ArticlePDF Available

Notes on Aeschynanthus (Gesneriaceae) of Sumatra, Indonesia

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

An inventory of Gesneriaceae in Sumatra based on herbarium specimens and field trips resulted in 17 genera. The genus Cyrtandra was the most diverse genus, followed by Aeschynanthus. Here we enumerate the species of Aeschynanthus in Sumatra. Distribution and altitudinal notes on 17 species of Aeschynanthus were made and the late Mary Mendum of the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh added four more species. The only endemic species of Aeschynanthus in Sumatra is A. chrysanthus; two other species, A. albidus and A. wallichii, are widely distributed in Sumatra and the rest of Malesia.
Content may be subject to copyright.
© 2009 Nationaal Herbarium Nederland
You are free to share - to copy, distribute and transmit the work, under the following conditions:
Attribution: You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work).
Non-commercial: You may not use this work for commercial purposes.
No derivative works: You may not alter, transform, or build upon this work.
For any reuse or distribution, you must make clear to others the license terms of this work, which can be found at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/legalcode. Any of the above conditions can be
waived if you get permission from the copyright holder. Nothing in this license impairs or restricts the author’s moral rights.
Blumea 54, 2009: 278 279
www.ingentaconnect.com/content/nhn/blumea doi:10.3767/000651909X476283
RESEARCH ARTICLE
INTRODUCTION
The first work on the flora of Sumatra began with a publication by
Jack in 1820. This was followed by works from various authors
in scattered publications. Miquel in 1856 and 1861 described
six species of Aeschynanthus, followed by Hallier (1896) who
made a list of the Aeschynanthus collections in the Herbarium
Bogoriense (BO) and noted five species. Merrill (1934), in his
enumeration of the plants collected in Sumatra by W.N. and
C.M. Bangham, mentioned six species of Aeschynanthus under
the older genus name Trichosporum (see below).
The inventory of the Gesneriaceae in Sumatra resulted in a
list of 17 genera (Tjitrosoedirdjo et al. 2003, 2004). The genus
Cyrtandra was the most diverse with 61 species, followed by
Aeschynanthus.
Aeschynanthus belongs to tribe Trichosporeae. The tribe was
first established by Nees (1825) within the family Cyrtandrace-
ae. Nees united the genera Trichosporum D.Don, published in
1822, and Aeschynanthus Jack published a year later (Jack
1823). Both names were in use till 1934, when the name Ae-
schynanthus was conserved against Trichosporum. However,
the tribal name Trichosporeae Nees still stands (Burtt & Woods
1975).
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Herbarium specimens of Aeschynanthus from Sumatra in the
Herbarium Bogoriense (BO), Andalas University Herbarium
(ANDA) and BIOTROP Herbarium (BIOT) were selected
and studied. The data were supplemented by additional field
collections carried out by the authors in various regions of
Sumatra: Tapanuli, Sumatera Utara; Mount Kerinci, Jambi;
Mount Singgalang, Sumatera Barat and Bukit Biowa Piluwen,
Tes, Bengkulu.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Seventeen species of Aeschynanthus were recorded for Su-
matra (Table 1). The late Mary Mendum added four more spe-
cies namely A. brevicalyx Miq., A. caudatus C.B.Clarke, A. flip-
pancei Ridl. and A. marginatus Ridl. We were unable to study
the specimens of these four species and we had no access to
the collecting data, therefore, they are lacking in Table 1.
The plants were found at elevations of 100– 2500 m, primarily
at the higher altitudes. Sumatera Barat had the highest number
of species (15), Sumatera Utara had 8, Aceh 6 and Jambi 6.
The other provinces have only five or fewer species. The lowest
number was found in Riau province where only two species
were found.
There is one endemic species in Sumatra, namely A. chry-
santhus. Aeschynanthus volubilis (Fig. 1) was originally also
regarded as endemic but appears to be present in Java too.
Two species of Aeschynanthus, A. albidus and A. wallichii, are
widely distributed in Sumatra and the rest of Malesia. Most of
the collections are old, having been made during the colonial
era, except for the collections from Sumatera Barat, which were
recently collected by the newly established Andalas University
Herbarium (ANDA) during an intensive botanical exploration
of Sumatera Barat. This might explain why most species were
collected in the latter province.
The current situation in Sumatra is a sad picture of natural forest
under severe pressure due to a rapid increase in industrialisa-
tion. Many forests are deteriorating fast, mainly because of
Notes on Aeschynanthus (Gesneriaceae) of Sumatra, Indonesia
Sri S. Tjitrosoedirdjo1,2, R. Zakaria2, Nurainas3
1 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Bogor Agri-
cultural University, Darmaga, Bogor, Indonesia.
2 Southeast Asian Regional Center for Tropical Biology (SEAMEO BIOTROP),
P.O. Box 116, Bogor, Indonesia.
3 Andalas University Herbarium, Limo Manis, West Sumatra, Indonesia.
Abstract An inventory of Gesneriaceae in Sumatra based on herbarium specimens and field trips resulted in 17
genera. The genus Cyrtandra was the most diverse genus, followed by Aeschynanthus. Here we enumerate the
species of Aeschynanthus in Sumatra. Distribution and altitudinal notes on 17 species of Aeschynanthus were made
and the late Mary Mendum of the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh added four more species. The only endemic
species of Aeschynanthus in Sumatra is A. chrysanthus; two other species, A. albidus and A. wallichii, are widely
distributed in Sumatra and the rest of Malesia.
Published on 30 October 2009
Key words
Aeschynanthus
Gesneriaceae
Sumatra
No. Species Province1 Altitude (m)
1. A. albidus (Blume) Steud. A, B, SB, SS, SU 250–1500
2. A. angustifolius (Blume) Steud. A, SB, SS, SU 100–1300
3. A. beccarii C.B.Clarke SB 1250
4. A. chrysanthus P.Woods SB 980
5. A. elongatus C.B.Clarke SB, SU 1100– 2000
6. A. fruticosus Ridl. SU 1350–1900
7. A. horsfieldii R.Br. SB 950 –1000
8. A. longiflorus (Blume) A.DC. J 1350–1900
9. A. macrocalyx C.B.Clarke SB
10. A. magnificus Stapf SB 980– 2000
11. A. obconicus C.B.Clarke SB 150 –1000
12. A. pulcher (Blume) G.Don A, B, J, L, SB, SS, SU 100– 2100
13. A. radicans Jack A, B, J, L, SB, SS, SU 100 2100
14. A. rhododendron Ridl. SB 200
15. A. speciosus Hook. A, J, R, SB 400–2000
16. A. volubilis Jack J, L, SB, SS, SU 800– 2500
17. A. wallichii R.Br. A, B, J, R, SB, SU 250– 2000
1 A = Aceh; B = Bengkulu; J = Jambi; L = Lampung; R = Riau; SB = Sumatra Barat; SS = Su-
matra Selatan; SU = Sumatra Utara.
Table 1 List of Aeschynanthus (Gesneriaceae) species of Sumatra.
279
Sri S. Tjitrosoedirdjo et al.: Notes on Aeschynanthus of Sumatra
illegal logging that has become a common practice. Aeschy-
nanthus mainly grows as an epiphyte or it is found in the peaty
litter of the forest floor where it is hardly visible. The plants are
probably vulnerable and presently we are very likely experienc-
ing a loss of Aeschynanthus species due to this unfavourable
change in the habitat.
CONCLUSIONS
There are 21 species of Aeschynanthus in Sumatra. One is
endemic and two species are widely distributed in Sumatra
and the rest of Malesia.
Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank the director of Herbarium
Bogoriense (BO) and Andalas University Herbarium (ANDA) for providing
facilities to work in their herbaria. The field work was conducted with financial
support by the DIP project SEAMEO BIOTROP.
REFERENCES
Burtt BL, Woods PJB. 1975. Studies in the Gesneriaceae of the Old World.
XXXIX. Toward a revision of Aeschynanthus. Notes from the Royal Botanic
Garden, Edinburgh 33: 471–489.
Don D. 1822. Edinburgh Philosophical Journal 7: 85.
Hallier H. 1896. Die Indonesischen Aeschynanthusarten des Herbariums zu
Buitenzorg. Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch-Indië 56: 333–
346.
Jack W. 1820. The Malayan Miscellanies. Bencoolen
Jack W. 1823. On Cyrtandraceae, a new natural order of plants. Transactions
of the Linnean Society of London 14: 23–44.
Merrill ED. 1934. An enumeration of plants collected in Sumatra by Walter N.
and C.M. Bangham. Contributions from the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard
University 7.
Miquel FAW. 1856. Flora van Nederlandsch Indië 2: 716–722. Van der Post,
Amsterdam.
Miquel FAW. 1861. Flora van Nederlandsch Indië, eerste bijvoegsel: 238,
563, 564. Van der Post, Amsterdam.
Nees von Esenbaeck F. 1825. Flora 8: 143. Regensburg.
Tjitrosoedirdjo SS, Radhiah, Hidayat AS, Nurainas, Tamin R. 2004. Gesneria-
ceae of Sumatra. Internal report, SEAMEO BIOTROP.
Tjitrosoedirdjo SS, Radhiah, Nurainas, Tamin R. 2003. Gesneriaceae of West
Sumatra. Internal report, SEAMEO BIOTROP.
Fig. 1 Aeschynanthus volubilis. a. Habit; b. fruit; c. flower; d. corolla; e. gynoecium;
f. calyx; g. seed.
c
b
d
a
g
e
f2 mm
2 cm
2 cm
2 cm
... More recently, regional revisions have been published for China (Wang et al., 1998), Thailand (Middleton, 2007), Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam (Middleton, 2009), and India (Bhattacharyya & Goel, 2015). Checklists have been published for Singapore (Turner, 1993;Chong et al., 2009), Peninsular Malaysia , Myanmar (Kress et al., 2003), Sulawesi (Mendum & Atkins, 2003), and Sumatra (Tjitrosoedirdjo et al., 2009). Several of these checklists are now rather out-of-date due to the discovery of new species and/or due to the synonymisation of names. ...
Book
Full-text available
Flora anemokori memiliki keanekaragaman karakteris tik organ pemencaran bijinya. Dalam buku ini, pem-- bahasannya terbatas pada biji dari koleksi tanaman Kebun Raya Bogor, Kebun Raya Cibodas, Kebun Raya Purwodadi, dan Kebun Raya Eka Karya Bali. Hasil pengumpulan dan identifikasi pada biji tersebut telah diuraikan dalam buku ini. Secara umum, biji bersayap didominasi oleh suku Dipterocarpaceae, yaitu berjumlah 17 jenis dari total 52 jenis yang terdaftar pada buku ini atau 32,7%. Selain itu, suku Malvaceae ada enam jenis (11,5%) dan Apocynaceae lima jenis (9,6%), serta Leguminosae dan Bignoniaceae empat jenis (7,7%). Sebanyak 39% biji-bijian merupakan biji ortodoks, intermediat, atau berpotensi ortodoks sehingga dapat mendukung upaya konservasi biji dalam bentuk bank biji. Jenis-jenis flora anemokori memiliki banyak kegunaan bagi kehidupan manusia. Kegunaan yang cukup dominan adalah konstruksi sebanyak 51% dan bahan baku obat sebanyak 47%. Kegunaan lainnya tercatat untuk tanaman hias dan penghijauan, pestisida, bahan baku industri (damar, resin, minyak atsiri, serat, kapur barus, bahan baku kertas, pewarna, sabun, lilin, kosmetik, bahan baku kertas dan parfum), perkapalan, bantalan rel, furnitur, bahan pembuatan margarin, bahan pangan fungsional (diet), sarang lebah madu, mulsa, dan arang/ kayu bakar. Biji mempunyai tipe yang beraneka ragam pada organ pemencar biji atau diasporanya. Struktur kulit buah BAB 6 POTENSI DAN PEMANFAATAN FLORA ANEMOKORI130 Flora Anemokori Hijaukan Bumi pun bermacam-macam tipe, misalnya ada yang tipis transparan seperti kertas, struktur buah balon, struktur buah dengan rongga udara berbentuk seperti kano/ sampan, dan struktur lainnya seperti belimbing (beruang-ruang). Sayap biji juga bervariasi, ada yang transparan, berupa rambut kaku, atau berupa sayap tunggal pipih memanjang seperti kipas mengelilingi biji, atau pipih kaku. Massa (berat kering) struktur sayap yang ringan dan luas dapat menambah kecepatan dan jarak pemencaran karena adanya embusan angin—meskipun lemah berembusnya. Variasi sayap berkombinasi dengan variasi rambut mirip duri—biasanya memiliki lapisan yang kedap air sehingga efektif dalam hal strategi pemencaran biji melalui angin dan air. Dalam hal teknik perkecambahan, sebagai media semai, dapat digunakan pasir ataupun serbuk gergaji. Biji bersayap merupakan biji yang mudah berkecambah dan mudah menjadi bibit. Oleh karena itu, bibit tanaman dari biji bersayap akan mudah tersebar dan menghijaukan bumi.
Book
Full-text available
Biji bersayap merupakan kreasi alam yang luar biasa sebagai anugerah Tuhan Sang Pencipta Alam Semesta. Visualisasi dalam bentuk foto, ilustrasi dan narasi menambah pemahaman kita tentang pentingnya biji atau benih dalam peradaban manusia. Betapa manusia bergantung pada banyak tanaman pangan dan komoditas pertanian/perkebunan untuk kehidupannya. Kemampuan biji berpindah dari satu tempat ke tempat lainnya dengan struktur rambut/sayap serta dormansi berpuluh-puluh hingga beratus-ratus tahun di bank biji dalam tanah secara alami telah memberikan jaminan memadai akan keberlangsungan hidup generasi tumbuhan tersebut melawan ancaman kepunahan dari perusakan hutan dan habitat tumbuhan. Penyimpanan biji melalui fasilitas bank biji di Kebun Raya juga merupakan bentuk upaya konservasi ex situ untuk menjamin suatu jenis tumbuhan terhindar dari kepunahan dan tetap dimanfaatkan oleh generasi masa depan.
Book
Full-text available
Biji bersayap merupakan kreasi alam yang luar biasa sebagai anugerah Tuhan Sang Pencipta Alam Semesta. Visualisasi dalam bentuk foto, ilustrasi dan narasi menambah pemahaman kita tentang pentingnya biji atau benih dalam peradaban manusia. Betapa manusia bergantung pada banyak tanaman pangan dan komoditas pertanian/perkebunan untuk kehidupannya. Kemampuan biji berpindah dari satu tempat ke tempat lainnya dengan struktur rambut/sayap serta dormansi berpuluh-puluh hingga beratus-ratus tahun di bank biji dalam tanah secara alami telah memberikan jaminan memadai akan keberlangsungan hidup generasi tumbuhan tersebut melawan ancaman kepunahan dari perusakan hutan dan habitat tumbuhan. Penyimpanan biji melalui fasilitas bank biji di Kebun Raya juga merupakan bentuk upaya konservasi ex situ untuk menjamin suatu jenis tumbuhan terhindar dari kepunahan dan tetap dimanfaatkan oleh generasi masa depan.
Studies in the Gesneriaceae of the Old World. XXXIX. Toward a revision of Aeschynanthus
  • B L Burtt
  • Pjb Woods
Burtt BL, Woods PJB. 1975. Studies in the Gesneriaceae of the Old World. XXXIX. Toward a revision of Aeschynanthus. Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh 33: 471-489.
Flora van Nederlandsch Indië, eerste bijvoegsel: 238, 563, 564. Van der Post, Amsterdam. Nees von Esenbaeck F. 1825
  • Faw Miquel
Miquel FAW. 1861. Flora van Nederlandsch Indië, eerste bijvoegsel: 238, 563, 564. Van der Post, Amsterdam. Nees von Esenbaeck F. 1825. Flora 8: 143. Regensburg.
Gesneriaceae of West Sumatra
  • Ss Tjitrosoedirdjo
  • Radhiah
  • Nurainas
  • R Tamin
  • Seameo
  • Biotrop
Tjitrosoedirdjo SS, Radhiah, Nurainas, Tamin R. 2003. Gesneriaceae of West Sumatra. Internal report, SEAMEO BIOTROP.
  • F Nees Von Esenbaeck
Nees von Esenbaeck F. 1825. Flora 8: 143. Regensburg.
  • S S Tjitrosoedirdjo
  • Radhiah
  • A S Hidayat
  • Nurainas
  • R Tamin
  • Seameo
  • Biotrop
Tjitrosoedirdjo SS, Radhiah, Hidayat AS, Nurainas, Tamin R. 2004. Gesneriaceae of Sumatra. Internal report, SEAMEO BIOTROP.
An enumeration of plants collected in Sumatra by
  • E D Merrill
Merrill ED. 1934. An enumeration of plants collected in Sumatra by Walter N. and C.M. Bangham. Contributions from the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University 7.
  • H Hallier
Hallier H. 1896. Die Indonesischen Aeschynanthusarten des Herbariums zu Buitenzorg. Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch-Indië 56: 333 -346.
  • W Jack
Jack W. 1820. The Malayan Miscellanies. Bencoolen Jack W. 1823. On Cyrtandraceae, a new natural order of plants. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 14: 23 -44.
  • Faw Miquel
Miquel FAW. 1856. Flora van Nederlandsch Indië 2: 716 -722. Van der Post, Amsterdam.