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CYTOGENETIC STUDY OF THE PURE MYRISTICIN FROM NUTMEG (MYRISTICA FRAGRANS) ON RHABDOMYOSARRCOMA CELL LINE (IN VITRO)

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This study was conducted with the aim to extract and purify apolyphenolic compound "Myristicin" from the dried seeds of nutmeg Myristica fragrans available in Iraqi markets. The partial purified myristicin is obtained after column chromatography application which has been detected in the essential oil by TLC and vanillin-H₂SO₄ reagent. The cytotoxic effect of pure and partial purified myristicin extract concentrations ranging (31.25– 500) μg/ml are used to treat the Rhabdomyosarrcoma (RD) cell line for 24, 48 and 72 hours intervals. The highest percentage of inhibition appears in 500, 250 and 125 µg/ml at 48 h (82.3, 82.1 and 75.9 %) respectively on RD cell line when treated with pure myristicin , While when treated with partial pure myristicin at the same times and with the same concentrations this percentage decreases without any significant difference. INTRODUCTION Medicinal plants have been used for disease relief and health maintenance for a long period of time (Al-Amiry, 2010). The term complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is customary in describing various alternative approaches to augment the health of mind, body and spirit in order to enhance traditional medical approach to disease treatment (Mazzio and Soliman, 2009). Plants have played a significant role in maintaining human health and improving the quality of human life for thousands of years, and have served humans well as valuable components of seasoning, beverages, cosmetics, dyes and medicine. Most of this therapy observed by Ibrahim and Aqel (2010). The essential oil is an active ingredient of several pharmaceutical products and cosmetics (Marsik et al., 2005). The medicinal value of nutmeg in the treatment of several ailments ranging from nervous to digestive disorders (Gable, 2006) has been recognized worldwide since ancient times and it was regarded as a cure for plague. Recent studies relating to its anti-bacterial (Khalid and Hung,2010), anti-viral (Goncalves et al., 2005), anti-cancer (Mahady et al., 2005), anti-proliferative (Lee et al., 2005), anti-oxidant (Sen et al., 2010), hepatoprotective (Morita et al., 2003) and neuroprotective (Ban et al., 2004) anti-obesity(Yuliana et al.,2011) effects reveal a wide scope for its application in the health sector. In vitro studies indicate herbs, spices, and their bioactive components can inhibit, and sometimes induce, pathways that regulate cell division, cell proliferation, and detoxification, in addition to the inflammatory and immune response (Shishodia et al.,2003). Myristica fragrans extract has been shown to contain antibacterial activity against different genera of bacteria and antiviral activity against rotavirus (Dorman and Deans, 2000; Goncalves et al.,2005). For its role as anticancer agent, myristicin, found in M. fragrans Houtt has cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in human cell line (Lee et al ., 2005).The use of in vitro assay system for screening has been a common practice since the beginning of cancer chemotherapy in 1946, following the discovery of antineoplastic activity of nitrogen mustard. Some phytochemicals have been shown to exhibit cytotoxic effects against cancer cell through cell cycle modulation (Rana et al., 2002).In the present study, were extraction and Purification of myristicin by using column chromatography. The cytotoxicity of a partial and pure myristicin on RD cell line in vitro were determinate i.e. inhibitor rate %.
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... The antitumor activity of lignans can also justify the observed cytotoxic effect of M. fragrans Houtt. (Essam, Aseel, Massody, 2012). The previous results suggest mitodepressive and antimutagenic potentials of water extract of the leaves of M. fragrans Houtt. ...
... The activities of this plant may be due to the presence of mace lignans compound. Their biological effects include antibacterial, anti-thrombotic and vasodilatory, antimutagenic, lipoxygenase and cycloxygenase inhibition scavenging of reactive oxygen species, and antitumourigenic (Essam, Aseel, Massody, 2012). In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that the acetone mace extract may contain bioactive compound myristicin, that induces apoptosis of KB cells. ...
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... Essential oil extracted from any part of these plants such as whole herb, rhizome, leaves, flowers, seeds, stem and fruits contain the phytochemicals that confer viral resistance in human (Bakkali et al., 2017) [8] . Among the phyto-chemicals, curcumin from turmeric (Mounce et al., 2017) [46] , coumarin from coriander (Shruti et al., 2020) [58] , myristicin from nutmeg (Al-Jumaily and Al-Massody, 2012) [4] , vanillyl ketones such as gingerol, paradol from ginger (El-Wahab et al., 2009) [24] , phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpene from star anise (Astani et al., 2011) [6] , thymoquinone from black cumin (Forouzanfar et al., 2014) [26] and phenylpropanoids such as carvacrol, thymol, eugenol from clove (Benencia and Courreges, 2000) [11] are found to have anti-viral activities against many types of important epidemic and pandemic viruses like Dengue, HIV, Chikungunya, Influenza virus, Herpes simplex virus, Hepatitis virus, etc. The antiviral constituents present in different spice crops have been listed in Table 1 [29] Eugenol HSV strains Benencia and Courreges (2000); [11] Tragoolpua and Jatisatienr (2007) [ ...
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... The highest rate of inhibition was 82.3%, reported at the concentration of 500 μg/mL of pure myristicin. Therefore, it is suggested that the extraction method may interfere with the biological effect; however, myristicin showed cytotoxic/antiproliferative activity for the studied strain [39]. ...
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Natural products have been used by humanity for many centuries to treat various illnesses and with the advancement of technology, it became possible to isolate the substances responsible for the beneficial effects of these products, as well as to understand their mechanisms. In this context, myristicin, a substance of natural origin, has shown several promising activities in a large number of in vitro and in vivo studies carried out. This molecule is found in plants such as nutmeg, parsley, carrots, peppers, and several species endemic to the Asian continent. The purpose of this review article is to discuss data published in the last 10 years at Pubmed, Lilacs and Scielo databases, reporting beneficial effects, toxicity and promising data of myristicin for its future use in medicine. From 94 articles found in the literature, 68 were included. Exclusion criteria took into account articles whose tested extracts did not have myristicin as one of the major compounds.
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