Organic Agriculture in China

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Organic agriculture, a new model for farming development, has set itself the goals of minimization of environmental pollution and sustainability of farming systems. In recent years, organic agriculture has developed rapidly and spread around the world. The objective of this paper is to give an overview of organic agriculture in China with regard to how it is organized, the production base and marketing, technical aspects, standards and regulations, international cooperation, publicity and training. The authors also examine the restrictions on organic farming development and the basis for organic farming expansion. Recommendations for stimulating the success of organic farming are put forward.

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... There has been growing debate that using chemical inputs excessively following the green revolution in agricultural production raised concerns on environment and human health. For this reason, organic agriculture has developed rapidly and spread around the world 21 and organic farming is considered an alternative production system. In fact, demand for organic products has increased tremendously in the last couple of decades. ...
... Organic farming is managed in harmony with nature and the agricultural holding is mainly perceived as an organism comprising humans, flora, fauna and soil 4 . However, organic agriculture, a new model for farming development, has set the goals such as minimization of environmental pollution and sustainability of farming systems 21 . ...
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Organic farming has developed very rapidly in all European countries since the beginning of 1990s. In Turkey it showed significant increase in recent years. Worldwide, the global market was valued at 23 billion dollars. In the European Union, the most important advisory agencies for organic farming are implemented by private units (38.4%), farmers'organisations (28.3%) and the Ministry. However, advisory service for organic products in Turkey is implemented mainly by foreign importer firms, which is the most important advisory unit. Considering the growing domestic demand for organic products in the medium and long term in Turkey, various advisory services should be established similar to those in EU countries.
... One of the alternative methods is the system of organic farming. Given the positive aspects of organic production compared to conventional production ( Stolze et al., 2005Kaspercyzk and Knickel 2006, Kichler, 2007, Küstermann et al, 2008, Hinrichs and Welsh, 2003, Biao and Xiaorong, 2003b, Galiardi and Pettigrove, 2013, Bell et al, 2014, Meng et al, 2017, the development of organic agriculture could be and nowadays is seen as an important indicator of sustainable agriculture. Overall it can be said that the aim of the paper was to determine whether the land under organic agriculture can be considered as an indicator of sustainable agricultural development. ...
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Sustainable development is a concept which has not yet been uniquely defined at the international level. As a result, it is difficult to define the indicators which could 'measure' the achievement of sustainability. The paper deals with organic agriculture as a commonly used indicator of sustainable agricultural development. The organic farming in Serbia is legally a well-regulated area, but still not developed to the necessary and possible extent. Following the practice of the most developed countries, the area under organic production is distinguished as one of the indicators in the National List of Indicators for Sustainable Development of the Republic of Serbia. Nowadays, organic farming occupies only about 0.45% of total UAA in Serbia (approx 15,000 ha), which is relatively low in comparison with the EU countries. Therefore, the development of Serbian agriculture cannot be assessed as sustainable. Although the authors of this paper support the use of organic agriculture as an indicator of agricultural sustainability, they endorse it in conjunction with other indicators in the matter, whenever possible.
... Since 1994, the Organic Food Development Centre (OFDC) in Nanjing, which is part of the Ministry for Environment, has been the leading official organisation in charge of inspection, certification and management of organic production in China. Their remit extends to management and supervision of the official organic product logo (Sanders 2006a;Yi et al. 2001 Biao andXiaorong 2003). According to documents (OFDC-MEP n.d.) and interviews, the OFDC has engaged in planning and research on policies, standard production and technology, as well as publicity, technical support, training and quality control of organic farming. ...
Transitioning towards organic consumption and production has been widely promoted as a more sustainable alternative for urban and rural food systems. Our paper shows how a focus on legitimacy can shed light on current barriers to deeper institutionalisation of the organic labelling scheme in China. Based upon documentary analysis, personal observations and over 70 qualitative interviews we identify consequential concerns amongst China’s small scale farmers, limited support by the Chinese central government, and procedural problems as the main barriers. We discuss strategies to overcome these barriers, for example tighter certification procedures or more participatory arrangements. Our work contributes to the legitimacy, product labelling and food safety literatures as well as bourgeoning discussions on how to facilitate more sustainable consumption and production in China.
A fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm was used to assign soil nutrient to management zones which was based on remote sensing as data source in Nongwushi 81 Tuan Xin Jiang drip irrigation in cotton based on GIS and RS. The results showed that the variation coefficient of nutrient index was decreased in management zones based on remote sensing data source, space distribution were all the same direction. There were no significant differences among the three management zones. The space variation of soil nutrient content was different lowest in the same management zone. The conformity degree of the integration of management zones based on remote sensing NDVI as data was reached 75.47%. A fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm which was based on remote sensing as data source can achieve good management zones results, which could be used to help guide the rate of variable inputs and precise fertilizer application and provide the theory basis of soil nutrient management in cotton.
Empirical studies have underlined the importance of technical trade barriers in the agricultural sector. For organic products, national differences in standards, certification and accreditation systems could act as a major non-tariff barrier for export-oriented countries, particularly developing countries, which could eventually fail to benefit from the increasing market opportunities for organic products in developed countries. This paper presents the results of a study on the impact of EU organic-certification legislation on organic exports from China, where the lack of an equivalent system forces Chinese organic exports to enter the international market through multi-certification or special import permits. This results in an increase in certification and transaction costs, as products accepted in one country may not be accepted in another. The paper also reports on the recent legislative developments to establish a national certification and accreditation system for organic products in China.
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