articulations of the Christian doctrine that humans are born “in the image and likeness” of God (imago dei).
... Integrating time-scales in language presupposes a non-local ontology, but the reification of this ontology into structural patterns that have a life beyond the phonetics, the perceptual and the lived experience is ineffective for studying human interaction. Coordination is the glue of cognition, notes Kirsh (2006); we innovate as we coordinate, mentions Cowley (2011). Language is renewed through interaction; we cannot depend on some hypothetical 'representations' existing inside our heads for this coordination, as 'dynamics come first and symbols then'. ...
Article
Psychotherapy can only benefit through a meeting with the Deleuzian and post-Deleuzian thinking. I approached the insightful articles of this issue ‘plugging in’ the concept of attention while facilitating at the same time the growth of a rhizomatic space between the notions and the ideas discussed by the authors and the ‘plugged in’ concept. In order to facilitate the growth of this rhizomatic space, I adopt more the style of a conversation instead of a discussion, introducing through elliptical references links between the notions of immanence, body without organs, becoming, event, multiplicities, intensities, interembodied synchronies, expressivity, vulnerability, trust and trauma.
... Also, distributed cognition is considered to be a useful framework to support reasoning about system design and the impact of possible future designs on working practices and effectiveness (cf. Furniss & Blandford, 2006;Hollan, Hutchins & Kirsh, 2000;Kirsh, 2006;O'Hara et al., 2002). ...
Article
Full-text available
Classical works on writing within cognitive science focus either on the aspects of written text production or the role of writing from a developmental and evolutionary perspective (Donald, 1991; Flower & Hayes, 1981; Goody, 1977; Olson, 1996). Studies concerning the practices of writing in real-world settings are carried out within the framework of situated cognition (Klein & Leacock, 2012; Menary, 2007; O’Hara et al., 2002), but they mainly focus on writer-writer or writer-artefact interactions. This paper provides an ethnographic account of writing that is understood as a practice that is distributed in a dynamically changing sociomaterial system. The cognitive task under study involves making decisions concerning the contents of a formal document as well as turning them into written text, both of which are supposed to take place in an informed and collaborative manner. Task performance depends on establishing a dense network of interactions that involves numerous sources of expert knowledge and people from various professional backgrounds who often represent clashing interests. The focus of the study is 1) identifying the resources employed in order to complete the task, 2) determining what functions they perform, 3) describing the ways that they are coordinated within the dis- tributed cognitive system so that as a whole it creates incentives for some actions while con- straining others. The analysis reveals how several resources contribute to realisation of cognitive operations while at the same time producing powerful effects upon the organisation of the cultural practices (Hutchins 2008) within the distributed cognitive system.
Article
Inspired by Ronald Giere’s (1989, 1992) cognitive approach to scientific models, Cognitive Structural Realism (CSR) has presented a naturalist account of scientific representation (Beni, 2019a). CSR characterises the structure of theories in terms of cognitive structures. These are informational structures embodied in the brains of (allegedly individual) scientists. CSR accounts for scientific representation in terms of the dynamical relationship between the organism and its environment. The proposal has been criticised on account of its negligence of social aspects of scientific practice. The present paper aims to chart out a reply to the objection. It shows that cognitive structures do not need to be put inside the brains of single individuals. Cognitive structures are redefined as extended structures in distributed cognitive systems (such as a scientific group) under Free Energy Principle.
Article
This article addresses the collaborative nature of twentieth-century European actor training in two ways: first, by using the framework of cognitive ecologies to see actor training as a vast and dynamic network of practices beyond single lineages, and second by using a short-lived theatre school as a case study to unearth forgotten transmissions and contributions. The framework of cognitive ecologies was first advanced by Edwin Hutchins in the cognitive sciences and later extended into theatre studies, most notably, by Evelyn B. Tribble in her analyses of the dynamic distribution of efforts in early modern English theatre. This article considers the notion of the actor-creator as a western twentieth-century vision forged by a variety of hands between international flows of contact among theatrical artists, thinkers, administrators, sponsors and craftspeople. To highlight how this approach can reveal the enduring presence of lesser-known experiments and contributions of unrecognised people, the main case study is The School for the Art of the Theatre (SAT) at the Arena Goldoni in Florence (1913–1914). Usually attributed to Edward Gordon Craig as his brainchild and considered a failed experiment, this school was made possible through a host of people, factors and forces, principally unsung women in Craig’s life – Elena Meo and Dorothy Nevile Lees. By tracing the dynamic ecology of efforts and contacts, SAT can be seen as an important flashpoint for the actor-creator, connecting canonical figures and underrecognised contributors alike as they jointly crafted visions and practices for the theatrical agents of the future.
Article
Full-text available
Dağıtık biliş, bilişsel görevlerin tek bir biyolojik organizmanın kafatası ile sınırlı zihninde gerçekleştirilmesi yerine, bilişin bireysel ve izole zihinden taşarak çevredeki biyolojik/biyolojik olmayan yapılara dağılması/yayılması şeklinde özetlenebilecek bir zihin yaklaşımıdır. Dağıtık biliş, bilgi-işlemsel zihin kuramına tepki olarak ortaya çıkmış; bellek ve dil gibi temel bilişsel yetileri yeniden değerlendirmek için kullanılmış; bilişsel yük boşaltma, geçişken bellek ve tekno-sosyal sistem gibi çeşitli kavramların ortaya çıkmasına öncülük etmiştir. Çeviribilim kapsamında yazılı çeviri, bilgisayar-destekli çeviri, teknik iletişim ve çeviri eğitimi bağlamlarında ele alınan bu araştırma programının, sözlü, özellikle de konferans ortamındaki profesyonel andaş çeviri sürecini daha iyi anlamak ve araştırmak için potansiyel taşıdığı düşünülmektedir. Dağıtık biliş ve dağıtık bilişle kavramsal düzeyde aynı şemsiye altında yer alan yayılmış zihin ve gömülü-bedenlenmiş biliş tezleri, 1990’lardan bu yana zihin felsefesi, bilişsel bilimler ve bilişsel psikoloji içinde varlığını sürdürmektedir. Ancak alan yazınında andaş çeviriyi bu çerçevede sistematik olarak inceleyen bir çalışma mevcut değildir. Bu boşluğu gidermeyi amaçlayan bu kuramsal çalışmada, 1960’lardan bu yana bilgi-işlemsel zihin kuramı ve bilgi işleme yaklaşımı temelinde ve çoğu kez akış şemaları ile modellenen andaş çeviri, dağıtık biliş kapsamında yeniden ele alınmış ve buna uygun bir yaklaşım geliştirilmiştir. Gelecekteki çalışmaların bu yaklaşımı test edecek ve önceki modellerle karşılaştıracak deneysel veriler sunması büyük önem taşımaktadır.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.