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Abstract

Taxonomy of the Gomphales has been revisited by combining morphology and molecular data (DNA sequences) to provide a natural classification for the species of Gomphus sensu lato. Results indicate Gomphus s.l. to be non-monophyletic, leading to new combinations and the placement of its species into four genera: Gomphus sensu stricto (3 species), Gloeocantharellus (11 species), Phaeoclavulina (41 species), and Turbinellus (5 species).
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... As an ectomycorrhizal fungus, T. floccosus forms symbiotic relationships with various plant species, including Abies and Pinus (Lamus et al. 2015). T. floccosus and other Turbinellus species have been included in the list of threatened species due to their unique environmental requirements, such as their preference to grow in old-growth forests (Giachini and Castellano 2011). The limited distinguishable morphological features have led to confusions in taxonomy and classification of T. floccosus species. ...
... The limited distinguishable morphological features have led to confusions in taxonomy and classification of T. floccosus species. Several synonyms existed on T. floccosus, including Gomphus floccosus and Cantharellus floccosus (Giachini et al. 2012;Giachini and Castellano 2011). The introduction of molecular markers, such as the nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA (LSU), mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal DNA (rns), and mitochondrial atp6 gene (atp6), has promoted the classification and phylogenetic analysis of Turbinellus species (Giachini and Castellano 2011;Giachini et al. 2010). ...
... Several synonyms existed on T. floccosus, including Gomphus floccosus and Cantharellus floccosus (Giachini et al. 2012;Giachini and Castellano 2011). The introduction of molecular markers, such as the nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA (LSU), mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal DNA (rns), and mitochondrial atp6 gene (atp6), has promoted the classification and phylogenetic analysis of Turbinellus species (Giachini and Castellano 2011;Giachini et al. 2010). Mitochondrial genes are a powerful tool to analyze the phylogeny of eukaryotic species, which has been widely used in the phylogeny of animals (Boore 1999;Cameron 2014). ...
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In the present study, the complete mitogenome of Turbinellus floccosus was sequenced, assembled, and compared with other basidiomycete mitogenomes. The mitogenome of T. floccosus consists of a circular DNA molecule, with a size of 62,846 bp. Gene arrangement analysis indicated that large-scale gene rearrangements occurred in the levels of family and genus of basidiomycete species, and the mitogenome of T. floccosus contained a unique gene order. A significant correlation between the number of introns and the mitochondrial genome size of Basidiomycota were detected (P < 0.01). A total of 896 introns were detected in the core protein-coding genes (PCGs) of 74 basidiomycete species, and the cox1 gene was the largest host gene of basidiomycete introns. Intron position class (Pcls) P383 in the cox1 gene was the most common intron in Basidiomycota, which distributed in 40 of 74 basidiomycete species. In addition, frequent intron loss/gain events were detected in basidiomycete species. More than 50% of bases around insertion sites (− 15 bp to 15 bp) of Pcls from different species were conservative, indicating site preferences of intron insertions in Basidiomycota. Further analysis showed that 76.09% of introns tended to insert downstream to a T base in Basidiomycota. Phylogenetic analysis for 74 basidiomycetes indicated mitochondrial genes are effective molecular markers for phylogeny of basidiomycetes. The study served as the first report on the mitogenome from the family Gomphaceae, which will help to understand the intron origin and evolution in Basidiomycota. Key points • The mitogenome of Turbinellus floccosus had a unique gene arrangement. • Intron loss/gain events were detected in the 74 basidiomycete species. • Introns tend to insert downstream of a T base in basidiomycete mitogenomes.
... The Gomphaceae Donk is a morphologically diverse family and contains 14 genera, including cantharelloidgomphoid genera such as Gloeocantharellus Singer, Gomphus Pers., Phaeoclavulina Brinkmann, and Turbinellus Earle, ramarioid genera such as Ramaria Fr. ex Bonord., and sequestrate genera such as Gautieria Vittad. (Donk 1961;Petersen 1971Petersen , 1988Pine et al. 1999;Villegas et al. 1999;Humpert et al. 2001;Hosaka et al. 2006;Giachini et al. 2010;Giachini et al. 2011). ...
... In addition, other gomphoid genera all have basidiospores that are never cylindrical and usually covered with echinulate, verrucose, subreticulate or reticulate ornaments, which enables them to be easily separated from the smooth basidiospores of G. cylindrosporus. Moreover, Gloeocantharellus species have a wrinkled to lamellate hymenium with gleoplerous hyphae (Giachini and Castellano 2011;Singer 1945), the basidiomes of Gomphus feature a fan-to funnel-shaped pileus (Giachini et al. 2012;Giachini and Castellano 2011), species with gomphoid morphology in the Phaeoclavulina are with smooth or sublamellate to irregularly wrinkled hymenium (Giachini and Castellano 2011), and Turbinellus species are characterized by the wrinkled hymenium, minutely to strongly scaly pileus, and verrucose basidiospores (Giachini and Castellano 2011). Gomphocantharellus cylindrosporus is very similar to Cantharellus phloginus S.C. Shao & P.G. Liu in appearance, but C. phloginus is distinguished from G. cylindrosporus by the ellipsoid to broadly ellipsoid basidiospores of 7.5-8.5 × 5.0-6.5(-7.0) ...
... In addition, other gomphoid genera all have basidiospores that are never cylindrical and usually covered with echinulate, verrucose, subreticulate or reticulate ornaments, which enables them to be easily separated from the smooth basidiospores of G. cylindrosporus. Moreover, Gloeocantharellus species have a wrinkled to lamellate hymenium with gleoplerous hyphae (Giachini and Castellano 2011;Singer 1945), the basidiomes of Gomphus feature a fan-to funnel-shaped pileus (Giachini et al. 2012;Giachini and Castellano 2011), species with gomphoid morphology in the Phaeoclavulina are with smooth or sublamellate to irregularly wrinkled hymenium (Giachini and Castellano 2011), and Turbinellus species are characterized by the wrinkled hymenium, minutely to strongly scaly pileus, and verrucose basidiospores (Giachini and Castellano 2011). Gomphocantharellus cylindrosporus is very similar to Cantharellus phloginus S.C. Shao & P.G. Liu in appearance, but C. phloginus is distinguished from G. cylindrosporus by the ellipsoid to broadly ellipsoid basidiospores of 7.5-8.5 × 5.0-6.5(-7.0) ...
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The genus Gomphocantharellus and species Gomphocantharellus cylindrosporus are proposed as new based on morphological assessments and molecular phylogenetic evidence inferred from nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial (mt) adenosine triphosphate (ATPase) subunit 6 (atp6) and mt small subunit rDNA (mtSSU). Basidiomes of G. cylindrosporus are characterized by the peach to pinkish orange color, cantharelloid habit with a gill-like hymenophore with obtuse edges, smooth and cylindrical to allantoid basidiospores, and cylindrical to narrowly clavate flexuous pleurocystidia. The species resembles a species of Cantharellus but differs from the latter by the cylindrical basidiospores. Phylogenetic analyses confirm the placement of Gomphocantharellus as an independent lineage within the order Gomphales.
... Corner (1970) placed the ramarioid species of Phaeoclavulina in Ramaria subgenus Echinoramaria, a classification later followed by authors such as Marr & Stuntz (1973) and Petersen (1981). Based on morphological, molecular and phylogenetic evidence, Giachini (2004), Giachini et al. (2010), and Giachini & Castellano (2011) recognized Phaeoclavulina again as a valid genus, but they emended it to include some gomphoid species with spiny, verrucose, subreticulate or reticulate spores, and terrestrial and/or lignicolous substrate affinity. No species in this genus has been proven to be mycorrhizal, perhaps due to the lack of investigation, although some have been suggested to be saprotrophic. ...
... According to Giachini & Castellano (2011), Phaeoclavulina is a monophyletic group characterized by ramarioid, unipileate or merismatoid basidiomata, with a wide color variation in pileus and branch surfaces, from white, browngreen, pale to sordid olivaceous, violet, brown-yellow or red cinnamon, to gray, brick red, or pale to dark orangeyellow and blue-green; when pileate, they are glabrous or subtomentose, and infundibuliform or flabelliform. The hymenium is mostly smooth, but may be sublamellate or irregularly wrinkled with decurrent folds in some gomphoid species, and ranges from yellow to orange-red or brown, pale to sordid olivaceous or violet. ...
... Phaeoclavulina has a cosmopolitan distribution in temperate and tropical ecosystems, however, is more abundant in tropics and subtropics. Giachini & Castellano (2011) considered 35 species with ramarioid and six with gomphoid basidiomata in Phaeoclavulina, but since that date one additional ramarioid species has been described (Wannathes et al. 2018), and several new combinations in the genus have been proposed (Franchi & Marchetti 2018, 2019Petersen 2018). Index fungorum lists 49 species in the genus. ...
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Phaeoclavulina liliputiana is a new endemic species from Tlaxcala, from the conifer and oak forests at an altitude of 2700 m asl, characterized by a very small basidiome size and, subellipsoid and usually more or less lacrymoid spores of 4.3-6.2 × 2.7-3.5 µm, with rounded warted ornamentation. We proposed this new species based on evidence from morphological and molecular data. We provide macro-and microscopic descriptions including illustrations of the basidiocarp, scanning electron micrographs of the basidiospores and also discuss the taxonomic position of this new species. We undertook a molecular analysis using the atp6 and SSU mitochondrial loci and nuclear ribosomal LSU.
... belongs to family Gomphaceae, order Gomphales according to a multi-locus molecular analysis conducted by Giachini et al. (2010). The genus is characterised by cantharelloid to agaricoid basidiomata, merismatoid with a wrinkled to lamellate hymenophore, warty basidiospores and abundant gloeoplerous hyphae (Giachini 2004, Giachini & Castellano 2011, Zhang et al. 2019, González-Ávila et al. 2020. The members of the genus have an amphi-Pacific distribution; to date, no species has been recorded from Europe or Africa (Linhares et al. 2016). ...
... The members of the genus have an amphi-Pacific distribution; to date, no species has been recorded from Europe or Africa (Linhares et al. 2016). Most of them are found in the tropical and subtropical regions of Australia, America, and Asia with a few from temperate regions (Giachini & Castellano 2011, González-Ávila et al. 2020. All Gloeocantharellus species are terrestrial and are generally found associated with trees of Myrtaceae, Pinaceae (Tsuga), Fagaceae (Lithocarpus, Castanopsis), and Podocarpus-broadleaf forests (Giachini 2004). ...
Article
Gloeocantharellus andasibensis sp. nov. is recognized by orange-red basidiomata with a convex to plane, innately fibrillose and viscid pileus, ellipsoid to amygdaliform, small, verrucose basidiospores, and a distinct nrITS sequence. This is the first record of the genus from Madagascar. To improve the understanding of the nomenclature of the genus, the type specimen of G. okapaensis and specimens of G. lateritius and G. corneri accessioned in the fungarium of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew were also sequenced.
... OTHER REFERENCES-Mujica & al. 1980, Rajchenberg 1995a, Lazo 1996a, Martínez & Valenzuela 2004, Acevedo & Naulin 2020, MyCoPortal 2020. OTHER REFERENCES-Lazo 1972, Lazo & al. 1977, Mujica & al. 1980, Lazo 1983, Lazo 1996a, Lazo 1996b, Giachini & Castellano 2011, Lazo 2016. ...
... DISTRIBUTION-Chiloé.OTHERREFERENCES-Ortiz & al. 2014b, Schilling & al. 2020.Phaeoclavulina campoi (Speg.) GiachiniFIRST CITATION-Clavaria campoi Speg.(Spegazzini 1921).TYPE SPECIMEN-CHILE (type LPS 39622).SUBSTRATE-On soil.DISTRIBUTION-Malleco.OTHERREFERENCES-Mujica & al. 1980, Lazo 1996a, Giachini & Castellano 2011 Phaeoclavulina ochracea (Bres.) GiachiniFIRST CITATION-Ramaria flaccida (Fr.) ...
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We critically reviewed the aphyllophoroid fungal species recorded from Chile on the basis of literature reviews from 1828 to 2020. A total of 345 species names were distributed in the following categories: accepted taxa (236), uncertain taxa (83), taxa inferred by molecular analysis only (12), and excluded taxa (14). For each accepted species, information on the species name, its first record from Chile, the typification data, substrate, distribution, and remarks are presented. The distribution of accepted taxa shows a major recording from the Valdivian Forest province. We found that 61 (25.85%) of the accepted taxa were originally described from Chile. Nothofagus was the genus that hosted the highest number of fungal species.
... Recently, Villegas et al. (2010) described three Mexican species from tropical and subtropical areas and assigned them to Gomphus, based on their morphology: G. calakmulensis M. Villegas & J.Cifuentes, G. albidocarneus M.Villegas, and G. pleurobrunnescens M.Villegas & A.Kong. Gomphus taxonomy is challenging because the scarcity of morphological features reliable enough to discriminate species (Giachini & Castellano 2011). Therefore, we implemented molecular characters in order to determine the phylogenetic position of these Mexican species of Gomphus. ...
... The species of Gomphus are separated from Gloeocantharellus by the ubiquitous clamp connections, whereas these structures are present only irregularly in Gloeocantharellus. The abundant gloeplerotic hyphae dispersed among all hyphal tissues in Gloeocantharellus distinguish it from Gomphus and other genera in Gomphaceae (Giachini & Castellano 2011). The two genera share spore shape and ornamentation. ...
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In this study, we included for the first time three Mexican Gomphaceae species in a molecular phylogeny. These species were described as members of the genus Gomphus, despite their tropical and subtropical habitat. We undertook a molecular analysis using the atp6 and SSU mitochondrial loci and nuclear ribosomal LSU. Our analysis showed that the three species studied are better included as members of Gloeocantharellus. In this study, we are suggesting three new combinations: Gloeocantharellus albidocarneus, G. calakmulensis and G. pleurobrunnescens.
... Currently Gomphus has 35 described species. It is close related to other members of the Gomphales and somewhat related to the Phallales, Hysterangiales, Gautieriales, and the families Geastraceae and Sphaerobolaceae [12]. ...
Article
Gomphus clavatus, commonly known as pig's ears, is a species of fungi in the genus Gomphus, family Gomphaceae native to Eurasia and North America. Pig's ear derives its name from the funnel-shaped and folded fruiting body, which resembles a pig's ear in shape and texture. Gomphus clavatus mushrooms are edible; these are used as soup, sauce and baking dishes. Gomphus clavatus Gray is not only used as a nutritious food but also might be an important source of biologically active compounds with potential additional medical value. In recent research, the fruit bodies of Gomphus clavatus Gray were collected from the wild. A novel heteropolysaccharide, namely 'GCG-1', from the fruit bodies of Gomphus clavatus Gray was isolated through Sephadex G-200 and DEAE-cellulose columns. Fungal polysaccharide is a type of active organic compound that is composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages. Recently, an increasing number of fungal polysaccharides have been identified to show a variety of biological activities, including antitumor and antioxidant properties. Antioxidation test in GCG-1 in vitro showed that it has strong free radical scavenging activity. It suggests that Gomphus clavatus can be considered as a medicinal food with antioxidant activities.
... Clavarioid mushrooms belong to the genus Ramaria is one of the diverse genera of the order Gomphales consisting 336 species (18 genera) worldwide with 616 names in Index Fungorum (Kirk et al. 2008, Giachini & Castellano 2011). Under Nordic Ramaria project, Bendiksen et al. (2015 indentified 46 species of Ramaria based on morphological and molecular data. ...
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The scrub jungles of the southwestern India support different mushrooms of economic significance. The coral mushrooms belong to the genus Ramaria distributed worldwide and many species are edible, medicinal and ectomycorrhizal. Ramaria versatilis occurring in scrub jungles were analyzed for biochemical profile and antioxidant potential. Qualitative tests of uncooked samples showed presence of saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids and coumarins, whereas the cooked samples possess saponins, alkaloids, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides and coumarins. Quantitative assessment revealed significantly higher quantities of total phenolics as well as vitamin C in uncooked than cooked samples. The total antioxidant activity, ferrous ion-chelation capacity and DPPH radical-scavenging activity were also significantly high in uncooked samples. Occurrence, substrates, mycorrhizal association and edibility of different Ramaria occurring in the Western Ghats region have been reviewed with comparison of nutritional and antioxidant potential of R. versatilis with other Ramaria spp. Key words: Antioxidant activities, bioactive compounds, ectomycorrhizae, scrub jungles
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Gomphus matijun, a new edible species, is described from southwestern China based on phylogenetic and morphological evidence. Phylogenetic analyses of the nrLSU and ITS datasets indicated that G. matijun is related to G. crassipes and G. ludovicianus with weak statistical support in maximum likelihood but strong statistical support in Bayesian analyses. Gomphus matijun is characterized by its gray-blue to blue or blue-purple pileus with a round or irregular outline, relatively smaller basidiospores [9–11(–13) × 6–7(–8) ‰m], mostly 2-spored basidia, and occurs in subtropical fagaceous forests. A key to the known species of Gomphus is provided.
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Gomphus purpuraceus (Iwade) Yokoyama is a species of wild fungi that grows in southwest China, considered an edible and medicinal fungus with potential commercial prospects. However, the detailed mechanisms related to the development of mycelium and the formation of the fruiting body are unclear. To obtain a comprehensive overview of genetic features, whole-genome and comparative genomics analyses of G. purpuraceus were performed. High-quality DNA was extracted from the mycelium, which was isolated from a fresh fruiting body of G. purpuraceus. The DNA sample was subjected to sequencing using Illumina and Oxford Nanopore sequencing platforms. A genome assembly totaling 40.15 Mb in 50 contigs with an N50 length of 2.06 Mb was generated, and 8705 putative predicted genes were found. Subsequently, phylogenetic analysis revealed a close evolutionary relationship between G. purpuraceus and Gomphus bonarii. Moreover, a total of 403 carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) were identified in G. purpuraceus, which included 147 glycoside hydrolases (GHs), 85 glycosyl transferases (GTs), 8 polysaccharide lyases (PLs), 76 carbohydrate esterases (CEs), 57 auxiliary activities (AAs) and 30 carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs). Compared with the other 13 fungi (Laccaria bicolor, Russula virescens, Boletus edulis, etc.), the number and distribution of CAZymes in G. purpuraceus were similar to other mycorrhizal fungi. Furthermore, the optimization of culture medium for G. purpuraceus showed the efficient utilization of disaccharides such as sucrose and maltose. The genome of G. purpuraceus provides new insights into its niche, food applications and potential artificial domestication.
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Basidiomycetes were studied for more than ten years on the Okeansky range (Muravjov-Amursky Peninsula, Primorsky Territory). Three species (Comphus clavatus, Tremella fuciformis, Lentinula edodes) are rarely found in the Russian Far East. Coprinus angulatus and Phaeomarasmius rimulincola are reported for the first time for the Primorsky Territory. Six species (Comphus pallidus, Clavicorona laxophila, Gloiocephala caricis, Marasmius aurantioferrugineus, Mycena algeriensis, M. lamiensis) are reported for the first time for Russia.